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Vol. II. 




l//iu<(Ti ^ putiiu u- ft ujfiinuiiiiul~nn ^un^uiliuHini^fJ fiu * '"ff "' 

h Jb^ luJuau u- p p.utiin\_J tinnau utn<J tuUiuipuirt^u annu ip — 

ytuutMlif-'iiunip ft t£ iqiuuiifni^^hiuiiu ^ jnpJ-uju fl^fl f* t 

IP"!**!:** |u-rt^'«3f » 

Quippe nntio heec antiquissima non soliltn consiliis utilibus ac pru- 
dentibiis eximia fuit & foecunda, veriim etiam ob multas res praeclar^ 
gestas gloria & laude di^rna; quas quidem ordine historiaruin me- 
morabimus, cum integras pairum propagines recensebimus. 

Moses Chorenensis, lib. i, cap. i, p. i, ed. Whistonn. 








The reign of Ashot the First, and the pontificates of Zecha- 
riah and George the Second - 2 


77/c reign of Sumhat the First, and the pontificates of 
Mashtoz and Johannes tlie Sixth ----- 14 


The continualinn of the reign of Sumbat the First \ the 
rebellion of Gagik the Arzrunian; and the calamities 
which lussuf brought upon Sumbat - - _ - 33 


The reign of A shot the Second, snrnanied Erkat or Iron- 45 





The reign of Ashot tJie Second continued - - . 55 


Continuation of the reign of Ashot the Second, and the 
pont/Jicatcs of Stephen the Second and Theodcrus the 
First - - -^ CG 


The reign of Abas, and the pontificates of Elishey t!'e First 
and Ananias Alockazie 74 


The reign of Ashot the Third, embracing the period between 
the pontificates of Vahan and Catchick the First - 85 

The reign of Sumbat the Secojid 92 


The reign of Ga^ik the First, and the pontificates of Sarkies 
and Peter, surnamed Ketadarz 99 

The reign of Johannes Sumbat 107 


The reign of Gagik the Second, last of the Bagratian 
kings 123 



The ea'ile of Gagik from his kingdom - - - - 130 


The slaughter of the Armenians by Tiighril, and the severity 
exercised upon them by MonomacJius _ - - 137 


The second march of Tughril to Arrncnia, the siege of 
Alanazkert, and the pontificate of Calchickthe Second 142 


The capture of Ani by Alphaslan, and the conduct of GagiJz 
Abas - - - - - . 149 


The pontificate of Gregory Vikayaser (lover of Martyrs) 153 


The last exploits and death of Gagik, the exiled king of 

Armenia, by which the kingdom luas entirely lost to the 

Bagratiana -__. 158 



yiAHS -_---•_--_--- 104 


Tlic reign of Reuben the First - 165 


The reign of Constautine the First 1C9 


The reign of Thorax the First, and the pontificate of 
Parsick ------------ 172 


Continuation of the reign of Thorus the First, and the 'pon- 
tificate of Gregory Vahlavie ------ 177 

The reign of Leo the First 183 

The reign of Thorus the Second ------ 191 


The pontificates of Aierses the Graceful, and Gregory 
Tighah (the hoy), and the proceedings of the Council of 
Union - - - - 199 




The reign of Milch and Rcuhcn the Second - - '204 


The reign of Leo the Second, and the pontijicates of Gregory 
the Rash, and Gregory Apirat 208 


Continuation of the reign of Leo the Second, and hi6- battles 
With foreign nations 215 


TIic pontijicates of Johannes the Seventh, and David the 
Third ----- - - 222 


The death of Leo, and the administration of the government 
bij his daughter queen Zabel, and her husband Philip of 
Antioch, too ether with the pontificate of Constantine the 
lirst ------------ 226 


The rcio-n nf Ilethum the First, the appearance of Jenghis 
Khan, and the incursions of Jalaladdin into Armenia - 230 


The invasion of Armenia by the Scythians - - 234 



Continuation of the reign of Ilethum the First, and the 
proceedings of the assemblies for the reformation of the 
Arnicnians _ 241 


The pcrsecutivi of the Armenians by the Scythians, and the 
visit of Jht/z/nn to Mango Khan 246 


The invasion of Cilicia by the Egyptians, and the succession 
of Jacob tiie First to the yontijicate - - - - 251 


The reign of Leo the Third, and the pcnti/icate of Constan- 
tinc the Second - - 255 


The reign of lie t ham the Second, and the pontificates of 
Stephen the Fourth and Gregory the Seventh - 2G3 


The reign of Thorus the Third, and the rcbeUion of Sumbat 
and Cun.stantine - - 2G9 


The reign of Leo the Fourth and Osliin, and the second 
ponti/icate of Condantine the Second - - - - 275 



The reign of Leo the Fifth, and the pontificates of Constantino 
the Third aiid Jacob the Second ------ 282 


The cruelty of Leo the Fifth ; the invasion of Cilicia by the 
Egyptians, and the pontijicate of Mukhithar . - - 290 


The reigns of Johannes (Constantine the Third) Guido, and 
Constantine the Fourth and last; together with the pon- 
tificate of Mesrop 297 


The reign of Leo the Sixth and last; the pontificates of 
Co7istantine the Fouj^th and Paul the First; and the 
€fit ire destruction of royalty amongst the Armenians - 301 






The pontificate of Thcudonis the Second, and the e.iploits of 
I'anxiiane _--.. 311 


The period between tlie pontijicates of Carapiet the First, and 
Constantine the Fifth - 317 


The jiontificate of Gregorii Mnsabeii:; and the transfer of 
the pontfjicai chair to Etchniiatchi/i, where Kirakus of 
Khor Vi rap was pontiff - - 324 


The period between tlie pontificates of Gregory the Tenth, 
u)id Sarkies the Secofid - 329 


The period between the pontificates of Aristakes the Third, 
and Arackiel 334 


The pontificates of David the Fifth, Melchizedek, and 
Srapion __ 340 



The invasion of Armema by Shah Aha s - - - 345 


The cruelties practised by the Persians in expatriating the 
Armenians - MH 


The miseries endured by the Armenians in their crossina; the 
river Arax and proceedin^j^ to Persia - - - - 353 


The evils endured by the pontiffs Melchizedek and Isaac. 360 


The pontificate of Moses the Third 368 


The pontificate of Philip and the tumults rn the church of 
Constantinople _-..- 374 


The pontificate rf Jacob the Fourth, and the j)atriarchate of 
Thomas ------------ 381 

ill rONTKNTS. 


The troubles of the Arr/ionans on accoiuit of the coiwent of 
St. Jacob at Jerusalem - - - 389 


The patriarchates of Muj^tirus, Lazar, Johannes a??d 
Sarkies . _ . 399 


The attempt of the mojik Eleazar of Anthap to establish a 
pontificate in Jerusalem --._.-. 407 


The ratification of Eleazar s ]iontificate in Jerusalem - 4 1 5 


The pontiff Jacob's visit to Constantinople, and disputes 
amongst the Patriarchs 422 


The pontificates of Eleazar of Anthap in Etchmiatchin 431 


The pontificate of Nahapiet, and the acts of the monk 
Ephraim ---._ 434 




The arts of the )nonk Avktick ------ 441 


The pontificates <f Gainst ami Xierses, and the several 
appointments of Av'utick ------- 451 


The pontificates of Alexander the First and Astwazatur • 456 


The payment of the debts of the see of Jerusalem by the 
coojieration of Johannes Colot and Gregory the monk - 462 


'J 'he exploits of David prince of the Seunies - - - 466 


The pontificates of Caraviet the Third, of Abraham the 
Second, and Abraham the Third ----- 478 

The acts of lhepo)itiff ------- 482 

Further acts of Lazar - -------- 489 



Embraces the period hetwccf? the pontificates of Alinas and 
Lucas, and the squabble of Prokhoron - - - 497 

Postscript - - - - - - - . _ . 505 


2'hc death of tfie pontiff Lucas, and the disturbances amongst 
the clergy about the succession to the pontificate - 507 


The institution of an Armenian College in Moscow by the 
noble family of the Eleazars; the edition of the Armenian 
Scriptures at St. Petersburgh by the Bible Society of 
Russia ------------ 525 


The cruel murder of Simon Hyrapict _ - - - 536 


The jmnishment of Iladji Ilashim Khan, the 7?iurderer - 545 


The present deplorable state of Armenia, both in a religious 
and a political poitit of vieiv ------- 549 

List of Subscribers --- 557 




The Bagratians were descended from Abra- 
ham, by the line of Isaac. 

The first of this family, who came to Armenia, 
was Shumbat, during the captivity of his race 
by Nebuchadnezzar. One of his posterity was 
the celebrated Bagarat, who lived in the reign 
of Valarsaces ; and in consequence of his exalted 
virtue and eminent services was ennobled by 
that prince by the title of Bagarat the Bagra- 
tian. All members of his family from this time 
were universally known by the titleof Bagratians. 

Ashot was the first of this family that swayed 
the sceptre of Armenia. In him was verified 
the prediction of the blessed Moses Choro- 
nensis, who had declared to Isaac the Bagratian, 
that from his race kings should spring to rule 

VOL. II. b 


Armenia. To trace the cause more remotely, 
we might say, that in him also was fulfilled the 
promise made by God to Abraham, the great 
patriarch of his family, that kings should pro- 
ceed from him, to govern not only the Israelites, 
but other nations. This had happened before 
in Armenia, by the kingly power being vested 
in the hands of the Arsacida} descended from 
Ketura ; and now again in the Bagratians from 
Sarah, of whose government we have now to 
record the events. In doins: this we shall fol- 
low the same method as before, noting in each 
king's reign his contemporary pontiffs. We now 
proceed to give an account of Ashot, called the 
First, as being the first Bagratian king of Arme- 
nia, and grandson of Ashot surnamed Misaker. 


Tlic reign of Ashot the First, and the pontijicates 
of Zechariah and George the Second. 

A. D. 856. Q^ ^j^g chiefs of Armenia being sent to 

Haican " 

era 305. Bagdad, of which we gave a detailed account 
in the last book, Ashot the son of Sumbat 
the Confessor, assumed the government of his 
tribe, the Bagratians, and exercised the power 
of general of the Armenians, under the pre- 


fecture of Shekhey. In his public duties 
Asliot displayed sucli an amiable disposition 
that he was universally esteemed. Mild, un- 
assuming, and at the same time eminently gifted 
with those talents that dignify human nature, 
every thing that he performed gave pleasure 
to all who were affected by it. His fame was 
not confined to his own countrymen, for 
foreigners from different nations, having ex- 
perienced kindness at his hands, carried his re- 
putation to their countries. It is also said, that 
those who from political or other causes were 
hostile to him, could not help avowing his 
worth and their regret at not being able to make 

^ ° A. D. 859. 

him their friend. The Caliph of Bagdad, of Haican 

• ^ era 308. 

whom we have had occasion so often to speak, 
having heard ofthe excellent character that Ashot 
bore, and desirous of shewing how he appre- 
ciated it, determined to confer on him the 
government of Armenia. For this purpose ho 
sent to that country a chief named Ali Ar- 
meney, the son of Vahey an Armenian apostate, 
bearing rich j)resents, and splendid official 
robes, and directed him to invest Ashot with 
the supreme power. Tliis occurred in the 
year of our Lord 859, or of the Armenian era 
308. Hence commenced the Bagratian rule 
in Armenia. 

Ashot, upon his elevation to the government a. n. sco. 

)j 2 era 30y. 


of Armenia, immediately j)roceedcd to improve 
the condition of the country. He reorganized 
the army, increased the allowances of the 
mditary, and appointed his brother Abas 
general ; a brave and skilful man, v^ho afterwards 
iiTcatlv distinuuished himself aurainst the enemies 
of his country. Ashot sometimes resided in the 
city of Ani, which was built by his grandfather, 
and sometimes in Erazgavors, that is, Shirakavan 
in the province of Shirak. He had several 
dauohtrrs, the eldest of whom was married to 
Vasuk the Seimian, otherwise called Gabur, by 
whom she had four sons, Gregory, Ashot, Isaac, 
and Vasil, or Vasak. All these w^e designate 
by the common name of Seunies from their 
father. The second daughter of Ashot was 
married to Gregory the Arznmian, who was 
otherwise known as Derenick, prince of the 
province of Vaspurakan, a wise and valiant 
character. To these two, with Vasak the Sisaken 
chief, and his brother Ashot, were distributed 
the principal offices in the state. Likewise the 
three brothers, from the tribe of Seunies, Sum- 
bat, Isaac, and Babken, were also kept near the 
person of Ashot. These individuals will be 
kncwn in the course of the history by the name 
of Sisakiius. 
AD. 861. When Ashot and his chiefs had succeeded 
cflTo! in bringing the country into a tolerably flou- 


rishing state, it was invaded by an army of 
80,000 men, gathered from different nations, 
and headed by Jahap the son of Sevada and 
grandson of Jahap, of whom we have before 
spoken, who had undertaken this expedition 
with a view to subdue Armenia and to seize 
upon the government. His army having arrived 
on the banks of the river Arax, encamped 
there. Here it was attacked by Abas the 
Armenian general, who had hastily marched 
at the head of 40,000 men to repel the invaders. 
In this conflict success declared itself in favour 
of the Armenians, the enemy being roated 
with great slaughter. So complete was the 
overthrow of the invaders, that of their vast 
army only sixteen, with Jahap their general, 
escaped. The river Arax, on the banks of 
which this encounter took place, was almost 
choked up by the number of the corpses that 
were thrown into it. The news of this terrible 
event spreading into the adjacent countries, 
caused the Armenians to be regarded with a 
feeling of terror. The site of the battle, from 
the number of the victorious army being 40,000, 
was henceforward called the Field of the Forties. 

At this period a new Caliph succeeded to the a. n. 862. 
throne of Bagdad. The Armenian chiefs who cru3ii. 
had been sent thither by IJulah, and forced 
by threats of torture outwardly to deny their 



faith, now petitioned the new Caliph to permit 
them to return to their native country. He 
kindly granted their request; when they set 
out for Armenia accompanied by Nana the 
Syrian deacon. On their arrival they publicly 
recanted their apostacy, and repenting of the 
sin they had committed, glorified the only true 
and just God. 

At this period the Armenians situated in 
the division of the Greeks were much molested 
by Photius, the Greek patriarch at Constan- 
tinople, a very 'learned man, but who had 
obtained his election to the patriarchate by 
unlawful means. Photius renewed the old 
disputes about the council of Chalcedon, and 
called the Armenians Zanzalicians, or followers 
of Jacob Zanzalus. Zechariah the pontiff, on 
coming to the knowledge of this, wrote him 
a friendly letter, in which he explained the 
reasons which induced his countrymen to reject 
the council of Chalcedon. To this Photius made 
a very long reply, wherein he set forth the 
sound doctrine of that holy council, and de- 
clared, that whatever the Armenians had heard 
prejudicial to it was false. He also addressed 
Ashot the prince urging him to accept this 
council, an4 forwarding to him a piece of 
the wood of the true cross. This letter and 
relic was brought by Vahan, or Johan, the 


Archbishop of Nice, who also received directions 
from the Patriarch, to convene a meeting of 
Bishops to discuss the matter in question on 
his arrival in Armenia. 

Vahan beinsr arrived, the pontiff and the a. d. 862. 

'~ Haican 

prince consenting to what the former suggested, era 312. 
a meeting was held in Shirakavan, A. D. 862, 
H. E. 311, which was attended by Ashot and 
many eminent laymen. After many subjects 
had been treated of, Vahan delivered a long 
discourse concerning the trinity and the incar- 
nation, and. laid before the assembly fifteen 
chapters, containing an orthodox creed, the last 
of which decreed the acceptance of the council of 
Chalcedon. After the meeting was concluded, a. d 
Isaac surnamed Miruth, and also Apicuresh, who era 312. 
according to Asolnik the historian, was bishop 
of Taics, having arrived at Shirakavan, opposed 
the proceedings which had just taken place, 
and raised much commotion in the nation. 
Zechariah the pontiff, however, by his prudent 
measures and praiseworthy example succeeded 
in quieting all murmurs, and bringing the Ar- 
menians to an union of religious sentiment. 
His conduct in these, as well as other affairs, 
gained him the respect and esteem of all. The 
Caliph having just at this time sent Hisey the 
son of the late governor Shckhey to visit the 
Armenians, and to enquire into their affairs^ 



the visitor was so much pleased with Zechariah, 
that he ordered a standard, on which was mark- 
ed a cross, to be carried before the pontiff". Tliis 
was an ancient custom, but for some time before 
had been suffered to grow into disuse. Zechariah 
was the author of many religious treatises, con- 
taining annotations on the Gospel, an explanation 
of the Songs of Solomon, with a few other works. 
After remaining in the pontificate twenty-one 
years he died. In his time flourished Hamam 
the monk, surnamed Arevelzie, or the Orientalist, 
who wrote commentaries on the. Proverbs of 
Solomon, the thirty-eighth chapter of the book 
of Job, the 118th Psalm, and on a few other 
reliijious works. He was the author of some 
treatises on grammar, and a history of Armenia. 
None of his works have survived him. Two of 
his contemporaries, Gagik, abbot of the convent 
of St. Atom, and his deacon Gregory, conjointly 
wrote an account of the saints, with a work 
called Atomagir, or the book of Atom, which 
was used at the commencement of the daily 
church readings by the Armenians. 

Contemporary with these was Johannes, a 
physician and very learned man, and great 
linguist, he wrote the life of Dionysius the 
Areopagite, and translated some few histories 
of the acts of certain saints. 
^ Ha?c?a At this pcriod Basilius, an Armenian of the 

era 316. 


family of tlie Arsacidae was elevated to the 
imperial throne at Constantinople. It being the 
custom with all the members of this family, on 
their being invested with kingly power, to have 
the ceremony of their coronations performed by 
a Bagratian, Basilius on this occasion sent a chief 
of the name of Neketas, or Nicodemus, to Ashot, 
entreating him to come to him for the purpose 
of fulfilling this ancient custom. Ashot being 
unable from the nature of his situation, to per- 
form this office in person, sent to Constantinople 
a splendid crown, which being received, Basilius 
testified much affection for him, calling him his 
beloved son, and making a treaty with him for 
the continuance of their friendship. 

The pontifical chair being vacant by the death a- P- 876. 
of Zechariah, George the Second, from the vil- t:ia325. 
lage of Garney was elevated to it. He was a 
prudent yet cheerful man, and managed the 
spiritual affairs of the people in a praiseworthy 

This pontiff, together with the chiefs of the fi^J^J^^* 
nation, havins; observed with pleasure the satis- "^'^'■^^■ 
faction which Ashot gave all ranks of the people 
in the administration of his government, drew 
up a petition to the Caliph, soliciting him to 
appoint Ashot king of Armenia, promising at 
the same time not to fall off from their obedience 
to the authority at Bagdad, nor in any way 


attempt to lessen the tribute which they were 
accustomed to pay. This petition was presented 
by Hisey, the visitor before mentioned ; and the 
Caliph, well aware of Ashot's merit, to the 
great joy of all the Armenians consented to their 
prayer. He accordingly sent Ashot a crown, 
with the other ornaments of royalty. Basilius 
the emperor, on being made acquainted with this 
event, also sent him a magnificent crown. Ashot 
thus patronized by two emperors, ascended 
with great splendor the throne of Armenia. 
He immediately restored all the ancient royal 
usages, adding thereto what was required by 
the difference of the times. Every thing ap- 
peared to be renewed with the restoration of 
royalty. Armenia became again great and 
flourishing, no one remaining unemployed, and 
no place being suffered to fall into decay. 
Ashot removed the seat of his government to 
the city of Bagran or Bagaran. Having regulated 
anew the whole of the laws regarding the 
internal government of the kingdom, Ashot 
marched with a body of troops towards Mount 
Caucasus, where the people had recently 
broken out into rebellion. Having arrived 
at Gugars, he by conciliatory measures re- 
stored order there, and marching to Uti, 
effected the same there by the same means. 
On his departure he appointed regular governors 



for these places, from whose skill and wisdom 
he could hope the best results. A short time a. d. 886. 
afterwards, Ashot's son-in-law, Gregory the era 333. 
Arzrunian, proved disobedient to him, and as- 
suming the government of the two provinces of 
Hier and Zarwand, openly revolted. A mul- 
titude of foreiofners, however, who had taken 
up their residence in these provinces, disliking 
the conduct of Gregory, waylaid and killed 
him. He was thus punished by the hands 
of strangers for a fault which he had committed 
against his kindred, and this event, which under 
any other circumstances would have been viewed 
with horror, and visited with the most signal 
marks of the royal vengeance, was regarded 
as a public benefit, and the perpetrators of the 
murder were permitted to pass with impunity. 
His body was afterward brought to Vaspurakan 
by his son Ashot, who succeeded to all the 
honours and dignities of his father. 

Shortly after Ashot lost his other son-in-law, ^^^^^f'' 
Vasak the Seunian, who died, and was succeeded "a 336. 
in his dignities by his son Gregory Supan 
the Second. Marem the wife of the deceased, 
ever after lived in the greatest religious se- 
clusion and monastic severity. 

Contentions now broke out amongst the people a. d. 883. 

1 n u It naicnn 

of Vanand and numberless were the hghts that ora 337. 
ensued. Abas the general proceeded thither at 


the head of a few troops and succeeded in recon- 
ciling them with each other. No sooner was 
this effected than the tribe of Gugars revolted. 
But Sumbat the son of Ashot, then governor 
of the town of Erazgavors, acting with ad- 
mirable promptitude, gathered a large body of 
men, and attacking the rebels forced them to 
sue for peace. This being granted, Sumbat 
retired to the fortress of Shamshudey or Sham- 
shuldey (or the three arrows) where he thence- 
forward resided. 

A. D.8S8. When Armenia became quite tranquillized, 
era 337. Ashot sct out ou a visit to Armenia Minor, 
accompanied by the celebrated prince Mekhrick, 
and a detachment of troops. He first arrived 
at Sebastia, whence he passed to Constanti- 
nople, to exchange civilities with Leo the 
emperor, son of Basilius. His reception at this 
city was magnificent; Leo being at that time 
at war with the Bulgarians, entreated Ashot to 
afford him assistance, upon which Mekhrick, 
with the Armenians who had accompanied him, 
was directed to remain with the imperial 
troops until the conclusion of the war. Some 
time afterwards, when no longer required, Mekh- 
rick returned to Armenia Minor, where he took 
up his residence. 

A. D. 8P9. On the return of Ashot from Constantinople 


eid 338. he fell sick at a place called Carspar Aparaj, 



near the province of Shirak. His malady 
increasing, he sent for George the pontiff, and 
received the sacrament from' him; after which 
he caused large sums to be distributed to the 
poor at the church doors, and in hospitals, 
convents, and almshouses. His last hour ap- 
proaching, he received a benediction from the 
pontiff, and then resigned up his soul, in the 
seventy-first year of his age. He had been in 
possession of the supreme power in Armenia 
for a period of thirty-one years, twenty-six 
of them under the title of prefect or governor, 
the remaining five as king. 

His remains were afterwards brought to Ba- 

garan, where they were interred with all the 

magnificence due to a monarch so much and 

so justly beloved. All the chiefs and bishops 

present at the capital appeared in the train of 

public mourners, beside a numberless concourse 

of clergy and laity, the whole attended with the 

solemnity and grandeur of a military procession. 

The troops also appeared in their peculiar 

costumes, and greatly added to the impressive 

nature of the scene. Three of his sons, David, 

Isaac, und Shapuh, followed their father's 

remains to the grave. His eldest son, Sumbat, 

was in Gugars, Abas his brother in Vanand. 





The reign of Sumbat the First, and the pontificates 
of Mashtoz and Johannes the Sijcth, 

A. D. 890. Sumbat the First, son of the deceased 
^3!*- Ashot, according to hereditary right, succeeded 
his father on the throne. Immediately after the 
death of the late monarch Sumbat hastened 
from Gugars to Erazgavors, where he gave 
himself up to the violence of his affliction, 
mourning the distressing event which had de- 
prived him of a father and the nation of a 
protector. Atirnerseh, the prince and governor 
of the Georgians, who was a Bagratian, having 
heard of the demise of Ashot, immediately came 
to Sumbat to mourn and condole with him for the 
loss they had sustained. This prince, with the 
consent of the pontiff and nobles, performed the 
ceremony of crowning Sumbat king of Armenia. 
Atirnerseh then went to Abas the brother of 
Ashot, who was then in the fortress of Caruz, to 
administer the same kind offices of condolence 
to him, as he had done to Sumbat. Abas, 
however, who had a secret design of supplanting 



his nephew in the kingdom, immediately on see- 
ing Atirnerseh seized him, put him in chains, 
and kept him a close prisoner, to revenge, as 
he said, the slight which had been put upon 
him by this prince in crowning Sumbat and 
overlooking his claims. He then declared 
himself king of Armenia, and having made 
partizans, took up arms to enforce his assumed 
right. Thus Armenia, which was just be- 
coming happy and flourishing, was again ex- 
posed to all the horrors of a civil war, Sumbat 
having also levied troops to support his claim 
to the throne, to which he had been so recently 
elevated by the consent of the chiefs and pontiff. 
George the pontiff, interfered between the two 
parties, with a view to restore peace. He 
proposed to Abas to release Atirnerseh, and 
desist from hostilities against his nephew, when, 
through his intercession, means could be agreed 
upon to please all parties. The pontiff, to in- 
duce Abas to confide in his good faith, offered to 
repose in his hands the son of Atirnerseh, as 
a hostage, and his two castles as security for the 
sincerity of his intentions in endeavouring to pro- 
cure an accommodation between him and Sum- 
bat. Abas very craftily consented to all, until 
he had obtained possession of the two castles, 
when he despised both the pontiff and his 


A. D. 891. An appeal to arms now beinsf inevitable, 
era 310. Sumbat issucd orders to collect troops from 
every quarter of his dominions, and obtaining 
loans of cavalry and infantry from other powers, 
he advanced to the siege of Caruz, where his 
uncle and rival had shut himself up. Abas 
finding himself hard pressed, was obliged to 
make terms with Sumbat, who gave him his 
own son Abas as a hostage, on Atirnerseh being 
set at liberty. Sumbat then returned to Bagaran. 
Some time afterwards he erected a church in 
Erazgavors, which he called the church of the 
holy Saviour, or the Saviour of all. To this 
place he subsequently transferred the seat of 
his government. In the mean time Abas still 
continued to brood over his discontent, and 
began plotting against the existing government 
and the holy pontiff. He was at length dis- 
covered, and many of his creatures punished. 
Affected by the fate of the latter. Abas repented 
of what he had done, and asking forgiveness 
of the king and pontiff, thenceforward lived a 
praiseworthy life. On his death, which happened 
sometime afterward, Sumbat appointed his own 
brother Shapuh to the vacant post of general. 

A.D. 892. A detail of all these events having been for- 

Hairan -i-k i i i j 

era 341. waidcd to the Caliph at Bagdad, he approved 
of and confirmed all the acts performed by 
Sumbat from the period of his accession to 


the throne. He also sent him a crown, with 
which Sumbat caused the ceremony of coronation 
to be again performed in a large assembly, held 
in the newly built church to which we before 
alluded. He then dispatched ambassadors to the 
emperor at Constantinople to renew the treaty 
which had been made by his father with the 
Greeks. The embassy was kindly received, 
and the emperor in return sent Sumbat suitable 
gifts. Thus was Sumbat firmly established on 
the throne of Armenia, provided with the means 
of answering every exigency, and supported 
in his dignity by the countenance of the greatest 
potentates at that time in the east. He improved 
and even extended his kingdom, being regarded, 
by both subjects and neighbours, with respect 
and esteem. 

War, however, soon shewed his horrid aspect, a. d. 89" 


Afshin the Persian governor of Atropatia, envious era 342. 
of the fame of Sumbat, and the favour he 
enjoyed with the emperor, invaded Armenia 
with a view to conquer it. Sumbat, however, 
hastily assembled an army of 30,000 troops 
and advanced against him. Here, without 
the effusion of blood, he succeeded in put- 
ting an end to the hostilities between him 
and Afshin. He soothed the irritated mind 
of the Persian by the mildness of his language, 

VOL. II. c 


and after making a treaty of peace, each retired 
to his respective capital. 
A. D. 805. In the course of a short time, however, Afshin, 
era;i44. unable to withstand the sup:gestions of his 
envy, on observing the growing greatness of 
Sumbat, regretted having made peace w^th him. 
He therefore again assembled his troops, and 
marched into the province of Nakhjuan, endea- 
vouring to conceal his real object by spreading 
a false report that he had received directions 
from the Caliph to proceed on a different 
expedition. Sumbat, deceived by this report, 
had neglected providing himself with the ne- 
cessary force to resist the invaders. When 
the real object of Afshin's enterprize became 
apparent, Sumbat was obliged to retire into 
a fort. From hence he dispatched letters to 
all parts of his dominions, directing forces to 
be immediately gathered to stop the progress 
of Afshin and his troops. Hereupon a large 
army was soon brought together, headed by the 
chiefs of the land, which advanced to meet 
the king at the village of Vijan, situated at 
the foot of Mount Aragaz. Here they were 
joined by a vast number of archers and lancers, 
who had come from the northern regions, led 
on by their respective princes. While the king 
was thus engaged in assembling an army, Afshin 
appeared to have no foe able to contend with 


him. George the pontiff, anxious to extinguish 
the torch of war which had been so unexpectedly 
kindled, hastened to meet Afshin, and endea- 
voured to induce him to think of making peace 
with Sumbat. The Persian received the pontiff 
very amicably at first, hoping through his means 
to obtain possession of the king's person. He 
therefore sent him to Sumbat, to invite him 
to an interview. To this the king; by the advice 
of his chiefs, refused to consent, and when 
the holy pontiff returned to Afshin with this 
result of his mission, he was immediately put 
in chains. Afshin then advanced to the village 
of Dols, where he was met by Sumbat. A battle 
ensued, in which the former was completely 
beaten, and his troops put to flight, Afshin 
reflecting that a further continuance of the war 
would only prove destructive to himself, sent mes- 
sengers to Sumbat, immediately after the action, 
requesting peace to be established between them, 
swearing solemnly that he would henceforward 
desist from all attempts to disturb the tranquillity 
of Armenia. This being done, he retired to 
Atropatia, taking with him the pontiff", still in 
fetters. Two months afterwards, however, he 
released hiiii, on his paying a sum of money 
as a ransom. Sumbat did not long remain 
in a state of peace. His nephew Ashot, chief of 
Vaspurakan, instigated by ill advisers, revolted 



from him, and proceeding' to Afsliin, endea- 
voured to obtain his support by presenting 
him with some valuable gifts, expecting in 
return that he should be able by his means 
to supplant his uncle in the throne. Afshin 
received him very courteously, yet permitted 
him to go back to Vaspurakan without forward- 
ing his views in any respect. Gagik, the father- 
in-law of Ashot, being displeased with his 
conduct, and inspired with a little ambition, 
invited him and his two brothers Gagik and 
Gurghen to a hunting party, where he seized 
them all three and committed them to prison. 
He then assumed the government of Vaspurakan. 
Shortly afterwards he released Gagik and ap- 
pointed him his deputy. Two years after this 
the inhabitants of the city of Duin rebelled, and 
Sumbat was obliged to advance with troops and 
lay siege to it. Shortly after it was taken, 
the city was visited by divine vengeance, for 
an earthquake overthrew all the buildings in it, 
by which many hundreds of the citizens were 
destroyed. So many perished by this dreadful 
event, that, the records state, a sufficient number 
of graves could scarcely be found for them. 
On this dreadful occasion Mashtoz the monk, 
who dwelt in the island of Sevan, wrote a letter 
of condolence to the survivors, which proved 
of inestimable comfort to them, and inspired 


them with resolution to commence repairing 
their ruined habitations, in which they were 
kindly assisted by king Sumbat. 

At this period Ahmat the governor of Meso- ^'J^'Jf^' 
potamia revolted from the Caliph, and assumed '^"*^^^- 
independent power in the country of the Alznies, 
the inhabitants of which, with those about 
Mount Shem, readily yielding him obedience. 
Ahmat, in an attempt to extend his authority 
to the country of Taron, was opposed by Vahan, 
the son-in-law of Shapuh the king's brother, 
who, in the meantime, had dispatched mes- 
sengers to Sumbat to hasten with troops to 
his assistance. The king, zealously assisted 
by his chiefs, quickly assembled an army of 
60,000 men, with which he hastily marched 
to the Mount of Taron. Whilst affairs were 
in this situation, Gagik Vaspurakan, whom we 
have just noticed as the father-in-law of Ashot 
the Arzrunian, secretly intrigued with Ahmat, 
and agreed to betray the Armenians into 
his hands, on the prospect of perhaps ob- 
taining the throne through his perfidy. Gagik 
being well acquainted with the country, the 
king, quite unsuspicious, suffered himself to 
be guided by his advice. The Armenian army 
was then directed, at the suggestions of the 
traitor, to march to the southward, and camp 
near the village of Thukhs. This being done, 




Gagik sent a private message to Ahmat to 
bring his troops to the village of Tiuikhs. He 
then advised the king to proceed on his march, 
and gnidcd the army into the most craggy and 
dithcult roads near Mount Taron, where, to 
increase the distress of the worn out soldiers, 
not a drop of water was to be procured to 
quench the thirst which their fatigue induced : 
many perished through exhaustion, and others 
of drought ; the remainder with much difficulty 
succeeded in reaching, toward twilight, a stream 
near the village of Thukhs, where, as it had 
been arranged by Gagik, they were to encamp. 
No sooner had they arrived here than they 
threw themselves on the ground, and, over- 
come by fatigue, soon fell asleep. Before 
morning dawned, Ahmat, to complete the scene 
which the industrious villany of Gagik had 
designed, arrived with his troops. On their 
approach the Armenians were roused from 
the repose which they had hoped to enjoy, 
and flew to arms. Ahmat's men rushed to 
the attack, and were bravely met by Sumbat 
the king, supported by a few warriors who 
had hastily armed on the first alarm. The 
progress of the assailants was stopped by this 
gallant band, giving time to the Armenians 
to arm and meet this unexpected attack. 
Hundreds rushed to the support of their kmg 


and gave a turn to the fortune of the fight, and 
the enemy commenced a flight. At this juncture 
Gagik, who dreaded the issue of the conflict, 
as it appeared to lean toward the Armenians, 
suddenly exclaimed to his attendants to destroy 
his tent and flee; " for," says he, ** innumerable 
are the foes who beset us!" The Armenians 
hearing him call out in this manner, and not 
dreaming of his deceit, conceived that all resis- 
tance would be vain against the numbers which 
Gagik mentioned, and they therefore joined 
in the flight. The king, finding himself deserted 
on all sides, also fled. His nephew, however, 
Ashot the Seunian, accompanied by fifty men, 
continued on the field, and after gloriously 
contending for a long time, and killing numbers, 
fell together with most of his companions. 
Ahmat, far from being elated at the result of 
this action, returned to Atropatia, alarmed 
lest he should be cut ofl* in his march by 
other bodies of Armenians. Gagik the traitor 
proceeded to the city of Van, rejoicing at the 
overthrow of Sumbat the Armenian monarch, 
to commemorate which he forthwith gave a 
great feast. Here, however, the vengeance 
of the Almighty overtook him, for whilst ce- 
lebrating the success of his villany, he was 
assassinated by Gagik tlie Arzrunian, the ne- 
phew of Sumbat, whom it will be recollected. 


he had some time before released from the 
prison into which he had previously thrown 
him and his two brothers. Gagik the Arzrunian 
was assisted in this black act by two Amatu- 
nians, who, immediately after committing the 
deed, accompanied him in his flight from the 
city. On the death of his unnatural father- 
in-law, Ashot with his brother Gurghen were 
released from prison. The country of Vas- 
purakan came again into the hands of Ashot, 
and he exercised the sfovernment of it until 
his death, which happened not long after. 
On this event taking place, Gagik his brother, 
the murderer of Gagik the traitor, succeeded 
to tiie government of Vaspurakan, which he 
exercised with the assistance of his other brother 
Gurghen. Shortly after this, Afshin, observing 
the weak state to which Armenia was reduced 
by the broils between the chiefs and the king, 
which had broken out some time before, con- 
ceived that the present was an excellent oppor- 
tunity to crush Sumbat. He therefore again 
invaded Armenia: Sumbat, who at this period 
was, as we have above remarked, on ill terms with 
his chiefs, could offer no opposition, and was 
obliged to make peace with him on any terms. 
This was at length effected, Afshin taking 
with him to Atropati Sumbat's wife and 
daughter-in-law, Ashot his son, and Sumbat 
the son of his deceased brother Isaac. 



era 346. 

George the pontiff, deeply grieved at these 
events, retired to the country of Vaspurakan, 
where he died after a pontificate of twenty-one 
years. His remains were interred in the 
burial-place of the convent of Zor, in the 
province of Tosp, in which was kept the rod of 
the holy Illuminator and a moveable altar, 
which it is said the Illuminator, when alive, 
always carried with him. 

Mashtoz the Second, from the village of Eli- nVicaa 
vard, in the province of Cotais or Aragazote, 
then succeeded to the pontifical chair. He 
was originally of the convent of Makenoses, 
where he became deeply read in theology, and 
was noted for extraordinary devotion. From 
this place he afterwards removed to the inland 
of Sevan, where he built a convent and church; 
the latter he named the church of the Apostles. 
Here he assembled a number of piously disposed 
persons, to whom he gave instructions in theology. 
Whilst residing here, some disputes broke out 
amongst tlie people, in consequence of the synod 
of Shirakanan having accepted the council of 
Chalcedon. On this occasion Mashtoz wrote a 
very severe animadversion on the conduct of the 
members of the synod, anathematizing them 
and their proceedings. In the course of a few 
years after this circumstance he became pon- 
tiff, but enjoyed that high honour only seven 



niontlis, \vheii he was removed from tlie scene 
of his hiboiirs by the hand of death. 
A. D.S'.t;. He was succeeded by Johannes the Sixth. 

ci.»;{4(i. surnamcd the liistoriaii, from tlie villaj,^e of 
Daslionakert, a schohir and relation of Mashtoz, 
During his pontiiicate tlic kingdom suftered 
many calamities, an account of which he rekites 
in a style as elegant as any composition that ever 
A. D 89S. ai)peared in the Armenian language. About this 

era 318. period, as this historian states, Snmbat the king 
assumed the power of conferring on Atirnerseh, 
the Georgian prince, the dignity of king of that 
people, performing himself the ceremony of his 
coronation, which produced much discontent in 
the kingdom. Many individuals having applied 
for redress of their grievances to Afshin, he 
marched against Sumbat, who thereupon 
took refuge in the castles and strong-holds 
of Taics. Afshin not being able to effect any 
thing against Sumbat, who had removed himself 
out of his reach, advanced to the city of Duin, 
where he behaved with marked kindness to 
the inhabitants, declaring that he had no 
enmity against the Armenians, but merely came 
in peace and love to visit their capital. In 
token of his regard and confidence, on his return 
to Atropatia, he left his son Devdat and his 
chief eunuch to reside for a time in Duin. 
When the consort of Isaac the brother of the 


king heard of the departure of Afshin, by whom 
her son Sumbatwas held as an hostage, together 
with Ashot the king's son, as we have before 
mentioned, she immediately repaired to the 
plains of Sharur by which Afshin had to pass, 
and there meeting him, presented him with rich 
gifts, representing that she was a widow, and 
imploring him to restore her son, to be the 
comfort of her lonely widowhood. Afshin was 
softened by the entreaties of the princess and 
forthwith delivered up her son to her. 

When Sumbat heard of the departure of 
Afshin from Armenia, he came to the city of 
Ani, where he was met by the chief eunuch 
beforementioned, who in an interview he had 
with the king assured him of his regard and 
friendship. The eunuch then proceeded with 
troops to Phaitacaran, where he seized George 
the chief of the tribe of the Sevordies and his 
brother Arves, and martyred them both by the 
most cruel tortures. 

Hence he rejoined his master Afshin in ^J^;,^^^ 
Atropatia, to whom he spoke in the highest «'»^49. 
terms of praise of Sumbat. Afshin displeased 
at tliis, rebuked him, which so irritated the 
eunuch that he contrived to effect his escape 
to Sumbat, together with Ashot the son of 
the latter, and his wife and daughter who, 
as we have related, had been some time 


before taken by Afshin as hostaires. When 
Afshin learned the flight of thes'j, he became 
infuriated, and immediately began to form 
an army to take revenge on Sumbat and the 
eunuch, but bcfoic he had time to carry his 
designs into execution he was attacked by a 
malady of a most malignant nature and died. 
A. n 902. j^Q ^yQs succeeded in his o-ovcrnmcnt of Atro- 
era 331. patia by his brother FIusu))h or lussuf, a man 
of a warlike disposition, and of the most mild 
and prepossessing exterior. In his mind, how- 
ever, he was the most cruel and pitiless of men, 
on which account Sumbat avoided all communi- 
cation with him, and wrote to the Caliph to 
cause all connection between them to cease; 
proffering to send the usual tribute, which had 
been heretofore sent throuirh the governor of 
Atropatia, directly to Bagdad, and with the 
most scrupulous exactitude. The Caliph was 
pleased at the manner in which Sumbat ad- 
dressed him, and in return sent him gifts of 
great value, among which was a royal crown. 
^ HaLTn '^'^^ result of this communication with the 
era 352, ^aiipj^ scrvcd to sharpcu the malice of lussuf 's 
naturally bad heart, and he marched into 
Armenia at the head of a large body of men, 
with a view to destroy Sumbat, The latter 
however had foreseen this event, and provided 
against it. He therefore prepared to meet 


lussuf with a force little inferior to the army of 
the invader. When lussuf perceived this, he 
immediately proceeded to the city of Duin, 
whence he dispatched ambassadors to Sumbat, 
requesting all hostilities to cease between them, 
and proposing a treaty of peace to be made 
for their mutual security. This was effected, 
and war was for a time diverted from Armenia, 
lussuf spent the winter in the city of Duin, 
during the whole of which, he and his followers 
were daily provided by Sumbat with provisions. 
On the approach of Easter, Sumbat came to 
Duin, and after conferring gifts of great value 
on lussuf, sent him away with all respect and 
honour to Atropatia. About this period the 
kind's two brothers died. The first, David, had 
been elevated to the rank of prince of princes, 
and the other, Shapuh, held the office of general. 
Sumbat's son Ashot then succeeded to the 

J T**i A. D 904. 

post of general. Armenia now enjoyed a little Hakan 
rest from the incessant troubles which had 
agitated her from the accession of Sumbat to 
this period. This tranquillity was a little dis- 
turbed shortly after by Constantine king of 
the Egerians, and son-in-law of Atirnerseh king 
of the Georgians, who upon some pretext, 
marched with a body of troops to the frontiers of 
Armenia. His father-in-law advised him against 
thia hostile step, but Constantine persisted. 

30 iiisTonv or aumknia. 

upon which Atirncrseh joined Sumbat, and 
they both attacked him, and obliged him to 
seek shelter in fbrtihed places. Here he was 
glad to sue for peace, which having been listened 
to, several Armenian chiefs were sent to confer 
with iiim on the terms of peace. The ill-fated 
Constantine suspecting nothing extraordinary, 
readily admitted the Armenian ambassadors, 
who thereupon seized and bound him, according 
to the instructions they had received from Atir- 
ncrseh, and he was then sent to Sumbat. The 
Armenian monarch ordered him to be fettered 
and imprisoned in the castle of Ani, in Camakh. 
After remaining here four months in the strict- 
est confinement, he was released and sent 
back to his country with all the honour and 
respect due to a king. Atirnerseh was sadly 
displeased with Sumbat for releasing Con- 
stantine, imagining that he did it for the purpose 
of annoying him. Under this impression he 
secretly determined upon revenge. 
A. D. 907. About this period much dissatisfaction was 
era 356. exprcssed by the chiefs against Sumbat for 
his increasing the yearly tribute. Hereupon 
a plot was formed for the purpose of taking 
away his life, composed of Hasan the Havnunian, 
who was the chief conspirator, his father-in-law, 
and fifteen other chiefs from the Havnunians 
and the people of Vanand. They disclosed 


their intentions to Atirnerseh, promising in the 
event of their plot proving successful, to appoint 
him king. They then dispatched Hasan's fa- 
ther-in-law to the frontiers of Tashirs, where 
the king then was, and it was agreed that he 
should assassinate him, and immediately send 
notice of it to them, when they would advance 
into the province of Shirak at the head of their 

Hasan's father-in-law then proceeded to ex- 
ecute his niission, while his colleagues awaited in 
the city of Erazsravors the news of his success. 
The assassin easily obtained admission to the 
king on a pretence of business, but not finding 
a fit opportunity at that time to perform the 
act he meditated, he was obliged to defer it, 
still remaining near Sumbat's person. In the 
meantime by some means the plot was dis- 
covered, and the assassin immediately fled. 
Without waiting for any more information, 
Sumbat immediately marched at the head of 
some troops into the province of Shirak, where 
the rebels were to make their first appearance 
after the anticipated murder of the king. The 
conspirators, alarmed and confused at the 
discovery of their plot, fled to their strong- 
holds in Taics, where they immediately com- 
menced forming an army to oppose Sumbat. 
When the report of these events became ge- 



ncral, all ranks of people testified their abhor- 
rence of the crime which was to crown the 
machinations of the rebel chiefs, and hundreds 
flocked to the king's standard to assist him in 
reducinii: them to obedience. Sumbat then 
marched into the territories of Atirnerseh, which 
he laid waste with fire and sword. Atirnerseh 
having formed a junction with the rebel chiefs, 
attacked the troops of Sumbat, but was repulsed 
with great slaughter. Sumbat then became 
the assailant, and Atirnerseh finding how un- 
availing it was to cope with him, implored peace. 
The king offered to grant it, provided that 
the rebel chiefs were delivered up to him. To 
this Atirnerseh consented, and forthwith ad- 
vanced to meet Sumbat, with his head bowed 
to his breast by shame and sorrow, and be- 
seeching forgiveness. Sumbat having taken 
the eldest son of Atirnerseh as a hostage for 
his father's future pacific conduct, released the 
fallen foe immediately afterwards. The rebel 
chiefs, however, were not so mildlv dealt with. 
These having been delivered up to him, he put 
them in chains and took them with him to the 
province of Shirak, where having plucked out 
their eyes, he sent some of them to the Emperor 
Leo, the philosopher, and the rest to Con- 
stantine king of the Egerians. 



The contitniation of the reign of Sumbat the First; 
the rebellion of Gagik the Arzrunian; and the 
calamities which lussuf brought upon Sumbat. 

In the beginning of the year following the ^akj;^^"^' 
termination of the late rebellion, Gagik the era 357. 
Azrunian, nephew of the king, and chief of 
the country of Vaspurakan, revolted : aware of 
the nature of lussuf's disposition, he first went 
to him, and engaged him in his interests, by 
complaints which he made against the conduct 
of Sumbat. lussuf, only alive to his own 
advantage, eagerly espoused the cause of Gagik; 
and by an admirable stroke of policy in ap- 
pointing Gagik king of Armenia, divided the 
country into two opposite factions, which he 
hoped would prove an easy prey when he chose 
to attack them separately : he knew that if united 
they were invincible. He therefore sought to 
ruin Sumbat's affairs, secretly contemplating the 
destruction of Gagik, when his rival should be 
crushed. Sumbat, observing the storm ready 
to burst over his head, sought to avert it, by 
sending to lussuf the famous historian Johannes 

VOL. II. d 


tlic ponlitV, bearing- valuable present?, and 
entreating a continuation of tlieir treaty of 
peace and alliance. lussuf at first received 
the pontiff with demonstrations of peace and 
regard, but in the course of a few days, 
seized and confined him in a dark dungeon. 
He then pre[)ared to march against Sumbat. 
In the spring of that year, every thing being 
in readiness, Tussuf and Gagik, with his brother 
Gurghen, liaving joined their forces, proceeded 
into Armenia. They first came to Nakhjuan, 
where they marshalled their troops and ad- 
vanced to the country of the Seunics. Here 
they were opposed by Gregory the prince of 
that people, and nephew of the king, together 
with his brothers Isaac and Vasak. After a 
few skirmishes, Gregory found tliat he could 
do little against so large an army with the 
few men he had, and therefore retired to 
his forts. The troops of lussuf then spread 
themselves over the whole of his province, and 
all whom they captured were put to the sword. 
They then advanced to the city of Duin. 
Gregory the Seunian observing that all sub- 
mitted to the conquerors as they advanced, 
came to Duin, and ajiproaching lussuf with 
great presents, sought to reconcile himself with 
him. The latter disdained to listen to him, but 
put him iuto close confinement, lussuf then sent 


to Siimbat, demanding the tribute of the country, 
and when he had received it, he marched 
suddenly to the province of Shirak, expecting 
to take the king by surprize. He was, however, 
mistaken; for Sumbat having- received timely 
information, took refuge in Gugars, where he 
fortified liimself, and determined to resist to the 
last extremity. 

When lussuf arrived in Shirak, and learned h^I^,;,,^"^' 
the flight of Sumbat, he became highly exas- '^^^ ^^^' 
perated, and devastated the country with the 
most pitiless rage. He then returned to Duin, 
and Sumbat came to Erazgavors, where he 
passed the winter. Ashot the nephew of Sum- 
bat, and general of Armenia, surrendered to 
lussuf just after the return of the latter from 
Shirak. At length lussuf's treasure for the pay- 
ment of his troops was all exhausted, and he 
forthwith proceeded to extort money from 
Gagik and llie other chiefs who were with 
him. He also released the pontitf, desiring 
him to go and collect from the clergy as much 
gold and silver as he could. The pontiff, having 
gathered a little treasure, paid it to the tyrant, 
and seizing a favourable oi)portunity escaped 
lo the Aluans. 

lussuf airain took the field against Sumbat, a. d. oio. 
and having heard' that the Sevordies assisted c-aaas*. 
iiiiii, he sent messengers to that people, with 



great presents to endeavour to allure them 
to his own interests. " If," said he, " Sumbat 
request you to join him, go ; but in the hour 
of battle, cause a confusion in his ranks and 
leave him." This they agreed to do, and 
lussuf then proceeded to the province of Nig. 
Sumbat having collected an army, one part 
of w^hich vv^as composed of the Sevordies who 
had recently embraced the interests of his op- 
ponents, divided it into two parts, confiding 
to them the charge of his two sons Ashot and 
Mushel, and forthwith dispatched them to 
oppose lussuf. The two young princes were 
not aware of the arrival of the enemy at Nig, 
and on their reaching that province, they sud- 
denly fell in with lussuf's army which lay 
encamped in a valley. Not being able to 
retreat without the most imminent danger, the 
king's forces had no other alternative than to 
proceed immediately to the assault. The Ar- 
menians fought with the most desperate valour, 
and victory seemed to hover over their ranks. 
But, alas ! at the moment when the enemy had 
commenced giving ground, and the result ap- 
peared no longer doubtful, the base Sevordies, 
agreably to their stipulation with lussuf, sud- 
denly took to flight; Some immediately pro- 
ceeded to their homes, the remainder, with the 
deepest villany, only retired out of the field 


to take post to waylay the Armenian fugitives 
in their expected defeat. The defalcation of 
the Sevordies caused a panic to seize the 
remainder of the king's forces, who shortly after 
began to quit the contest, and provide for their 
safety by flight. Ashot, who commanded that 
part of the army where the Sevordies were 
stationed, was much dejected when he perceived 
their abominable treachery. By great exertion 
and valour he succeeded in effecting his escape, 
though at one moment he was entirely sur- 
rounded by the enemy. His brother Mushel 
also displayed an undaunted bravery in the 
action, at the close of which, being attacked by 
a host of foes, he gallantly cut his way through 
them and escaped off the field ; but while he 
fancied he had cleared himself from all danger, 
he was suddenly surrounded and taken by the 
traitorous Sevordies, who, as we before stated, 
had taken post for the purpose of capturing or 
killing the Armenian fugitives. He was after- 
wards taken to lussuf, who received him with 
expressions of the greatest satisfaction at his 
€a])ture, and ordered him to be immediately 
fettered and placed in strict confinement. 
After this battle the troops of lussuf and Gagik 
spread tlicmselves like devouring locusts over 
the unliappy country of Armenia, destroying 
towns and villages with barbarian rapacity; 




numbers of prisoners of both sexes were taken 
and brought to the city of Duin. Many of the 
chiefs conceiving that Sumbat's affairs were in 
such a state of disorder and ruin as to render 
all prospect of their restoration hopeless, made 
the best terms they could with lussuf, and 
quietly yielded him submission. Their con- 
fidence in him was cruelly rewarded, for no 
sooner had they testified their obedience to his 
authority, than he contrived to make away 
with them, some by poison and others by 
strangling. Among those who perished by the 
violence and cruelty of this unprincipled cha- 
racter, were Gregory the Seunian and Mushel 
the king's son. Vasak, the son of Ashot the 
Sisakan, however, succeeded by an act of daring 
courage in escaping the fate of his unhappy fellow 
chiefs. Whilst in hourly expectation of being 
murdered he suddenly determined on making 
an attempt to rescue himself. In the dead of 
the night he made a sudden onset on the guards 
who were over him, and killing some and wound- 
ing others, cleared himself from his prison and 
fled to his y)rovince. When the ferocious lussuf 
heard of this, he immediately directed in a 
storm of rage, the execution of some of the 
remaining chiefs. He intended also to murder 
Gagik his colleague and Ashot the general, but 
deferred this until he could get Sumbat into 
his power. 


When Isaac and Vasak the Seunian heard ^;f;^f/^- 
of the death of their brother Gregory Su- "hsgo. 
pan, and the assassination of the other chiefs, 
they became alarmed lest the same fate 
should befal them. They therefore to avoid fall- 
ing Hito the hands of the cruel lussuf, im- 
mediately took their wives and families, with 
their mother Marem the sister of the king, 
and sought shelter in the isle of Sevan. When 
this was reported to lussuf and Gagik, they 
dispatched a body of troops to take them. 
These, on their arrival on the shore of the sea 
in which the island was situated, began to 
prepare rafts of the cedar trees which grew in 
great abundance there, to effect a descent thereon 
and capture or dislodge the Seunies. Isaac 
and Vasak observing this, retreated by the 
opposite side of the island, and coming on the 
main land, directed their flight towards the 
north. The enemy's troops in the meantime 
landed on the island, and finding it deserted, 
proceeded in pursuit of the fugitives. The 
pursuit was continued with so much ardour 
by the enemy's troops, that Isaac and Vasak 
found it impossible to avoid them. They 
therefore determined to make a stand, and for 
this purpose they first deposited their families 
and property in a secure place, and then re- 
turned to meet their pursuers. These they 


attacked with the most resolute bravery, and 
fired by a recollection of the precious stake for 
which they contended, made the most heroic 
exertions. The enemy astonished by the va- 
lour of these two gallant Seunies, began to 
give ground, and after losing a number of their 
choicest men, were obliged to take to flight. 
Isaac and Vasak then returned to the place 
where they had left their families, withdrew 
them from their hiding place, and continued 
their route unmolested to the country of Uti, 
where they took up their residence in the 
strongest places they could find. Some time 
after, their mother Marem died, and her remains 
in the course of some few years were removed 
to the church of Sholag in Gelarcunies which 
she had built. 
A. D.912. About this period lussuf desired Gagik to 

Haican . ^ . ^ 

era 361. take with him the Armenian chiefs and troops, 
and go to the fortress of Valarshakert, where he 
would join him and proceed to crown him 
king of Armenia. Gagik accordingly set out, 
accompanied by the Armenian troops and chiefs, 
but on his arrival at Valarshakert the inha- 
bitants shut the gates and refused him admittance. 
Upon this the troops were ordered to storm, 
but the people having manned the walls repulsed 
the assailants with disgrace. On this Gagik 
in shame returned to lussuf, whom he found 



engaged in other thoughts concerning him. 
He had before perceived some distant intimation 
of lussuf's design to take him off, and now 
by his conduct could no longer doubt of it. 
He therefore communicated his thoughts to 
his brother Gurghen, and they both determined 
to strive to withdraw themselves. They en- 
deavoured to join interests with Sumbat, but 
it was too late ; the king, deserted by his chiefs, 
being almost in a state of helplessness. Sumbat 
shortly after this retired to the country of 
Ararat, and fortified himself in Caput or the 
blue castle. 

lussuf seeing himself without a foe of any ^;?-^^^^' 
importance to contend with, Sumbat quite era 362. 
ruined, and Gagik a fugitive, determined to 
retain the government of the country. When 
spring came forward, he joined his own and 
the Armenian troops together, and proceeded 
to lay siege to the castle of Caput. . Here 
the besiegers suffered an immense loss of 
men, occasioned by the determined bravery 
with which the besieged withstood every 
assault. lussuf alternately advanced his own 
and the Armenian troops to the storm, but 
both were equally repulsed with the same 
slaughter. Sumbat observing the dreadful 
effusion of blood occasioned by these repeated 
attacks, directed his men to cease from 


the murderous discharges of arrows, which 
they poured without intermission on the be- 
siegers, exclaiming " This slaughter is horrid, 
and I would rather myself perish than be the 
occasion of a further destruction of my fellow- 
creatures, though they are armed against 
me !" He then sent messsengers to lussuf and 
offered to surrender, provided no harm was 
done to himself or those with him. lussuf 
readily assented, and swore to keep the 
conditions proposed. Sumbat then came to 
the camp of his opponent, who received 
him with much outward respect. After 
a few days spent there, the king being ap- 
prehensive of the future designs of lussuf, 
retired with his permission to the province of 

Shortly after this, Gagik, who as we have 
observed, regarded lussuf with dread, privately 
withdrew from him, accompanied by his bro- 
ther Gurghen, and took refuge in the strong- 
holds of his native country Vaspurakan. lus- 
suf, on coming to the knowledge of their 
departure, in a transport of rage seized 
Ashot the general, and all the other Armenian 
chiefs who were with him, and put them in 
chains. Suspecting also that Gagik might 
find means of joining Sumbat, and thus raise 
up a formidable coalition against him, he found 


means to entice the king into his power, bound 
hnn in chains, took him to Duin, and there 
confined him in a dark dungeon, where he 
remained for a whole year, scantily fed, and 
even without a bed upon which to repose his 
shackled Innbs. His food consisted of bread and 
water, which was intermitted at times in order 
to force him to change his religion. At the ex- nkican 
piration of a year after his return to Duin, 
lussuf assembled his troops, and taking with 
him the knv^ loaded with chains, advanced 
against the castle of Erunjak, where the wives 
and sons of the Sisakans and other chiefs had 
taken refuge. All his attempts to take the 
castle were ineffectual, which irritating his 
revengeful mind, caused him to exercise the 
most horrid barbarities on the unfortunate 
Suml)at. lie caused him to be taken to a place 
where the Armenians in the castle could dis- 
tinctly see all that was going forward, and there 
to be scourged, adding to this punishment every 
taunt that the wantonness of the soldiers could 
conceive or ex))ress. ITe then caused him to 
be tortured Iio'tIv, with a view to make him 
deny Christ. Wlun the inhuman Tussuf found 
that Suml)at continued inflexibly firm in his 
faith, he ordered the ministers of his cruelty 
to increase the severity of his tortures, and to 
continue them until he died. All the variety 


of torment, which inhumanity could devise, 
Avas exercised on the wretched king. An 
handkerchief was thrust into his throat, just 
leaving sufficient space for as much respiration 
as would prevent his instant death ; they then 
applied the most diabolical engines to those 
parts which nature causes us to conceal, and 
his torments were such that human nature 
shudders at the bare conception of them. 
Death at length relieved him from the cruelty 
of the fiendish lussuf, yet did not the wretch 
conceive he had sufficiently gratified his ven- 
geance. He caused the body of his victim to 
be taken to Duin, and there exposed to his 
subjects on a cross, after he had cut oft* the 
head. It is recorded by the historians of this 
time, that on the body being fastened to the 
cross there appeared on it a brilliant liglit, 
and that the earth on which it was exposed 
was gifted with the power of healing the dis- 
eased. These miracles had their due effect, for 
many of the heathens, observing them, em- 
braced Christianity. It is said, that during the 
torments which Sumbat suffered, a priest obtain- 
ed access to him in disguise, and in the best way 
in his power, heard his confession and adminis- 
tered the sacrament. This memorable martyr- 
dom of the holy and devoted king Sumbat took 
place A. D. 914, or H. E. 3G3. His reign, from 


the death of his father Ashot to the period of his 
horrid murder lasted 24 years. Immediately 
after the death of Sumbat the troops of lussuf 
by means of treachery got possession of the city 
of Erunjak, which they laid in ruins. After se- 
lecting the wives and sons of the chiefs, with 
the most comely of the inhabitants, they mas- 
sacred the remainder. The former were taken 
to Duin where many perished through persecu- 
tion. Shortly after this lussuf having assumed 
the controul of Armenia, and placed Persian 
troops in all tlie cities and places of importance 
to overawe the people, set out on his return 
to Atropatia accompanied by a vast number of 



The reign of Aihot the Second, surnamed Erkat, 

or Iron. 


On the departure of lussuf from Armenia, ^P- 
Ashot the son of the deceased monarch, ga- erases 
thered a body of GOO men, all famed for ex- 
traordinary strength and bravery. With these 
he traversed the country, engaging, defeating, 
and expelling successively the Persian troops 
which lussuf had left to guard his conquest. 
In a short time he became so powerful that he 


was feared by all the neighbouring- powers, and 
regarded with dread by Iiissuf himself. Even the 
tyrannical Gaoik, observinn" the sisfnal braverv 
of Asliot, resolved to wave his claims in favour of 
the Armenian king-, and to sweep the country of 
Vaspnrakan from the pollution of the enemies of 
^' Ha^Jnn ^^^^^^- Thc Armenians obscrviug with gratitudc 
eia36-4. ^|^g dcliverance froiH the Persian controul, that 
was afforded them by Ashot, called him to the 
throne by the title of Ashot the Second. Many 
of the chiefs were however inimical to his just 
claims, and refused to pay him allegiance. 
They were a restless discontented crew, and 
filled the nation with noise and trouble by 
their repeated quarrels with one another, be- 
side spilling a vast quantity of human blood in 
their frequent affrays. Gagik during these 
troubles advanced with troops to Nakhjuan, 
which he captured from Sumbat the Sisakan, 
who at the time of his attack was absent in 
Arzakh. He, however, to revenge the un- 
provoked hostility of Gagik, assembled troops 
and marched into Vaspurakan, where he 
destroyed many places. The peasants ob- 
servinof these acts of the chiefs, became insen- 
sibly inspired with the same love of disorder, 
and disdaining the subjection in which they 
had so long been held, broke out into rebellion; 
some of them having killed their masters took 


possession of their lands. lussuf having at ^J^J^^' 
length received news of the anarchy into which "'^^es. 
affairs were sunk in America, levied troops and 
marched into that devoted country. The 
soldiers giving themselves up to the most un- 
bridled licentiousness, wantonly burnt and 
otherwise destroyed every town and village 
they entered. The barbarities which they 
committed on the inhabitants were horrible in 
the extreme. Aged men and women were often 
tied together in pairs, and then together cut 
in halves. Pregnant women were frequently 
ripped open, and their unborn babes wantonly 
thrown into the air, accompanied by shouts of 
triumph from the inhuman soldiery. Infants 
sucking at the breast were torn from the arms 
of their distracted mothers, and their brains 
dashed out on the ground. Other cruelties at 
which we shudder, and wonder how they 
could ever enter the mind of man to invent, 
were exercised on the miserable inhabitants 
of this wretched country. 

The motives which impelled lussuf to coun- 
tenance tliese barbarities were of a religious na- 
ture: for he was inspired with a desire of com- 
pelling the Armenians to renounce Christianity. 
In consequence of the courage with which they 
resisted all his attempts to shake their faith, and 
the fortitude with which they endured death ia 


defending it, a feast was appointed to be held 
in commemoration of them, on the 20th 
Marere (May), or on the 3d of June according 
to the daily church readings. Three martyrs 
of this period are particularly mentioned in the 
old records, one named Michael, a youth of 
seventeen years of age, from the country of 
Gugars, and the other two, David and Gurghen, 
brothers of the race of Gnunians, the whole 
three remarkable for their beauty and the fine 
proportion of their persons. 
^•^: ^'^- During the time of this havock and desolation, 

Hairan o 

eia3C6. the neighbouring nations made inroads into 
Armenia, destroying all the frontier provinces. 
The chiefs, instead of uniting against the common 
enemies, still continued engaged in their feuds, 
and what was left untouched by lussuf and 
the other invaders, they brought to ruin. 
^'^ia?ca^n In the mean time agriculture was quite 
era 367. abandoned, and the land remained untilled, the 
consequence of which was a sore and dreadful 
famine. Every one sought to make a prey of 
his neighbour, and the want of food was expe- 
rienced to that degree, that villages, towns and 
cities were attacked merely for the purpose 
of devouring the slain. Notwithstanding this, 
hundreds died of absolute starvation, and it is 
even related that some individuals were actually 
eaten up alive by others who were driven to this 
madness by excess of hunger. 


The emperor Constantino BiphyroQ^cnitus hav- ^ai?aa^^" 
ing heard of these dreadi'ul events, directed the "a368. 
Greek patriarch Nicholas to write to the Ar- 
menian pontiff Johannes, who had taken up 
his residence in the country of the Georgians, 
also to king Atirnerseh, and to Giirghen prince 
of the Aphlazes, to request that they would 
unite their efforts to bring the Armenian and 
Aluan chiefs to a state of peace with each 
other, in order to the restoration of order in 
their country. He also directed the patriarch 
to assure them of his protection and desire 
to cooperate witii them in any measures that 
could be adopted to remove the horrors which 
then pervaded Armenia. Johannes being unable h;^^,;^^*' 
to effect any thing toward the amelioration '''■^^''^• 
of the condition of the country, unassisted by 
other means, wrote to the emperor Constan- 
tine and his colleague Romanus, in the month 
of November, A. D. 920, H. E. 30!), in the 
name of his countrymen, and after relating all 
the calamities which they had suffered and 
were still suffcrin:;", besought that they would 
aid them; and on his own part requested they 
would assign liiiu a secure retreat in Greece, 
by which he evinced that he perfectly agreed 
with them in rcgnrd to rcHgious matters. 
Constantino, upon the receipt of tiiis hotter, 
.sent a prince of the name of Thcodorus Basili- 
voL. 11. e 


cus into Armenia, bearing an invitation to the 
pontiff and Ashot the king to visit Constanti- 
nople, for the purpose of conferring on the best 
means of restoring order in their country. 
Something prevented Johannes from accepting 
this invitation, for he was obliged to proceed 
shortly afterwards to the province of Derjan in 
Upper Armenia, which was at that time under 
the dominion of the Greeks. 
A. D. 921. Ashot, however, accompanied Theodorus to 

Haican • i i i • i i i 

era 370. Coustantmoplc, where he was received by the 
emperor with all the honour and respect due to 
a king. The chiefs who were in his suite, 
were also honoured according to the rank 
they held in Armenia. After remaining here 
a short time, Ashot was furnished with a body 
of Greek troops, and he forthwith returned to 
Armenia. In all the places through which he 
passed he was hailed with acclamations of joy. 
One city alone, Colb, showed hostility, but was 
speedily taken and delivered up to the spo- 
liation of the soldiers. Colb originally belonged 
to Ashot the general and cousin of the king, 
who, it will be recollected, was then a captive 
with lussuf in Atropatia. The inhabitants of 
this city, on its being taken by the king, escaped 
to other villages and towns which owned the 
jurisdiction of the captive general, and en- 
deavoured to make head against the Grecian 


troops. They were, however, speedily dis- 
possessed of all their places of shelter, and their 
property confiscated. After these little dis- 
turbances were quieted, Ashot dismissed his 
Greek auxiliaries, and fixed the seat of his 
government at Erazgavors, where he was 
shortly after joined by his brother Abas, who 
had heretofore found a retreat in Georgia. 
In the mean time lussuf, who had all along 
kept a watchful eye on the affairs of Armenia, 
iindino- that Ashot had succeeded in fixing 
himself on the throne by the aid of the emperor, 
produced a pretender to the crown in the 
person of Ashot the general, whom he released 
and caused to be proclaimed king. By this 
measure he hoped again to produce dissension 
and trouble amongst the Armenians. The 
general on his arrival in Armenia discovering the 
manner in which the city of Colb and his other 
possessions had been treated by the king, 
became highly incensed, and forthwith declared 
war against him. Here again the kingdom was 
divided into two factions, and all the horrors 
of civil war broke out. After many encounters, 
with various fortune on both sides, the king and 
his relation the general were at length recon- 
ciled by the interference of Johannes the 
pontiff. During the time of this civil war, 
Vasak the Gunthunian, chief of the Gugars, 



seeing^ the division that reigned in tlie kingdom, 
dechired himself independent. On the termi- 
nation of the difference between Ashot and his 
cousin, the former, accompanied by his brother 
Abas, advanced agamst the rebel. Vasak, terri- 
fied at their approach, shut himself up in the 
fortress of Shamshuldey. The king on his 
arrival found this place so strong that he could 
not hope to take it. He therefore spread his 
troops in small parties over the province, for 
the purjiose of better providing themselves 
with provisions, and accompanied by 250 men, 
proceeded to the fortress of Askureth where he 

Vasak, having due information of all this, with 
great haste and secrecy collected a body of 4,000 
men from Tiflis and the country about Mount 
Caucasus and suddenly laid siege to Askureth. 
Ashot was amazed at this unexpected event, 
vet determined to make a bold attempt to rescue 
himself from the danger that environed him. 
Having assembled his small party, he exhorted 
them to place their trust in God and his Son the 
Blessed Saviour, and then courageously led them 
on to attack the besiegers. Their assault was 
so sudden and vigorous that Vasak's troops 
were thrown into confusion and made very 
little resistance. 

The king's followers made a dreadful slaugh- 


ter, and those who survived had no other 
alternative than to throw down their arms and 
surrender: one half of these prisoners being 
infidels, Ashot caused their noses and ears to 
be cut off. The Christians were stripped and 
then released. As for Vasak, who also fell 
into the king's hands, he besought forgiveness 
with such humility and promises of better be- 
haviour for the future, that Ashot was prevailed 
upon to release and re-establish him in his office 
of chief of the Gugars. The king then pro- 
ceeded on a visit to Gurghen, prince of Aph- 
lazes, with whom he remained during the 
winter. Immediately after the king had set 
out on his expedition against the Gugars, the 
general Ashot revoked his agreement to a 
reconciliation with his cousin, and forthwith 
took possession of all the towns and villages 
round the city of Valarshapat. He then raised 
an immense number of troops, and encamping 
near the villaoe of Valaver awaited the king's 
return. News of these circumstances being 
conveyed to Ashot, he with the greatest dili- 
gence marched into Armenia, and coming 
unexpectedly at break of day, on the camp 
of the rebel general, attacked it with such 
spirit and vigour, that after a short resistance 
all therein took to flight, accompanied by their 
leader, who, unprovided against such a sudden 




assault, with difficulty made his escape in a half 
naked state. Tlie victors got an immense booty 
in the camp of the rebels. Ashot immediately 
afterward proceeded to Valarshapat. The rebel 
general took refuge in the city of J)uin. Jo- 
hannes the pontiff shortly afterwards again 
A. n. 922. effected a reconciliotion between them. About 
era^aVi" this pcriod the king married Sevada the daughter 
of Isaac prince of the Gardmans. On this 
occasion lussuf, who meditated a revolt from 
the caliph, and wished to obtain the assistance 
of Ashot in his projects, sought to conciliate 
his good opinion by sending him a splendid 
crown and magnificent royal robes, with a 
body of cavalry to be kept by him as his own 
troops. The king in return for these princely 
presents, sent lussuf gifts of immense value. 
Ashot the general, restless, envious and discon- 
tented, again broke out into rebellion against the 
king ; who, on the first news of it, assembled 
a large force consisting of his own troops, others 
furnished by his father-in-law, and the cavalry 
lately sent him by lussuf, and proceeded against 
the rebel who was shut np in the city of 
Duin. On his arrival there he was met by 
Johannes the pontiff, who entreated him to 
suspend his operations against the city, pro- 
mising to induce the general to return to obe- 
dience. But the king would not listen to him, 


and immediately ordered his troops to advance 
to the assault. The citizens of Duin repulsed 
them with great slaughter, and making a sally 
upon the besiegers on their retiring from this 
attack, completely defeated them. Johannes 
then again offered his intercession, which being 
accepted, peace was once more restored between 


The reign of Ashot the Second continued. 
AsHOT some time after his succession to a. D.922. 

p , . • , J Haican 

the sovereignty of Armenia, appomted a war- era an. 
like and able man named Moses to govern 
the country of Uti. This individual, who 
was not entirely free from ambition, having 
observed the continual wars between the 
king and his rebellious cousin, assumed an 
independent power in Uti, and induced the 
inhabitants to follow his standard in invading 
Armenia. On tiie settling of the dispute with 
the general at the city of Duin, Ashot, accom- 
panied by Isaac his father-in-law and the troops 
which had been employed against the late 
rebels, advanced to quell the revolt of the 
inhabitants of Uti. 


Moses did not shun tlie encounter, but boldly- 
pushed forward to meet him. Ashot first tried 
by mild measures to reduce him to obedience, 
and sent him messeng^ers to propose terms. 
IMoses rejected them with scorn, and sent back 
the messengers with dis<j:race. Ashot and his 
father-in-law then dividing their forces into 
two detachments made a rapid march and came 
upon IMoses by surprise in the night. The 
assault being given, the rebel troops were struck 
with consternation, and after makmg very little 
resistance took to flight. Their leader with diffi- 
culty made his escape to the country of the 
Sisakans, from which he soon after departed 
and went to the country of the Zanars, where 
he succeeded in procuring a large body of fierce 
troops, with which he again made head against 
the king. Ashot, however, with that promp- 
titude which characterized all his enterprizes, 
hastened forward to meet Moses and his 
new adherents. A battle ensued, in which the 
king having singled out the rebel chief from 
the midst of his troops, rushed impetuously 
upon him, and with a blow of his sabre clove 
his iron helmet and inflicted a deep wound 
on his head. He then dealt about his blows 
indiscriminately among the surrounding foes, 
and by his undaunted bravery so terrified them 
that they all sought safety in flight. In the 


mean time Moses lay on the ground insensible, 
from the severe wound he had received, and 
after the flight of his followers was seized by 
Ashot and brought to the Armenian camp. 
Here he was severely punished for his rebelUon, 
the king causing his eyes to be burnt out with 
a hot iron. Ashot then restored order amongst 
the people of Uti, appointing as governor over 
them an individual of the name of Amram, 
who in consequence of his gigantic strength 
was surnamcd Zilik or the little bull. The 
king after quelling this disturbance returned 
to the province of Shirak. 

While Ashot was engaged in the expedition 
against Moses, his brother Abas, whom he 
had appointed prince of princes, conspired 
with his father-in-law Gurghen the prince of 
Aphlazes, to take away his life. On the king's 
return from Shirak to Erazgavors his capital, 
they hired a band of ruffians, and proceeded 
with them to that city for the purpose of 
perpetrating the dark deed they meditated. 
Ashot on their arrival received information of 
their intentions, and having no means of de- 
feating their designs by opposing them, secretly 
withdrew with his family and the son of his 
unnatural brother Abas, to the country of Uti. 
Here he collected a large army, consisting of 
the inhabitants of Uti and Gugars, with some 



auxiliaries from the adjacent nations, and march- 
ed at their head to Aphlazes the country of 
Gurghen, which lie ravaged and ahnost ruined. 
In tlie mean time the two conspirators, Abas 
and Gurghen, not being aware of the flight 
of the king, proceeded with their ruffians to the 
palace, and finding that the object they sought 
had fled, they were seized with shame and 
fury. They plundered all the property be- 
longing to the king that they could find in 
the city, and then proceeded to ravage the 
country like public robbers. When Ashot 
appeared against them with his troops, they 
boldly offered battle, but were worsted. Se- 
veral fights subsequently took place between 
the two parties, but the king was always 
victorious, though not able entirely to subdue 
the rebels. In the end they were reconciled 
with each other, through the mediation ofVasak 
the Seunian. Some time afterwards Ashot 
detected this same Vasak in an act of treachery 
against him, and immediately caused him to 
be seized, put in chains, and strictly confined 
in the fortress of Kayen. 

When Isaac the father-in-law of the king 
heard of the imprisonment of Vasak, he became 
highly incensed, because that chief was one of 
his most particular friends ; from this circum- 
stance enmity broke out between Ashot and 


his father-in-law, which was fostered by pri- 
vate slanderers on both sides. It at length rose 
to such a pitch that both flew to arms and 
prepared for a deadly contest. The chiefs at 
this juncture interfered, and produced a recon- 
ciliation between them, as between father and 
son, and caused them to make a covenant of 
peace solemnly committed to writing on both 
sides, and sealed by the sign of the holy cross. 
Having exchanged these papers, each returned 
in peace to his habitation. Immediately after 
this event Gurghan prince of Aphlazes, who still 
cherished a hatred against the king, and regard- 
ed Atirnerseh the king of the Georgians with 
no better feeling, broke out into rebellion and 
ravaged the lands of both princes. Ashot and 
Atirnerseh then joined their forces to subdue 
the rebel, who on his side had not been idle, 
for he had succeeded in inducing Abas the king's 
brother, and the old rebel Ashot the general, to 
join witli him to oppose the two monarchs. 
The opposite armies soon met, and a battle was 
fought in which victory declared itself for the 
two kings; the troops of the united rebels being 
routed with great carnage. The defeated army 
took refuge in the vallies of Aphlazes, whither 
they were pursued by tlie royal forces and 
dreadfully harrassed by the incessant attacks 
that were made upon them. 



At length the rebels were obliged to sue 
for pardon, and they promised if Ashot would 
desist from hostilities they would ever after 
prove obedient to him, and make good all the 
losses which they had occasioned to the parti- 
zans of the king. 

While Ashot was engaged in settling this 
disturbance, another faction broke out, fomented 
by his father-in-law Isaac, in whose breast 
the embers of enmity against the king were 
still glowing. He secretly gathered a body 
of 8,000 men, whom he armed in the most 
perfect manner the times afforded, and ad- 
vanced at their head into the country of Uti. 
Here the troops spoiled all they met, reducing 
the towns and villages to a state of the greatest 
ruin. Hence they marched into the province 
of Zoraphor in the country of the Gugars, 
where was the fortress of Kayen, in which 
Vasak the Seunian lay confined, with the wives 
of some rebellious chiefs. This Isaac attacked 
and captured, when he released Vasak and 
sent him to his own province. With the 
remaining captives and the property he found 
there he departed for other enterprizes, leaving 
a guard to preserve it in his name. He then 
advanced against another fort at a short distance 
from Kayen, which he took and put all the 
garrison to the sword. 


The corn standing in the fields of this pro- 
vince, which at that period was not half ripe, 
he caused to be reaped, and afterwards finding 
the uselessness of it wantonly destroyed the 
wliole by fire. With the booty he had made 
he then retired to the mountainous districts 
of the Guofars. 

Just at this time Ashot was concluding a 
peace with the rebel Gurghen and his asso- 
ciates, when he received the sad tidings of 
all that had been done by his father-in-law 
Isaac. Thunderstruck at the intelligence, he 
hastily selected 300 of his bravest troops, and 
accompanied by a bishop and a few priests 
repaired lo the province of Zoraphor. Having 
obtained information where Isaac and his forces 
lay he immediately proceeded towards him. 
Havinu' ascended a hill near which Isaac was 
encamped, Ashot permitted his troops to take 
a little rest, and sent forward to the rebel 
to exhort him to make peace and restore the 
two castles he had taken, with the spoil he 
had collected. Isaac detained the bishop, telling 
him, "T will answer his message in person 
wiili my sword!" He then advanced and 
surrounded the hill on which the king and his 
few troops had taken post, placing his infantry 
in the front, and supportin«i; them with his 
cavalry. The horsemen exhibited the utmost 



contempt of the king's forces, advancing to 
and i'ro with the most careless indifference, as 
if they had completely entrapped him. On 
the rise of the sun, the army of Isaac exhibited 
a most brilliant spectacle from the beams 
darting on their polished shields and armour, and 
reflecting the dazzling light in every direction. 
Ashot, no way daunted by the formidable array 
before him, proceeded down the hill accom- 
panied by only 200 of his men, the remaining 
100 being completely exhausted by the fatigue 
they had undergone the preceding day. On 
advancing towards the enemy Ashot took the 
paper containing the covenant of peace which 
Isaac had previously made with him, and sanc- 
tified by an oath, and extending it towards 
heaven, appealed to God for judgment on the 
perjured. He then tied it to a small crucifix 
which he always carried with him, and gave 
the signal for the onset. Mounting their horses, 
the little band rushed with the most enthu- 
siastic bravery on the rebels, and their exertions 
were crowned with the most complete success. 
So great was the carnage amongst the rebels 
that only two out of the whole escaped with 
life. These were Isaac and his son Gregory, 
who were made prisoners, and being brought 
into the presence of the king, he ordered their 
eyes to be plucked out, and then let them 


go where they chose. Ashot then marched 
to Gardman, the province of Isaac, and sub- 
jugated the whole, thenceforward governmg it 
as one of his own possessions. Shortly after 
this, the people of Gugars rebelled, but were 
soon reduced by the active conduct of the 
king. The whole of the kingdom now being 
in a state of tranquillity he returned to the 
city of Duin. 

Ashot, however, was condemned to be in 
incessant action, for in the same year of his 
return from the conquest of Isaac, Zilik Amram, 
whom it will be recollected, he had sometime 
before appointed governor of Uti, revolted and 
allured the chiefs of that country to espouse 
his interests. Ashot, previous to receiving an 
account of this rebellion, had taken a small 
detachment of troops and set out for Uti on 
an excursion of pleasure. On the journey news 
of the change that had taken place in Amram's 
conduct were communicated to him. Ashot then 
proceeded to the king of the Egerians, who was 
in alliance with him, and requested assistance 
against the rebels. He was immediately fur- 
nished by this monarch with all the Egerian 
cavalry, with which he entered Uti. Here 
he found Amram encamped in a thick forest 
near the river Cur, with an immense army. 
As the position of the enemy's camp was 



unfavourable to the proper exercise of Ashot's 
troops, the latter sought to decoy him from 
it. For this purpose the king brought his 
troops into a fortress near at hand, which 
was providentially unoccupied, the passages 
to it also being extremely narrow and easy 
to defend. Here the royal troops took repose. 
In the mean time, Amrani hnding out the 
place where Ashot and his men lay, advanced 
with his troops and surrounded it, by which 
means the people within were unable to procure 
any kind of provisions, not even water, the for- 
tress being on an acclivity. The troops of Ashot 
giving way to despair at the contemplation of 
their gloomy situation, entered into an agreement 
with the enemy to bind and deliver up their 
leader, provided they were permitted to leave the 
country unmolested . Ashot having comingto the 
knowledge of this became dreadfully alarmed, 
and in the middle of the night, mounting a 
very swift horse, got through the narrow 
passages of the fort, and darting into the midst 
of the enemy's cavalry, overthrew all who 
attempted to oppose him, and eventually made 
his escape. Amram enraged at this unexpected 
event then entered the fortress, and after plun- 
dering those who were within, permitted them 
to depart to their native country. Ashot, in 
the mean time first took refuge in the castle 


of Cakavaca and from thence sought shelter in 
the isle of Sevan, having gathered a body of 
100 men who accompanied him to this latter 
place. Ashot was much dejected by the reverse 
which he had of late experienced, as he had 
no means of protecting his kingdom from the 
invasions with which it was threatened. One 
of his most attached chiefs, named George, of 
the tribe of Marzpetians, a man of great 
skill and courage, at the head of twenty men, 
traversed the country, and endeavoured to re- 
cruit the forces of his master, but met with 
very little success. The greater part of the 
chiefs, distrustful of each other, remained shut 
up in their strongholds, and studying their own 
private interests rather than those of their 
king or country. About this time Gagik, who 
had suffered much from the tyranny of lussuf 
and Espuk the chief, assumed an independent 
power over the country of Vaspurakon. He 
also built a splendid city in the island of 
Akhthamar situated in the sea of Buznunia, 
and erected in it a magnificent church dedicated 
to the holy cross. 



CyO HlSTOltY OK A UM EN 1/1. 


CojitinuatUm of the reign of Aahot the Second, 
and the pontijicates of Stephen the Second and 
Theodorus the First. 

A. n.923. When I iissuf learned that Ashot had reth'ed 

Haiian , . . 

era 372. to, the islc of Sevan, he sent into Armenia 
a chief of the name of Nusir, with directions 
to take immediate steps for the reduction of 
the whole nation and the capture of the person 
of the king. Nusir first arrived in Nakhjuan 
where he abode for a few days, during which, 
Babken the Sisakan came to him with a com- 
plaint against his brother Isaac, accusing him 
of having deprived him of his paternal inhe- 
ritance. Nusir promised him redress, but 
directed him to wait awhile till the accused 
should come to him. Isaac however not coming 
as speedily as Nusir wished, the latter wrote to 
him inviting him to come to Nakhjuan. Isaac, 
not aware that his brother had made an ac- 
cusation against him, accepted Nusir's invitation, 
and forthwith repaired to him with presents. 
On his arrival Nusir desired both brothers 
to accompany him to Duin, where he would 


attend to their affairs. In his progress to this 
city he passed by the village of Carunj, where 
he was welcomed by the principal inhabitants. 
Nusir, qnite unmoved at their demonstrations of 
respect, seized them and took them in chains to 
Duin. On his arrival at this city, he took the 
litigious Babken and his brother Isaac, and 
loading them with chains, threw them into 
prison, together with those he had taken at 
Carunj. lie also meditated the seizure of the 
pontiff Johannes, but the latter, apprehensive of 
his safety, and warned by the phenomenon of 
the sun becoming suddenly and unaccountably 
darkened, on the second day of Nusir's arrival 
in Duin, and when he was aware there could 
be no eclipse, retired to the fortress of Beurakan, 
which was his own private j^roperty, and in 
which he had built a convent and a church. 
From this retreat Johannes wrote to Nusir 
sui)i)licating iiiiu to permit him to reside in 
Duin without tear of molestation. Nusir con- 
sented, and even gave the ])ontiff an oath tiiat 
he should i)e m safety. Some of tiie Saracens 
in the train of Nusir having represented to him 
that it was an unlawful act to give an oath to 
a Christian, he hastened to send a detachment 
of troo})s to seize the pontitf, fancying that the 
latter had addressed him from tlie convent 
ofAyrs. On thearrnal uf tiie soldjcrs at this 



place tlicy discovered that Johannes was not 
there ; and being irritated by disappointment, 
and inspired by cupidity, they pkindered both 
the church and convent. Not satisfied with 
this, they tortured the priests whom they found 
there, in order to discover if any treasure lay 
concealed. Having taken all that was possible 
for them to obtain, they, left their unfortunate 
victims and returned to Nusir. The poor priests 
who had been tortured died a very short time 
afterwards, through the effects of their previous 

Nusir then sent forces against the fortress 
of Beurakan, but Johannes escaped from thence 
and retired to the city of Bagaran, which 
was then under the government of Ashot the 
rebel general, of whom we formerly related so 

The troops of Nusir in the mean time pro- 
secuted the siege of Beurakan. They assaulted 
it several times, but were always repulsed with 
great slaughter. They at length obtained pos- 
session of it by means of a traitor belonging 
to the garrison, who betrayed it to them. 
They put numbers of the inhabitants to the 
sword, and martyred many of the women whom 
they found therein. The wretch who was the 
cause of its capture received the due reward 
of his treason, being put to death by order of 


Some time after this, Nusir was recalled 
by lussiif, and on his departure from Armenia 
he left an individual of the name of Bishr in 
his room. Bishr having received intelligence 
of the situation of king Ashot in the island of 
Sevan, selected from his army 1,000 powerful 
men, whom he armed as cavalry ; and at their 
head pushed forward to attempt the capture 
of the island and king. He desolated all the 
country over which he passed. At some dis- 
tance from the city, George the Marzpetian, 
of whom we before made some mention, at the 
head of twenty men fell in with Bishr's forces, 
and alarmed at their superiority of number, 
hastily retired into a secret place. Having 
conferred with his men, and finding all in- 
spired with an equal abhorrence of the enemy, 
and devotion to their king and country, George 
determined, notwithstanding the few men he 
had with him, to attack the spoilers, confiding 
in God. Filled with enthusiasm in the cause 
in which they were engaged, the little band 
advanced to meet the 1,000 men whom 
Bishr had witli him, and rushing to the 
assault with as nmch skill as courage, com- 
pletely defeated them. A great number 
of the enemy was slain and the remainder fled. 
Out of the little party by which this gallant 
act was achieved only three fell, who were 



subsequently buried with every demonstration 
of sorrow and respect which their conduct 
deserved. Having gathered the spoil from the 
slain, George and his men retired to one of 
their iastnesses, and having taken a little repose, 
recommenced their labours of protecting the 
country against those who sought to despoil it. 
Bishr exasperated at the disgraceful defeat he 
had lately suffered, assembled an immense force, 
and went in pursuit of George the Marzpetian. 
Not being able to discover the retreat of this 
individual, he marched toward the island of 
Sevan to endeavour to take the king who had 
retired thither. 

On his arrival at the shore of the sea in 
which the island is situated he pitched his camp 
in view of it. 

The brave Ashot was not daunted by such 
a sight, for he knew the quality of the men 
in his adversary's army. He forthwith prepared 
ten vessels, in each of which he placed seven 
archers, all so extremely skilful with the bow, 
that the smallest object at which they aimed 
their arrows was never missed. These vessels 
were directed to anchor along shore and a- 
breast of Bishr's army, and gall them with 
continual discharges of arrows. On the ap- 
proach of these vessels Bishr was astonished at 
the daring nature of their expedition, fancying 


they would proceed to land troops to attack 
him. However, when they commenced shooting 
their arrows, his astonishment gave way to the 
most violent rage, for each arrow was guided 
with such precision that it never missed killing 
or wounding the object against whom it was 
aimed. Terror seized upon the soldiery, on 
their observing the skill of these redoubted 
archers, and at length, seeing that each moment 
added to their loss by the fall of their comrades, 
from the incessant discharges that took place, 
they all fled. This was a glorious feat, and the 
victors, on the retreat of Bishr and his troops, 
landed and found immense booty in their camp. 
Bishr enraged at this failure of his expedition, 
marched against the fortress of Kelah, on which 
he determined to wreak his vengeance. Defeats 
however are like the visitations of domestic 
afflictions; one quickly follows another, and 
here Bishr met with a severer defeat than he 
had hitherto suffered. On the very day he 
laid siege to Kelah, and a few hours previous 
to his appearance there, George the Marzpetian 
with his seventeen followers, by some fortunate 
accident had marched into it. As soon as 
the besiegers commenced operations against 
the fortress, George with his men sallied out, 
and made a gallant charge upon them, marking 
their progress by heaps of slain. George 


distinguished himself by a furious attack on 
Bishr, the legs of whose horse being broken 
by tiie violence of the charge, fell with his rider 
to the ground. By the assistance of his guards 
Bislir got another horse, and with ditficulty 
made his escape, followed by all the surviving 
soldiers of his army. The victors obtained 
a great quantity of spoil from the plunder of the 
camp of the vanquished, and the bodies of their 
slain. George's followers were so much reduced 
by these repeated actions, that from this period 
they were obliged to discontinue their praise- 
worthy labours. In the mean time the garrison 
of the fortress of Kelah, observing that George 
had disbanded his followers, and being them- 
selves apprehensive of the future operations of 
Bishr, took their effects with them and evacuated 
it. Bishr on hearing of this marched with his 
troops and took possession of Kelah and several 
other fortresses similarly abandoned, and as- 
sumed the government of the towns and villages 
dependent on them. 

Nusir shortly after these events returned 
from Atropatia, and took up his residence in 
the city of Duin. He transformed the pon- 
tifical palace into a dwelling house for his 
servants, but pitying the condition to which 
the Armenians were reduced, he desisted from 
persecuting them as heretofore, contenting him- 


self with the tribute which they were accustomed 
to pay to the Caliph. 

Johannes the pontifif", on observing the de- h^^,^"^' 
grading purposes to which Nusir had applied '''"a 373. 
his palace, retired to Vaspurakan, where as 
we have before remarked, Gagik reigned in- 
dependent. After a little rest here the pontiff 
set about carrvini»- on a history of the events 
of Armenia, which he had previously com- 
menced. Having fini.shed it, he shortly after 
died; having presided over the church twenty- 
seven years and eight months. During his 
pontificate Thomas the Arzrunian flourished, 
the author of many valuable works, amongst 
which are memoirs of the Arzrunians, and 
a full account of the cruelties of Bulah and 
other interesting subject-^. 

Stephen the Second, from the island of Akh- ^J^;^'^ 

thamar, succeeded Johannes in the pontifical era 375. 

chair, but died in tiie course of a year after 

his election, 'riuodonis the First, a native of 

the same island as Stej)hen, then became 

pontiff. In the first year of the pontificate 

of Theodorus, (iagik of Vaspurakan, wrote 

to Tryphoii the |)atriarch of the Greeks, and 

to the emperor Romanus, begging that steps 

mioht be taken to i)riug about an unanimity 

of rehgious opinions between the Greeks 

and Armenians. Neither the patriarch nor 


the emperor answered his appeal to them ; 
for they were aware iVom past experience that 
if they succeeded in hrinnin^- about what Gagik 
wished, it would not last long-. Gagik was 
much grieved at their silence, but iVom that 
time only occupied himself in securing the 
tranqudlity of his country. 
A. D. 927. Ashot the k'm<r observing- the peace the nation 
era 3/6. cnjoycd undcr the government ol the Caliphs 
delegate Nusir, became happy and content. 
Shortly after, being- reconciled with his brother 
Abas, he died; although in the bloom of his 
age. His reign lasted, from the martyrdom 
of his father Sumbat to his own death, fourteen 
years and a half. He enjoyed the high title of 
Shahinshah, or king of kings. 


The reign of Abas, and the poityicatcs of Eliahey 
the First mid Ananias Aloclxazie. 

A. D. 928. Ox the death of his brother Ashot Ercath, 


era 377. Abas succccded to tlic throne of Armenia, with 
the consent of all the chiefs, and of Gagik, who 
had assumed the title of king of Vaspurakan. 
Abas fixed the seat of his government at Cars 
or Ghars in Little Vanand ; and shortly after 


his elevation made a tour through the whole 
of his dominions, and with the assistance of 
the renowned George Marzpetian, cleared the 
coimtry of all the hordes of depredators which 
had hitherto infested it. The kingdom now 
assumed a new aspect, every thing appearing to 
enjoy rest and peace. 

Abas then ])roceeded to Duin, where he a d. 929. 
tesliiied so much respect for the governor era 378. 
Nusir, and displayed such engaging manners, 
thai the latter shewed him great kindness and 
reo-ard: Nusir, on tlic king's account, caused 
the Sisakaii pniic<js, Babken and Isaac, to be 
released, and restored the pontifical palace. 
The latter, however, henceforward was never 
used for the residence of the pontiff. In the f^;?^;^^^^- 
course of a short time the self-exiled Armenians, *''' ^^i. 
both clergy and laity, having heard of the state 
of order that again reigned in their country, 
returned to their native ))laces. Many of the 
clergy who at this tune came back to Armenia, 
had for a long period lived retired in the country 
of the R^rcrians. One of these individuals, 
.Johannes an al)b()t, built the great convent of 
Caiiiurja'/or, in the province of the Arsharunians, 
celebrated for containing a crucifix which had 
the power of working miracles. On the death 
of Johannes, Polycarpus l)ecame abbot of this 
celelnated convent, and on the decease of the 


latter, Samuel surnamecl I'^niastak and Erajist 
succeeded to that dignity. Samuel was tlie 
author of a work named Tonapatchar respecting 
the ceremonies of the church. Another Johannes, 
a monk, is also celebrated in the annals of these 
times. Being exiled from Greece, together with 
many others of the clergy, he took refuge in the 
province of Shirak, where he built a convent 
called Horomosin. He also erected an inn for 
the accommodation of travellers, and was so 
extremely charitable, that he frequently de- 
prived himself of common necessaries to relieve 
the poor. A hermit of the name of Sion about 
this time built the convent of Khilazor in the 
province of Derjan, and erected in it a church, 
^" Hak^n which he dedicated to Saint Gregory. At 
this period the convent of Narek in the province 
of the Rushtunians, was constructed, where a 
number of very learned men took up their 
residence: among these, two are particularly 
famous, the monks Anania and Peter; the 
former an eminent philosopher wrote various 
works against the Thondrakenes, the latter was 
the author of valuable commentaries. Contempo- 
rary with these was the Monk Moses, a native of 
Taron, who built a convent called after his name 
in the province of Kharberd. The monks 
Sarkies and Stephen also flourished at this 
time; the former erected the convent of Hun- 

cra 384. 


zens in Carin, and the latter that of Zakhazkar, 
in the province of Vaioz Zor. About this time 
the ceU'bratcd fraternity of Duprevank in tlie 
provirjce of Sliirak was formed, and the con- 
vent of (,'apulakar in Arsliarunics built. A vast 
number of reliij^ious houses also was repaired at 
the expense of the kins^. The regulations 
which th(j monks inhabiting these convents 
were obliged to conform to were thesi> : hrst, 
to continue at prayer tiie greater part of the 
twenty-four hours ; secondly, to eat only once 
a day ; and third I v. to possess no j^rivate pro- 
perty. The following are a few of the priests, 
who were distinguished for extraordinary sanc- 
tity during this king's reign, viz. David, 
snrnamed Mashkoten; another David of whom 
we shall shortly have to speak more at large; 
a red friar in the ])rovince of Zophs; and Abbot 
Varduk, principal of the brotherhood of Vank. 
The latter was very homely in his dress and 
figure, \v{ d strict mutator of our blessed 
Saviour in his manners. Some of the Arme- 
nian chiefs in the division of tiie Greeks also 
became greatly celebrated at this epoch, among 
whom we j)articularly notice Johan Gurghen, 
and his brother Theophilus. The former, in 
consequence of iiis valour and conduct, was 
appointed general of the eastern division of 
the Greek army, and m that situation performed 



such services as procured a renown equal to 
that of JU'lisarins and Nierscs the ^^eneral. 
Tile hitter Theopliikis held the important otlice 
ot" governor of the Chaklies, in whicli he dis- 
played considerable talent. The grandson of 
Theophilus was th^; emperor Johannes Chi- 
A. n. W6. mishkik. About this ])eriod Asliot tlie rebel 
eru395. general, and pretender to the crown, ot whom 
we before stated so much, died ; which event 
was quickly followed by the death of Oagik the 
Arzrunian and kini: of Vaspurakan, who had 
reigned twenty -nine years. His son Ashot, 
surnamed Derenik after his grandfather, suc- 
ceeded to the government of Vaspurakan. Shortly 
after his accession, at the instigation of certain 
calumniators, Ashot removed his father's old 
t'-eneral Abulkharib thellaviuinian,awarlike and 
skilful man, from his ottice, and appointed one 
Sarkies in his room. Abulkharib hurt at this 
slight, raised up a powerful enemy against this 
king in the person of the prince of Hier and 
Zarwand,who, having entered into the province 
of Anzevazies with a large force, made horrid 
devastations. A little after this the prince 
captured Ashot Derenik and took him to Hier, 
where he threw him into prison; and whenever 
he had occasion to make excursions into the 
country on pleasure or business, he invariably- 
caused the unfortunate Ashot to accompany 


him, for the purpose of exposing him to the 
taunts and insults of his servants. 

This conduct of Abulkharib and the prince 
of Heir drew upon them the vengeance of the 
church, for the Armenian clergy issued an 
anathema against them. This so much atfected 
the former that he determined to liberate the 
captive, and for this purpose sent Ashot a 
message secretly, to direct him, on the first 
occasion, wJumi he was taken out of prison to 
afford sport to the people of Heir, to make 
off witli all speed to the sea side, where he 
would be m readiness to assist liim. Accor- 
dmgly on a ccnain dav, when Ashot surrounded 
bv the chiefs of Heir, was suHering all manner 
of ill treatment tVom them, which even was ex- 
tended to blows, he all of a sudden snatched 
a clul) from the hand of one of them, as if in 
joke, and hiving about hitn with all his strength, 
soon cleared a way, when putting spurs to his 
Jiorse, he mnde for that p;irt where Abulkharib 
attended him. The people immediately pur- 
sued, l)ut Abulkharib ;iik1 his followers coming 
between them and the fiiLiitive beat them back. 
Durini;" the ati'rny a huge negro of ponderous 
strength attack* <i the general, but the hitter 
after a short conilict laid the assailant on the 
ground by a terrific stroke on the loins, and then 
tramjjled him to death under the feet of his 



horse. Abulkharib drove the pursuers back to the 
city, and on their shuttin*; the gates against 
him, he by an eftbrt of wonderful strength, 
struck his sword deep into the wood of which 
tliey were made, and then quietly returned 
to secure the retreat of Ashot. Having joined 
him, they together proceeded to Vaspurakan, 
where Asliot again ascended the throne, and 
Abulkharib being shortly relieved from the 
anathema pronounced against him, was raised 
to high offices in the state. Ashot Derenick 
after a reign of fourteen years, died; and was 
succeeded by his youngest brother Abusahl 
Hamazasp. Just before the death of Gagik the 
first king of Vaspurakan, Theodorius the pon- 
tiff quitted this life, after ruling the church ten 

A. D. M6. years. He was succeeded in the pontificate 
era 385. by his brother Elishey, who made Akhtha- 
mar the seat of his spiritual government. 
After remaining in the pontifical chair five 
years, Elishey, by the calumnies which his 
enemies spread abroad concerning him, was 
deposed ; and as by the church regulations 
no one could be elected during his life, the 
office was performed by deputy until his death, 

A. D. 943. which happened two years afterwards. Ananias 

Haican * '■ *' 

era 392. Mockazie, head of the fraternity of Varag, 
then became pontiff. Shortly after this event 
Jacob bishop of Seunie began to disseminate 


in Armenia doctrines subversive of all church 
discipline, asserting that the bishops were not 
bound to obey the pontiff. Ananias, to punish 
his contumacy, anathematized both liim and 
his adherents, among whom were the princes 
and chiefs of the Seunies. Jacob in the course 
of a short time died, when the pontiff visited 
his diocese, and having brought the whole 
again to proper obedience, he revoked the 
anathema. He then consecrated Vahan from 
the province of Balas, archbishop of the 
Seunies, and permitted him to have a crncifix 
borne before him wherever he went. Ananias 
then returned to Akhthamar. During his pon- 
tificate David, bishop of the Mocks, of the 
brotherhood of the Aparans, became greatly 
renownetl for wisdom and holiness, and on 
whose death manv miracles were wrought by 
his relics. lie was succeeded in his diocese 
by his relation Stephen. 

It is related that the nephew of the blessed 
David, havim,' taken a little earth from the 
^rave of his uncle, ])roceeded to Greece, where 
by its means he wrouglit various miracles, and 
became so famous that he was universally 
styled Manglaut. 

The emperors Basilius and Constantino, 
amazed at these wonders, greatly honoured the 
convent from which David originally came. They 


\()[. w. g 


sent to it by the hands of Mangluntthe following- 
rehcs ; a piece of the wood of the true cross, 
a portion of the crown of thorns wiiich was 
placed on our Saviour's head, a bit of the 
sponge from which he drank the myrrli at his 
last hour, some fragments of tlie nails with 
which he was fixed to the cross, some of his 
swaddling clothes, and remnants of the apron and 
other wearing apparel of the Virgin Mary, all 
set in a splendid gold crucifix. Stephen 
having received them from Manglunt, began to 
rebuild the convent to which David had be- 
longed, and having finished it, erected within 
its walls an elegant church, and dedicated it to 
the blessed Virgin, wherein he deposited with 
all due solemnity the crucifix. To this crucifix 
St. Gregorius Narekensis subsequently address- 
ed two harangues. About this period Abas the 
king of Armenia began to erect a splendid church 
in Cars, which occupied five years in finishing, 
being constructed entirely of polished marble. 
On the occasion of its consecration Ber, king 
of the Aphlazes, who was at enmity with Abas, 
marched into Armenia at the head of a large 
body of troops, and encamping on the banks of 
the river Cur, sent the following message to 
Abas. " I am come to consecrate your newly 
built church, for it would be an impropriety, 
while the Georgians are so near, for the Arme- 


nians to perform that ceremony!" Abas irritated 
at this taunt, assembled his followers, and 
accompanied by George Marzpetian set for- 
ward, determined to chastise Ber. He halted 
that night on the opposite bank of the river 
near which Ber was encamped. In the dawn 
of the next morning George, selecting a few 
resolute men, crossed the river, and attacking 
the camp of Ber quite unexpectedly, threw it 
into the greatest confusion. In the mean time 
they were severely galled by showers of arrows 
which the Armenians on the other side, with the 
king, continually discharged. They at length 
were obliged to retreat. Ber, vexed at this 
defeat, rallied his troops in the course of that 
day, and on the following crossed the river, 
and took the Armenian camp by surprise. 
The greatest confusion prevailed, but Abas 
having by great exertion brouglit his men into 
some order, made such a stand that the enemy 
paused. The Armenians then inspired by a 
prospect of victory redoubled their exertions, 
and finally put the assailants to flight. 

The most dreadful carnage followed: such 
of the enemy as escaped the sword were 
drowned in the river, or arrived on the opposite 
bank quite exhausted. Abas having crossed 
the river continued the pursuit until he captured 
the person of Ber, when he returned, lie then 



took the captive prince, bound in fetters, to the 
newly built church, and thus addressed him; 
" Ber, behold the church which thou in thine 
arrogance earnest to consecrate. Satisfy thine 
eyes with its beauties, whilst thou now gazest; 
for by the Lord God thou shalt never see it 
again!' Then taking the unfortunate Ber out of 
the church, he caused his eyes to be plucked 
out. News cf this doleful event reachins: 
Aphlazes, the people were plunged into an 
agony of grief, and deputing their chiefs with 
great gifts, succeeded in making a treaty of 
peace with the Armenians, and obtaining the 
liberation of their eyeless prince. 
' Haicari From this circumstance arose various calami- 
ties to the Armenians, for the Greeks, on hearing 
of what had recently passed, fancied that they 
treated their ceremonies with contempt; on 
this account all the Armenians residing under 
the government of Greece were obliged to con- 
form to the usages of the Greek church, and 
to make use of the benediction which was 
peculiar to that people. Those who submitted 
were confirmed again, and some even were 
rebaptized ; but others who preferred their old 
ceremonies, quitted their habitations and took 
refuge in Armenia Major, in the frontiers of 
Shirak, and the Little Vanand. Those who 
escaped to the Armenians in consequence of 

era 393 


this persecution, if accompanied by babes who 
had been previously baptized according to the 
Greek form, caused that ceremony to be 
again performed; imagining that the Greeks 
baptize only in the name of man. These little 
variations being invested with more impor- 
tance than they deserved, were the occasion 
of an eternal disagreement between the two 
churches, which has come down to the latest 
period, and will probably go on until Chris- 
tianity itself shall cease to exist. At this 
epoch, if any of the more moderate among the 
Armenians proposed to bring the two nations 
to a community of religious sentiment, they 
were treated as, and even called schismatics. 
Abas the king having attained an advanced age 
died, after swaying the sceptre twenty-four 
years. He left two sons, Ashot and Mushel. 



The rei<j;n of A.sJiot the Third, onhracing the 
period between the pontijicate.s of VaJian and 
Catchiel: the First. 

0\ tiic death of Abas, his eldest son Ashot, ^■^■o:>i. 


surnamcd the charitable, ascended the throne ^r&wo. 
of Armenia. The enemies of the kingdom 
beginning to make destructive incursions, Ashol 



assembled a body of troops consisting of 2,000 
men, all of undaunted courage and matchless 
strength, with which he completely tranquil- 
ized the country, and expelled the marauders. 
After this he increased his military forces until 
they amounted to 80,000 strong, over which he 
appointed Gore the son of the famous George, ge- 
neral. With this powerful army Ashot achieved 
many great exploits, and became the terror of the 
foes, and the glory of the friends of his country. 

^'^^A'l^ln -^^ ^^^^ expiration of nine years from the ac- 
eiii4io. cession of Ashot to the crown, the Armenian 
chiefs viewing with admiration the valour, pru- 
dence, and piety of their prince, invited the 
king and pontiff of the Aluans into Armenia, 
and assembling' all the nobles of the kins^dom 
with Ananias their pontiff, in the city of Ani, 
there solemnly crowned Ashot their king; 
this ceremony, from the various factions that 
had divided the country, not having hitherto 
been performed. Mushel the brother of the king, 
had contrived some time before to procure 
adherents from amongst the chiefs, and assumed 
royal authority in Cars; but on all occasions 
where they met he showed the greatest obedience 
to his brother, and assisted him when required. 
On this account and the ties of kindred, Ashot 
did not like to oppose the wishes of Mushel 
with regard to his assumption of independent 



power. During the reign of this monarch, David 
chief of the Taics in the division of the Greeks, 
became greatly celebrated for his valour and 
conduct, and was much in favour with the em- 
peror, who conferred upon him the government 
of that country. Some short time after Ashot J;;.^;,f^" 
assumed the royal authority in Armenia, that "''•^^^• 
country was invaded by the Saracens, under 
the command of a chief named Hamdun, who 
had rebelled from the Caliph. Hamdun was 
defeated and killed in a battle fought shortly 
after his invasion; and the Caliph on being 
informed of it. was so pleased with the conduct 
of Ashot, that he sent him magnificent presents, 
among which was a double crown, and ho- 
noured him with the appellation of Shahi 
Armen, that is king of the Armenians. Ashot Haican 
was much gratified by the countenance of so """ 
great a monarch, and continued in the practice 
of every virtue which renders a prince estimable. 
He much improved his kingdom, when leisure 
afforded him the opportunity of applying him- 
self towards that object. He built the inner 
castle of the city of Ani, and fortified all the 
places of iin))ortancc he possessed, raising, it 
is said, huge pyramids to commemorate his 
works. He derives his greatest fame however 
from his private virtues. Having built a number 
of hospitals, infirmaries, and almshouses, he 



ninde it a point to visit them frequently; here 
he indulged in the greatest familiarity with the 
poorest ; and even, it is said, often invited the 
sick, leprous, and maimed, to sit and eat with 
him at his own table. So unbounded w^as he 
in his donations to the ])oor, that on his death 
not a single piece of money was found in his 
treasury. Hence he was surnamed the chari- 
table. His queen Khosrovanoish, (daughter of 
Khosrove) emulated the example of her husband. 
She performed many acts of charity, relieving 
indiscriminately the poor and sick, the clergy, 
and laity. She also built the two great con- 
vents of Sanahin and Haghbat, separated from 
each other by a very small distance, in order 
that the inhabitants of both might mutually 
commune with each other. Indeed, under the 
reign of Ashot, the convents in all parts of the 
kingdom were in the highest possible state 
of perfection. Among the clergy who flourished 
at this period, we must particularly mention 
the great Khosrove Anzevazie. In his youth 
he had not been intended for a religious pro- 
fession, and therefore married according to the 
custom of the laity. He had one son Gregorius 
Narekensis, who, it is said, was as pious and 
innocent in his person as an angel. Shortly 
after the birth of this cliild, Khosrove retired to 
a convent, where he embraced a monastic life. 


and in the course of time became bishop of the 
Anzevazies. He was the author of various 
theological treatises, besides a book styled 
remarks on ihe sacrifice of the altar, aAd a 
commentary on the common prayers, which 
aiterwards was more fiilly treated on by Moses 
of Ezunka. About this period the pontiff 
Ananias died, having enjoyed that dignity 
twenty-two years, of which he resided five years 
in Akhthamar, and seventeen in Varag and Ani. 
He was succeeded in the pontificate, with the Haicaa 
approbation of all, by Vahan of the province 
of Bdlas and archbishop of the Seunies, who 
took up his residence in the city of Arghina, 
on the banks of the river Akhurian near Ani, 
the seat of the spiritual government not having 
yet been established in the latter city. This 
pontiff having formerly acknowledged that the 
creed of the council of Chalcedon was orthodox, 
now proceeded to decree its acceptance pub- 
licly, by which he again brought the Armenian 
church into unanimity with the Greeks and 
Georgians, to whom he respectively made 
written communications through the medium 
of Theodorus the metropolitan of Melitiney. 
In the course of a short time, however, several ^-P- 'J**'-'- 


forward persons arraigned the conduct of the '^'■'* ^is. 
pontiff upcm this head, and refused to accept 
the council in question. An assembly having 



taken place in the city of Ani, composed of the 
disaftectcd, they proposed to depose Vahan 
from the pontificate. The latter, perceiving the 
object at which they aimed, resigned, and re- 
tired to the country of Vaspurakan, where he 
was kindly received by Abusahl the king, who 
subsequently became of the same opinion as 
Vahan in regard to the above religious point. 

A. D. 9ro. Qj^ ^}^g resignation of Vahan, Stephen the 
fra 419. third abbot of Sevan was elected pontiff, who 
immediately after fulminated anathemas against 
Vahan and Abusahl. Vahan upon this anathe- 
matized Stephen, who in a transport of religious 
fury, gathered a number of his clergy, and 
simply advanced at their head to take the 
former prisoner. Abusahl the king on the 
approach of this body, seized the whole, and 
confined them in the island of Akhthamar. He 
however released them after a short time, on 
their submitting to the will of Vahan, with the 
exception of Stephen, whom he imprisoned in 
the castle of Cotoroz where he died a few 
months after his arrival, and in the second 
year of his pontificate. 

A. D. 972. Catchick the First, bishop of the Arsharunies, 

Haican '■ 

era 421. thcu bccamc pontiff, and established himself at 
the city of Arghina. Here he erected four splen- 
did churches on a new plan, the architect of which 
was the celebrated Tiridates. He also formed a 



large library here, in which were the principal 
works of all the authors then known. About 
this period Chumushkik Keurjan, an Armenian 
by family, and naiive of the city Herapolis, 
whici) fiom that circumstance was also called 
ChumushkazAk, ascended the imperial throne 
at Constantinoj)le; and during his life time 
appointed Basilius and his brother Constantine 
em[)erors. These two were descendants of 
Basilius the Armenian, and of the family of the 
Arsacidie. Vahan the pontiff, although an exile 
in Vaspurak;m, apfain endeavoured to effect 
an union between the two nations; and for this 
purpose held communications with these em- 
perors. He subsequently died, having been in 
the pontificate fifteen years, reckoning the 
time of his retirement in Vaspurakan. Shortly i^J^^JJ^' 
after this event king Ashot the charitable '''^'^'^• 
died, in the twenty-sixth year of his reign; and 
three years after was followed by his queen 
Khosrovanoish. They left thrre sons behind 
them, Sumbat, Gagik and Gurghen. Not 
long after the decease of Ashot, Abusahl king 
of Vaspurakan died, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son Ashot, who was crowned in the city 
of Vahan. lie had two other sons, one of whom, 
Gurghen governed the Anzcvazies, the other, 
Sennacherib, the Rushtunians. 



C H A P T E R IX. 

The reign of Sinnbat the Second. 
A. D. 977. The eldest son of Ashot, on the decease 


era 426. of the latter, succeeded to the crown of Ar- 
menia, by the title of Sunibat the Second. 
The day on which his father died, he was 
crowned in the city of Ani, and forthwith 
proceeded to tranquillize the country, which 
had been thrown into a little confusion by 
the change of its ruler. He became exceedingly 
powerful, and was honoured with the titles of 
emperor and king of kings. In the year of our 
Lord 979, or H. E. 428, this monarch set about 
fortifying the city of Ani. He first surround- 
ed it with a wall of exceeding great height 
and thickness, on which he raised lofty towers 
for the station of its defenders in case of exi- 
gency. He then caused a trench of amazing 
depth and breadth to be dug outside, so as 
to encompass all the city and works, the whole 
being faced with stone and bricks. This was 
a work of such magnitude that it took him 
eight years to finish it. In the city of Ani he 
built such a number of churches, that, added 


to what were there before his accession, they 
amounted on the whole to the surprizing number 
of 1001. This circumstance gave rise to a 
curious practice in use with the common people 
of Armenia, who, on making a solemn assertion, 
would swear by the 1001 churches of Ani. 
Sumbat caused the foundation of a very large 
church to be laid in the city by the architect 
Tiridates, in the year 989 or 438; but was 
prevented from finishing it by the hand of death. 
During this time the great chief Gregorius 
Pahlavie, a descendant of St. Isaac and our 
holy Illuminator St. Gregory, rendered himself 
very renowned by his virtues. He resided 
in the province of Nig, and at his death left 
three sons, Vasak, Vahram and Tigranes. 
Vasak became general of the Armenians. His 
son was Gregorius Magistratus, who was the 
father of Gregory Vikayaser (lover of martyrs). 
On the death of Vasak, his brother Vahram 
succeeded to the office of general, and became 
greatly celebrated for his valour and piety. He 
built several convents. Contemporary with 
these flourished Gregorius Narekensis, renown- 
ed <or his wisdom and sanctity. He had been 
brought uj) from his infancy in the convent of 
Narek, and in process of time became its abbot, 
from which circumstance he was surnamed 
Narekensis. This individual attempted to unite 



tlie Armenians and Greeks by persuading the 
former to accept the holy council of Chalcedon. 
In consequence of this, several intolerant per- 
sons stirred up the nation against him, and 
disputes ran so high, that it was found necessary 
to convene a meeting of the chiefs and clergy 
in the city of Am. Messengers were dispatched 
to Gregorius Narekensis to summon him to 
appear before the assembly to examine his 
religious opinions. On the arrival of the 
messengers at the convent of Narek, Grego- 
rius received them with kindness; and ordered 
a repast to be prepared of roasted pi:::eons. 
The day being Friday, the messengers were 
offended when the pigeons were set before 
them, and addressing the abbot they said, 
"Doctor, this day is a fast, for it is Friday." 
Upon which Gregorius replied, "excuse me 
brothers, for I had forgotten." Then addres- 
sing the roasted birds, he said, ** arise ye, 
and depart, for this day is a fast!" The pigeons 
then, wonderful to relate, expanded their wings 
and flew away. The messengers observing this 
miracle were struck with shame, and falling at 
the saint's feet implored his forgiveness. They 
then returned to Ani, and related to the assem- 
bly the wonder they had beheld, which asto- 
nished and confounded all. Many individuals 
recorded this miracle, and the monks of Narek 


also took an account of it in, writing. In the 
mean time St. Gregorius remained totally- 
absorbed in religious meditation. He long 
ardently prayed to behold, with his bodily 
senses, the holy Virgin with the Son of God in 
her arms ; and at length was gratified with that 
glorious sight. Filled with the Holy Ghost,, 
he composed that wonderful book of prayers 
called Narek, the like of which has never 
till this time appeared in the world. He 
was the author also of several elegies and 
hymns. At the early age of twenty-six he 
wrote commentaries on the Songs of Solomon, 
and the thirty-eighth chapter of the book of Job. 
On his attaining his fiftieth year he died. In 
his time flourished St. Macar, son of the great 
Armenian prince Michael. He succeeded St. 
Macarius in the bishopric of Antioch, and 
performed many eminent works while residing 
in that diocese. He visited Germany and 
Flanders ; in the latter country St. Simeon was 
no less celebrated. He was an Armenian, and 
the son of a general He was educated in a con- 
vent, where the favour of the Almighty was 
shown him whilst extremely young. He tra- 
velled through Italy, France, Spain, and the 
island of Britain, and at length died in the con- 
vent of Benedictines in the city of Mantua. For 
these two last saints see Hist. Book iv, c. 30. 



A. n. 984. About this period Musliel kinu^ of Cams, 
erH4;u. and uncle of king Sumbat died, and was suc- 
ceeded in Ijis authorily by his son Abas. 
Abas, previous to his accession to liie tlirone, 
bore tlie character of an imiorant and idle 
youth, but no sooner did he assume the reins 
of government tlian he displayed such talent 
and knowledge of religious affairs, that all those 
who knew him before were [)erl"ectly astonished. 
lie immediately proceeded to institute schools 
for the instruction of the children of the poor, 
and devoting a consideral)le portion of his time 
to the detection and reform of abuses in his 
kingdom, rendered it a terrestrial paradise. His 
mother, a very devout woman, retired to a con- 
vent of nuns called Thirin, in which was a church 
formed of a single stone. Here she employed 
herself in prayers and meditations, and in 
the course of a short time was translated to 

Immediately after this period Vaspurakan 
was invaded by Abuthelb chief of Golthen at 
the head of a large force. Ashot the Arzrunian, 
who then held the throne of Vaspurakan, 
alarmed at the approach of these foes, sent 
against them Abulkharib the nephew of the 
celebrated general of that name. Abulkharib, 
at the head of all the troops that could be 
mustered, advanced to the province of Chuash, 


nnrl pitched his camp at a place called Bakiar. 
'J'iie cr.vahy having let loose their horses to graze 
toc'v n-pose. Whilst all was thought to be m 
the most perfect safety, Abuthelb with his army 
suddenly appeared and surrounded them. In 
this emergency Abulkharib succeeded in con- 
ducting his men into a fortress not far distant 
from his camp, and there prepared for defence. 
The enemy's troops then plundered all they 
found in the deserted camp, and seized the 
horses which were straying about the place. 
They then approached the castle where the 
Vaspurakanians had taken refuge, and sent in 
a message, declaring upon oath, that they would 
not injure a single individual, provided all 
gave up tlicir arms and came out. The be- 
seiged, trusting to the faith thus plighted them, 
gave up their arms ; but no sooner was this done, 
than violating the confidence placed in them, 
the besiegers rushed upon their defenceless 
victims, und massacred tlie whole with the 
exception of Abulkharib and two other chiefs, 
whom they took to their master Abuthelb. 
These were afterwards released, after being 
] blundered of every tiling valua])lc they had 
about thfir jx.rsons. Shortly after this event, 
the prince of Heir on his return IVom a visit 
which he had made to the Arsharunies, passed 
a village on the frontiers of Vaspurakan, where 

VOL. II. h 


he observed a number of beautiful Armenian 
boys, and immediately gave directions to the 
troops who accompanied him to seize and bear 
them off, w'liich was done. Sarkies, one of 
the Armenian chiefs, being informed of this 
act of violence, set out in pursuit of the 
ravishers. Having overtaken them he demand- 
ed the restoration of the children, when they 
answered him with scorn and taunts. This 
exasperating him, he immediately rushed on 
the party, and fought with such skill and 
courage that he slew a number of them, among 
whom was the prince's son, and obliged the 
remnant to seek safety in flight. The boys 
were rescued and restored to their families. 
The })rince of Heir, incensed and grieved at 
the death of his son, made an appeal to the 
governor of Atropatia, promising to give the 
latter whatever he might require, if he would 
revenge the death of his son. The governor 
of Atropatia, who had before resolved on the 
subjugation of Vaspurakan, readily assented 
to what the prince of Heir demanded, and 
assembling a vast army, of various nations, 
marched to the frontiers of that country. Here 
he halted and divided his forces into three 
bodies, intending to march into the interior 
the following day. One of these bodies was 
to proceed in an easterly direction, another 


to the westward, w^hile he at the head of the 
third would march between the two. He 
declared his intention to put every human 
being he found in Vaspurakan to the sword. 
The next morning, however, he was found dead 
in his tent, upon which his army disbanded 
and thus performed nothing. Shortly after 
Ashot the king died, after sw^aying the sceptre 
of Ve^spurakan fourteen years. As he had no 
sons, the royal authority was exercised by his 
two brothers, Gurghen governor of the Anzeva- 
zies, and Sennacherib governor of the Rush- 
tunians. In the mean time Sumbat kincr of {\-.^-^^^- 
Armenia, elated by the prosperity which he had ^'^ "^^s. 
of late enjoyed, became vain and arrogant, and 
disregarding all decency, and the regulations 
of the church, publicly espoused his own 
niece. At her death, which happened only a 
short time afterward, the king fell ill and 
quickly followed her. He was buried in the 
city of Ani, after a reign of twelve or thirteen 

C H A P T E 11 X. 

T/ic reign of Gagik tlic First, and the pontificates 
of Sarkies and Peter surnanied Ketadarz. 

Gagik the brother of the deceased Sumbat, a. n. nsy. 

. . Ilnlcaii 

succeeded to the crown by his death, and tni 433. 



forthwith assumed the title of Shahinshah. This 
prince was far wiser and a greater lover of 
peace than many of his predecessors. He was 
however by no means deficient in courage when 
occasion required a display of it, as was evident 
in lii^ expulsion of several usurpers, who had 
by force taken possession of certain castles and 
cities, at the latter part of the reign of the late 
monarch. Ife was also a good and zealous 
suj^porter of the church, for he embellished his 
dominions with a number of public places of 
worship, particularly one in the city of Ani, 
which w^as so superb in its structure, and so 
magnificent in its decorations, that contempora- 
ry writers in a rapture called it an earthly 
heaven. His pious queen Catramitey, emulated 
the zeal displayed by her husband, by finishing 
the church of which Sumbat had laid the foun- 
dations, as before related. At this period the 
seat of the spiritual government of the Arme- 
nians was fixed in Ani, the reigning pontiflf 
making it his residence, A. D. 992. 

During the reign of this monarch, the emperor 
Basilius having seized a great number of the 
Armenians situated in his division, transported 
them to the country of the Bulgarians. Shortly 
after the Armenians united with the Bulgarians 
arid revolted, having appointed as their general 
an individual of the name of Samuel, a native 


of Derjan and a chief of the former people 
with whom he had been led into exile. 

Hereupon a war ensued, in which Samuel 
defeating the Greeks troops, drove them out 
of the country, and assumed sovereign authority 
over the Bulgarians. The emperor then entered 
into negotiations of peace, to which Samuel 
agreed, on condition that the former bestowed 
upon him his sister in marriage, in ratification 
of the treaty, and as a surety that it would 
not hereafter be broken. The emperor ap- 
peared to consent, but in room of his sister 
sent a servant maid, accompanied by the me- 
tropolitan of Sebastia. Samuel and the chiefs of 
the Bulgarians having perceived the cheat, burnt 
the metropolitan alive. The emperor exaspe- 
rated at this, marched in person to Bulgaria, 
but being met by Samuel and his troops was 
defeated. He however rallied his army, and in 
a second encounter overthrew Samuel and 
killed him. Another leader was immediately 
appointed, by whom the emperor was again 

About this period the Greeks persecuting the 
Armenians who were in their power on account 
of the difference of their church ceremonies, 
much dispute arose, in which the former ad- 
dressed letters to Catchick the pontiff. As these 
letters were full of insult and invective, Catchick 



A. D. 1)90. 
era 439. 

102 HISTORY or AiaiKMA. 

disdained reply in;^- to them. Some of tlic 
liK lids of the |)()ntitl", liowcvcr, to his gront dis- 
pleasure, returned re plies in his name, eouehed 
in the same unheeoniinpf style as the epistle of 
the Greeks, (,'atehiek after beinjx in the ponti- 
iieate 10 years died, and was buried in Arghina. 

A. I) !i'i2. lie was succeeded bv Sarkies the First, ii friar 


<>.' 441. from the convent of Sevan. lie was a man of the 

mildest manners and lowliest humility, and in 

the dii;\iitie(l situation of pontifi' exhibited the 

simplicity of a hermit. Having discovered some 

relies of the Kipsimian nuns, lie built a church 

near the principal church of Ani, and dedicated 

it to them. Contemporary with Sarkies, lived 

the historian Stephen Taronensis, called also 

Asobk or Asolnik, who by order of the 

pontiff wrote a history of Armenia from its 

oricrin to the year of our Lord 1000. Another 

distinguished individual hved at this period, 

Aristakes Lastivertensis, who wrote, in an 

elegant style, an account of the calamitous 

events which occurred in Armenia during his 

life. In the fourth year of the pontificate of 

Sarkies, and in the month of Caloz (December) 

a most dreadful earthcjuake happened at the 

same time m llashtens, Khorzen, Zophs, Balua 

and Palin, which continued with intermissions 

for seven months, and caused dreadful distress 

in the kingdom, throwing down almost every ob- 


ject above the suiflice of the oroiind. After this *;• ^^- ^^^'- 
tremendous visitation of Providence had ceased, i''=»445. 
David chief of Taics, and who had been appoint- 
ed governor of that country by the emperor, 
having at his disposal a large force, and observ- 
ing that foreigners had usurped the government 
of Manazkert, marched against them, defeated, 
and drove them out of their unjustly acquired 
possessioris. He then peopled it with Georgians 
and Armenians. The foreigners however, stung 
with anguish at the reflection of being dispos- 
sessed of what they conceived their right, hired 
troops from the Modes, Persians, and the people 
of Khorasan, amounting to 100,000 men, with 
which they again entered Manazkert. David, 
on receiving information of this, wrote to Gagik. 
and Gurghen, kings of Armenia and Georgia, 
for assistance to expel the interlopers. Each 
monarch sent him 6,000 men, with whom he 
joined his own troops, and others that were 
furnished him by Abas the king of Carus, 
whicli formed an army amounting to 20,000 
strong. David with this force then advanced a. d. ods. 
toward the frontiers of Apahunians near Ma- cia'447. 
nazkert, and when lie came in sight of the 
multitude that were in tlic ranks of the fo- 
reigners, he |)aused, being, as well as his men, 
somewhat fearful of encountering foes so much 
•superior in point of number. The foreigners 


observiiio- this indecision in the army of tlic 
chief oi" tlic Tuics, immediately attacked it. 
David's men then thro\vin<»' aside all fear im- 
plored the aid of the Almighty, unsheathed 
their swords, and bravely met tht^ assault. 
The combat was obstinately contested, but 
at length victory declared itself for David, 
who drove the enemy with prodigious slaughter 
to the gates of the city of Archesh. The victors 
then returned to the field of battle, and gathered 
immense spoil from the enemy's slain. This 
action only cost David's army five men. 

A. D. ^99. Xiie fame of this orlorious eno^agement bein<^ 
era44s. Spread abroad, greatly raised David in the 
estimation of surrounding: nations. This excited 
the envy and jealousy of the chiefs of the country 
of Taics, and by an abominable piece of impiety 
they cruelly put an end to the life of their 
gallant governor, by poisoning him in the act 
of receiving the sacrament. David just before 
his death, having no children, bequeathed the 
country of Taics to the emperor Basilius. He 
then forgave his murderers and meekly resigned 
his breath, 

A.D. 1003. Immediately after this event Gurghen the 

era 452. Arzruniau and governor of the Anzevazies died, 

leaving three sons all minors, viz. Derenik, 

Gagik, and Ashot. Henceforward Sennacherib, 

his brother, reigned alone in Vaspurakan. 


Some time previous to this, the pernicious 
doctrine of Thondrakians was revived in Ar- 
menia. This schism had its origin about 160 
years before : its author wsls one Sumbat, 
a man of Hcentious morals, and who resided 
for some time in the village of Thondrak in 
the province of the Apahunians, whence he 
derived his surname Thondrakian. Sumbat 
was a layman, but assumed the habit of a 
bishop on commencing to disseminate his 
opinions. He taught tiiat religion was a farce 
and the priesthood a cloak for cheats; that 
all authority was unjust, and that universal 
equality should prevail in the conditions of 
men. He was a voluptuary, and taught that 
sensual pleasure was the only positive good 
within the reach of man. Many people of 
both sexes embraced his mode of thinking, 
and took him for their instructor. His disciples 
were divided into three classes. The first 
residing with him at Thondrak were called 
Thondrakians; the second, living in the village 
of Thulail, were designated Thulailians; the 
third, people of the village ofKhinus who took 
the name of Khinunians. This sect neither 
baptized, prayed, nor performed any of the 
sacred ceremonies of Christianity, despising' 
all forms, although they still retained the name 
of Christians. 


On the first appearance of this schism the 
Armenian pontiffs fulminated their anathemas 
against all who adopted it. It, however, 
continued to exist till the time of Gregorius 
]Magistratus, who succeeded in completely 
rooting it out. Sarkies the pontiff, at this 
period of its revival after a partial death, issued 
an anathema ai^ainst it. 

lie shortly after died, after a pontificate of 
twenty-seven years. His successor was Peter 
the First, snrnamed Ketadarz, brother of a 
former pontiff Catchick. He was a man of 
great wisdom and holiness, and enjoyed a 
liiuh reputation in all the surrounding nations. 
He received the surname of Ketadarz from his 
having miraculously turned the current of a 
river toward its source. He was the author 
of several admired works, consisting of sermons, 
anthems, and elegies on the martyrdonl of the 
primitive C'hiistians. Some of his anthems 
were known in a collection called " Children,'' 
to which succeedins: writers made additions, 
enhancing their value by thus putting them in 
contrast with more modern compositions on 
the same subjects. In tlie second year of 
Peter's pontificate, Gagik king of Armenia died 
in ripe old age, after a prosperous reign of 
thirty years. 




The reign of Johannes Sumbat. 

Johannes, surnamed Sumbat, the eldest son ^P'^^^'^' 
of the preceding monarch, succeeded to the era 469. 
throne of Armenia on the death of his father. 
This prince possessed great abilities, but they 
were of that kind which were more calculated 
to shed lustre on the character of a private 
individual than to adorn the diadem of a king. 
In fact, Johannes was of an indolent habit 
of body, increased by his excessive corpulence, 
which prevented his ever engaging in military 
exploits, and he was entirely divested of all 
desire to distinguish himself as a warlike cha- 
racter. His brother Ashot was exactly opposite 
in disposition to the king. He had before 
displayed great talent for command, and a 
courage which feared no opposition. He also 
possessed a ])erson admirably suited for the 
fatigues o.r war, large, well-j)roportioned, and 
of a majestic height. Ashot, despising the 
(juiet nature of his brother's character, openly 
aspired to the crown. This coming to the 
knowledge of Gurghie the Georgian king, he 


sent a congratulatory letter by his ambassador 
to Johannes, together with a royal crown, and 
thus recognized his right to the kingdom. 
Hereupon Ashot publicly declared his pre- 
tensions and flew to arms to support them. 
Considerable commotion then arose in the 
nation, but the majority of the people sided 
with the king, and flocking to his standard, 
quickly swelled his army to 40,000 infantry 
and 20,000 cavalry. Ashot daunted at this 
large force, fled into Vaspurakan, the king of 
which, Sennacherib, furnished him with a large 
army, with which he again entered Armenia, 
and marched toward Ani, near which he pitched 
his camp. Johannes, on the approach of his 
brother Ashot with this large force, felt alarmed ; 
but the Georgian ambassador encouraged him 
to rr^ve battle immediately, declaring that he 
would bring the rebel into the king's presence 
with as much ease as if he were a kid. 
Battle accordingly was given, and during the 
fray, the Georgian, who was armed from head 
to foot, loudly called out for Ashot, daring him 
to single combat. The latter hereupon imme- 
diately proceeded to the spot where the chal- 
lenger stood; a smart contest ensued, which 
ended in the defeat and death of the Geor- 
gian, who was literally divided in two by a 
terrific stroke given by Ashot on his head. The 


latter then encouraging his men, drove the 
king's forces off the held, and pursued them 
to the river Akhurian. He then advanced 
and laid siege to Ani. The Pahlavie prince 
Vasak, and his brother Vahram, with the 
Georgian kini;-, Peter the pontiff', and the 
Armenian chiefs, then interposed and effected a 
reconciliation between the king and his brother, 
obliging each to give the other an oath as a 
proof kA their sincerity. It was agreed that 
Johannes should continue to reign, but that 
Ashot should act as his lieutenant. Peace a. d. 1021. 


was then made, yet many of the Armenian *^''* '*'°* 
chiefs regarded Johannes with contempt and 
dislike. They found means to excite Gurghie 
the Georgian king against him, and the latter 
secrelly sent troops to Armenia with directions 
to spread a snare for the king;, and endeavour to 
capture liim without coming to blows. This 
was done, and Johannes in a journey he w..s 
making to his winter residence, was seized and 
carried to Georgia. ITen^ he lay in confinement 
for a few days, but on his giving Gurghie three 
castles he was released. Ashot in the mean 
time, tormented hv ihc desire of reigning, began 
to devise means of attaining: his ardently desired 
object, lie determined to murder his brother 
rlandestinclv, and (or this purpose he caused 
a tiaj) to be Kjiiiied ni ins bed-chamber, and 


then takiiii^ to, his bed, sent to Johannes to 
inform liini that he was sick even unto death. 
The affectionate Johannes immediately set off 
to visit him, but no sooner had he advanced 
to the bed on which Ashot lay, than the floor 
gave way, and he was precipitated into the 
trap prepared for him. Johannes begged hard 
for his life, but it would have gone hard with 
him if one of the partizans of Ashot, and who 
was privy to his designs, had not relented. This 
mdividual, Apirat, a powerful chief, forthwith 
drew the king out of the trap and took him to 
Ani, where he placed him again on his throne, 
declaring that it was far better to have a quiet 
and wise king, than a ruthless though warlike 
tyrant. Apirat then, apprehensive of the future 
machinations of Ashot, avoided him, and taking 
his family sought refuge in Duin, then governed 
by the Caliph's deputy Apusvar. The latter, 
at the instigation of certain calumniators, re- 
garded Apirat with suspicion, and inviting him 
one day to his house, on his arrival there caused 
him to be treacherously murdered. On the news 
of this fatal event reaching Johannes he became 
greatly grieved, and immediately provided for 
his family. He left two sons, Vasak and Abul- 
jahap, the former afterwards married the daugh- 
ter of Gregorius Magistratus, and had four 
sons, viz. Gregory, Hasan, Abuljahap and Par- 


sick. The youngest of these succeeded Vika- 
yaser in the pontificate. The ill conduct of 
Ashot, and particularly the dark plot he had 
laid against his brother's life, served to estrange 
most of the Armenian chiefs from him. On 
this account, and finding his enemies daily 
becoming more numerous, he retired to Con- 
stantinople, and having succeeded in winning the 
good opinion of the emperor Basilius, obtained 
from him a supply of Greek troops with which 
he returned to Armenia. He quickly subdued 
the chiefs who had, vvith more than ordinary 
rancour, offered opposition, and ranging the 
country in his capacity of lieutenant, cleared it 
of all depredators, and in the course of his tour 
performed many gallant exploits. He then 
dismissed with appropriate gifts the Greek 
troops, and indulging in relaxation, gave himself 
up to the enjoyment of pleasure. 

About this period the Scythians made an a. d. 1021. 
irruption into Media, from which they marched era'47'0. 
to Vasj)urakan. Sennacherib the king, hereupon 
sent his troops under the command of his general 
Shaj)uh to op[)osc the invaders. These latter 
had a i)eculiar way of fighting; they always 
avoided a chjsc C(^mbat, but keeping at a 
distance they had always a decided advantage, 
by throwing their arrows with such precision 
and quick succession that few could withstand 


them. Shapuh observinj^ this, instantly met 
the adverse army, and brought his men to the 
charge. The Scythians surprised at this un- 
expected assault, fled, and afterwards evacuated 
the country. Shapuh then returned to Sen- 
nacherib. The latter, on the issue of this short 
war, began to think of the prediction of St. 
Nierses, and sending for the chiefs of the country 
and his own relations, proposed to them to 
make over Vaspurakan to the emperor Basilius, 
and to solicit in its stead Sebastia with its 

All consenting, the king sent his son David 
to Constantinople as ambassador, to negotiate 
the exchange and bearing 300 mules laden with 
gifts of immense value. The emperor Basilius 
readily agreed to the proposal, and forthwith 
caused the proper papers to be gotten ready, 
wherein all the country of Sebastia, extending 
to the borders of the Euphrates, were conveyed 
to Sennacherib and his heirs. Basilius then, 
to shew his regard for David, adopted him 
as his son, and dispatched him back to his 
father with the news of the success of his 
negotiation. On his return Sennacherib made 
a regular transfer, properly recorded on paper, 
of Vaspurakan to the emperor, comprising 
4000 towns and villages, ten cities and seventy- 
two castles, but he still retained the convents 


in that country, with the lands appropriated 
for their support. After this was done, the 
king assembled his family, troops, and about 
one-third of the inhabitants, amounting to about 
400,000 souls, with their property, and pro- 
ceeded to take possession of Sebastia. This 
occurred A. D. 1021, H. E. 470. Sennacherib 
also carried with him the holy cross of Varag, 
and built a convent for its reception, which 
he designated the convent of the holy cross. 
Many of the clergy also accompanied him 
to Sebastia, among whom were several friars 
of Narek, who took with them the body of St. 
Gregorius Narekensis, and afterwards erected 
a convent which they called Narek, where 
they deposited their precious relic. 

In a short time after, the Scythians, under 
their prince Tughril Beg, entered the province 
of Nig, where they committed horrid devas- 
tations, burning the churches, and forcing the 
inhabitants to deny their faith. On their 
advancing further into Armenia they were 
opposed by Vasak the Pahlavie, general of 
the Armenians, and father of Gregorius Ma- 
gistratus, who, at the head of 500 men, issued 
out of tlie castle of Bujncy to .■ittack them. 
On Vasak's approaching the Scythians, a man 
of gigantic stature and strength, wlu) in con- 
sequence of his ))rowess was called by his 

VOL. II. i 


fellows " the seven wolves," advanced from their 
ranks, and dared the Armenians to sins^le 
combat. Vasak, hereupon, calling upon the 
name of the Lord, rushed upon the Scythian, 
and after a short conflict stretched him dead 
on the plain, having severed his head in two 
by a violent and skilfully directed blow. The 
Scythians, irritated at this spectacle, charged 
the Armenians, but being repulsed after a 
bloody fight, in which each side lost an equal 
number, they separated by mutual consent. 
Vasak then returned to a place called Ser- 
kevley, where he immediately offered up praises 
to the Almighty for the success with which 
he had withstood the invaders. While in the 
act of prayer one of the enemy who had 
concealed himself there, hurled a stone at him, 
which hitting him on the head, killed him on 
the spot. Vasak's brother Valiram succeeded 
him as general of the Armenians. After this 
the Scythians under Tughril Beg marched 
into Persia, which they entirely subjugated, 
and their prince took possession of the throne 
and reigned under the title of Sultan. 

About this period a circumstance occurred 
which produced a very painful sensation in Ar- 
menia. An unknown individual continually wan- 
dered over the country, crying out in the most 
doleful tone. Woe is me! Woe is me! and there- 


with forctellin<^ the destruction of the kingdom. 
This sad event had been predicted a few years 
before by a monk named Johannes Cozern, 
who was the author of many valuable works, 
and composed many astronomical and chrono- 
logical tables. 

In these times of fear and dread the emperor a.^- 1022. 

*• Hairan 

Basilius liaving marched to Chaldea, Johannes era 471. 
the Armenian king, who had for a long time pre- 
vious been in continual apprehension of a hostile 
visit from the Scythians, sent Peter the pontiff to 
liim, to propose that if he could protect Armenia 
from these terrible foes, he would engage to de- 
liver to tlie Creeks at his death the city of Ani, 
witli the province in which it stood. The 
emperor consented to tliis, and received from 
Peter a ))roniise in writing for the delivery of 
the city and province after his death. While 
the pontiff was with the emperor, Christmas 
came on, at which time it was customary to 
perform the ceremony of blessing the waters. 
On this occasion the emperor, who had been 
made to ]jcli(;vc thai the Aimenian form of 
blessing was vain and ridiculous, directed Peter 
to perform the cu>tomary ceremony on a river 
that was contiguous. 1'lie holy pontiff then 
proceeded in [)resence of all lo i^ive tlie blessing, 
in the act of wliicli, ujiile he Vv'as ])oiM'ing out 
the holy chrism, and making the sign of ihc 



cross, the current of the river stopped, and the 
waters rolled back toward their source, to the 
astonishment of all the beholders. The empe- 
ror, on observing this miracle, was amazed, and 
bestowing the greatest honour and respect on 
the blessed pontiff, permitted him to return to 
his country. When the emperor on his return 
to Constantinople arrived in the province of 
Basen, a rebellion broke out amongst his troops, 
countenanced by king Sennacherib. The rebels 
appointed one Phocas emperor, which obliged 
Basilius to seek shelter in the castle of Mazdat. 
Shortly after, however, Sennacherib, being ap- 
prehensive of danger to himself in the event of 
these troubles, secretly murdered Phocas, and 
sent his head to Mazdat. All things then returned 
to their former state, and Basilius quietly proceed- 
A. D. 1026. ed to Constantinople. Two years after this event 
era 471. Scnnachcrib died, A. D. 1026, H. E. 475 ; at his 
last hour he directed his sons, David, Atom, 
Abusahl, and Constantine, to take his remains 
after his decease to Varag, and there to inter 
them, restoring to that convent the holy cross 
which he had formerly taken from it. This 
was accordingly done, and David his eldest 
son succeeded to the throne. Shortly after 
Peter the pontiff came to Sebastia and there 
^■^i^it?n About this period Constantine, the brother 

pia 477. 


of Basilius, and who had lately succeeded him 
as emperor, having fallen sick, directed an Ar- 
menian clergyman to be sought for and brought 
to him. His desires being complied with, a 
priest of the name of Kiraku was found and 
brought into his presence. As soon as the 
emperor saw him, he drew out of his bosom 
the paper formerly given by the Armenian king 
Johannes to Basilius, to secure the delivery of 
Ani, on certain conditions, which we be- 
fore detailed, and delivering it to the priest, 
conjured him, in the name of the Lord, to 
restore it to Johannes; declaring at the same 
time that he never would consent to take advan- 
tage of the distress of that monarch. The priest 
received the document, but did not deliver it as 
directed, keeping it by him, to use on the first 
opportunity for his own private advantage. 

Constantine died shortly after, and was suc- 
ceeded in the imperial throne by his son-in-law 
Romanus the Third, who subsequently gave 
his niece in marriage to Johannes the Armenian 
king. On the death of Romanus, which 
occurred A. D. 1034, H. E. 383, Michael 
became emperor, to whom the iniquitous priest 
Kiraku gave that paper so solemnly entrusted 
to him by Constantino. Michael overjoyed 
at the contents of the document, conferred 
signal favours on the priest, and waited for 

i 3 



the death of Johannes to seize upon the lands 
stipulated to be given to the Greeks. 
^'^ultfn ^" ^^^^^ vear Abas king- of Caruz died and 
ci»4r8. ^vas succeeded by his son Gagik. On the 
news of this event reaching Peter the pontitf, 
he quitted Sebastia, and ])roceeded to Cars, 
whence he returned to Ani. The inliahitants 
of this city, however, as well as the king, on 
the arrival of the pontiff, regarded him with 
an eye of suspicion, in consequence of the 
long period that he had been absent from them, 
wdiich awakening in his bosom a fear for his 
safety, induced him to retire to Vaspurakan. 
Here he remained shut up in the convent of 
Zor four years ; at the expiration of which, the 
Armenians, indi2:nant at his continual absence 
from his duties, decoyed him into their power, 
and imprisoned him in the fortress of Bujney, 
where he remained one year and five months. 
ih!\cAn Deoskoros, abbot of Sanahin, was then by 
era 484. Q^dcY of the king appointed pontiff, but the 
bishops would not recognize his authority; 
neither would they permit his name to be 
mentioned before the altar, as it was customary 
to do with the reigning pontiff. The aspirants 
for the priesthood would not suffer him to 
ordain them, and indeed all the clergy were 
dis£iusted at his nomination. Deoskoros 
however, disregarding these public signs of 


discontent, made himself still more unpopular, 
by ordaining and consecrating the lowest and 
vilest of the people, priests and bishops. He also 
restored several bishops who had been formerly 
expelled from their dioceses for their vices. 
Hie clergy observing these irregularities and 
disorders in the church, convened a meeting, 
from whence they issued an anathema against 
the king and chiefs who had raised Deoskoros 
to his undeserved dignity. The chiefs, together 
with the king, alarmed at the curse thus openly 
pronoiuiced against them, wished to restore 
Peter to his pontifical chair. For this purpose 
they sent ior him, and reestablished him in 
his office. On this occasion they also sent 
for Joseph the pontiff' of the Aluans, and con- 
vening a meeting in the city of Ani, composed 
of 4,000 of the most respectable of the clergy 
and laity, a})pointed him to preside and examine 
the conduct of Deoskoros. The assembly 
havinL,^ found Deoskoros guilty of what was 
alledged against him, degraded him from the 
clerical office, as also all those who had been 
ordained by him. 

Some lime previous to this, David surnamed a'.fi. 
Anholiu, nephew of Johannes, and king of the *-''ii 485. 
(l»i<j:ars, greallv distinguished himself as a war- 
like and skiltul priuce. Having concpicred the 
Armni:;m Aluaus, he united that people with 


the Gugars, and reigned over both. The pros* 
perity of David however excited the envy and 
jealousy of Apiisvar the chief of Duin, who 
making an alliance with Tughril king of 
Persia, obtained troops from him, and at the 
head of 150,000 men invaded the country 
of the Aluans, despoiling every place as he 
advanced, and forcibly circumcising a number 
of his male captives. Elated at the success 
he met with, he haughtily sent a messenger to 
David requiring him and his family immediately 
to renounce Christianity and embrace Islamism. 
David on the receipt of this message, imme- 
diately dispatched ambassadors to the kings of 
Armenia and Aphlazes, to entreat them to join 
him with their forces in defence of their common 
religion. He also wrote to Joseph the pontiff 
of the Aluans, to join his camp with his priests, 
determined, as he declared, that both clergy 
and laity should at once perish or overcome the 
enemies of their faith. The Armenians and 
Aphlazes having joined his army, David set 
out at the head of the whole, and quickly met 
Apusvar on an extensive plain. Here David 
formed his order of battle, directing the clergy 
instead of arms to carry in their hands crucifixes 
and copies of the holy Gospel. The Persians 
then moved to the attack, and on their drawing 
near, the priests exclaimed, as if with one voice. 


" arise, Lord, and help us for thy holy name!" 
The Christian soldiers on hearing this, as had 
been preconcerted, rushed impetuously on their 
foes, and with an enthusiasm that nothing could 
withstand carried death and destruction into 
the Persian ranks. Horrible confusion prevailed, 
and after a faint attempt to resist they fled in 
terror. For five days the Christians pursued 
the infidels, and slaughtered an immense num- 
ber of them. Then gathering a vast quantity 
of spoil, they retired to their respective countries 
glorifying God for their success. 

About this period the Greek governor of Vas- j^^ |^_^J^ 
purakan attacked the city of Berkrey, which the •^'« ^87 
Persians had recently taken, and having recap- 
tm-ed it, imprisoned its governor Khutrick ; this 
individual sent news of this event to Persia, 
upon which a large force suddenly arrived before 
the city, and before proper measures could be 
taken ior its defence, it was attacked and taken. 
Khuirick was liberated from his prison, and 
most of the inhabitants massacred. An Arme- 
nian ciiief of the name ofCianzie, having heard 
of this event, quickly levied a few troops from 
amongst his own countrymen and the Greeks, 
and suddenly entering lierkrcy, took the in- 
fidels by surprise, and killtMl a great number 
of tluMu. On the first alarm, however, a few 
of lliem with Khutrick ran to the citadel, in 



which they shut themselves. Here they suffered 
horrible privations, being scantily provided 
\viih provisions and having no means of pro- 
curing water. The Greeks and Armenians 
knowing this did not trouble themselves about 
besieging them, but gave themselves up to the 
indulgence of pleasure. News of the capture 
of Berkrey having reached some of the Persian 
chiefs who were situated in its vicinity, they 
hastily collected their forces, and marching 
with the greatest secrecy and rapidity, took 
the city by surprise, and put to the sword 
every Greek and Armenian that fell into their 
hands. The brave Ganzie was amongst those 
who fell, but his son Tachat, with a number 
of others, succeeded in effecting his escape. 
Khutrick and his companions were then relieved 
from their confinement in the citadel ; and so 
wild was the former in his rage, that having 
caught a number of Christians, he caused them 
to be butchered in a trench made for the pur- 
pose, until their blood filled it, when he satis- 
fied his tiger heart by bathing in it. The 
following year, however, the Greeks again 
captured Berkrey. 
A. D. 1039. In this year died Johannes kinsf of Armenia, 
«ra 4S8. after a reign of twenty years. He left one son 
behind him. Shortly after this event his 
brother Ashot died, leaving a son fourteen 


years of age behind him. Two years before 
this David the Arzrunian, king of Sebastia, died, 
and as he had no male children, he was suc- 
ceeded by his brother Atom, assisted in the 
government by his youngest brother Abusahl. 


The reign of Gagik the Second, last of the 
Bao-ratian hiniis. 

For two years after the decease of the ad. 1039. 

-' Haican 

late king, there was an interregnum in Ar- era 488. 
menia, occasioned by the different views taken 
by the chiefs respecting the propriety of fill- 
ins: the throne, and their endless feuds with 
each other. One of them, however, named 
Vest Sarkies, prince of the Seunics, having 
obtained a preponderating power and influence 
in the nation, aspired to the crown. While a. d. 1040. 
affairs were in agitation about the validity of cra48». 
his pretensions, the emperor Michael being 
apprized of the death of Johannes, sent an 
ambassador to Armenia to demand Ani and its 
province, according to the stii)ulation made by 
the late monarch. The Armenians refused to 
acknowledge the justice of the claim, upon 


which the Greeks invaded the country. Four 
times, with immense forces, and aided by 
Sarkies, did they commit horrid devastations. 
On the fourth invasion, when the Greek army 
arrived in the province of Shirak, the Arme- 
nian chiefs assembled together and appointed 
the old Vahram, the Pahlavie general, to lead 
them against their enemies. Vahram then se- 
lected a body of 30,000 infantry and 20,000 
cavalry, all strong hardy men, and forming 
them mto three divisions, led them against 
the Greeks. A battle ensued in which the 
invaders were routed with great slaughter. So 
great was the effusion of blood in this fight, that 
on its flowing to the river Akhurian, it is said, 
the waters were dyed completely red. Some 
of the fugitives being pursued by the victors, 
threw themselves into the river before-men- 
tioned and were drowned; others escaped into 
desert places, where they perished through 
want : the remainder implored mercy and 
were spared. When the news of the destruc- 
tion of this army reached Constantinople, the 
Greeks determined to take the most signal 
vengeance on the Armenians, butsome civil com- 
motions breaking out amongst them immediately 
after, they were obliged to suspend the prose- 
cution of their design. In the mean time Vest 

A. D. 1042. ° 

Haicaa Sarkics continued plotting for the attainment 


of the crown of Armenia, and by his machina- 
tions obliged the young CJagik, the late king's 
nephew, to flee the country. Hereupon Sarkies 
caused himself to be recognized king, and fixed 
himself in the city of Ani. Whilst this was 
going forward, Vahram the general, \vitli his 
kinsmen and about tlinty other chiefs, among 
whom was Gregorius Magistratus, the nephew 
of the former, met together, and called to 
their assembly Peter the pontiff, when they 
all agreed to call young Gagik to the throne. 
Hereupon they sent tor him and bringinij^ him 
into the city of Ani, there crowned him kin"- 
of Armenia, in the sixteenth year of his a^e. 
This occurred A. I). 1042, H. E. 40]. This 
))rince, although of so immature an age, was, it 
may be said, ripe in wisdom. He was well 
skilled in the sciences, and deeply read in 
Greek literature, as well as the holy Scrip- 
tures. Ha\ iiig been in the hands of a wise and 
religious governor from his infancy, his mind 
had been early imbued with a love of wisdom 
and piety. In person he was of a eom- 
jnaiifliivj: height and pleasiiio- countenance, 
in natural endowments (piiek and penetrating, 
in manners open, candid, and courteous, and in 
habits abstemious, perseverinu', and |)ru(lent. In 
thedisordered times ill which he lived, and amidst 
the dissolute peoi)lc with whom he was obliged 


to be in constant intercourse, contemporary 
writers make use of a simile, and say he shone 
as the only precious stone his kint]^dom contained. 
The Almighty however had decreed the speedy 
destruction of the kint]jdom, and (iagik's virtues 
were not suihcient to suspend the operation 
of that award. When Vest Sarkies observed 
that Ga^ik was firnilv estal)lished in the throne 
whicii he fondly hoped to ])ossess himself, 
he began to fear for his own safety, and col- 
lecting his adherents, retired to the citadel 
of Ani. The king on being informed of this, 
went alone to Sarkies, and by his wisdom 
convinced him of the inutility of attempt- 
ing to withstand his power, and persuaded 
him to evacuate the post he had taken. 
Sarkies with his followers then proceeded to 
the castle of Surmarey, but stung with anguish 
at the disappointment of his dearest hopes, 
he commenced depredations on the adjacent 
country. Gagik hearing of this was highly exas- 
perated, and assembling a few resolute men, 
set out in pursuit of tlie rebel. Having reached 
him, he attacked his trooj)s, beat them, and 
took Sarkies prisoner, whom he bound, and 
taking him to Ani, threw him into prison. 
Shortly after, however, the king was induced 
by the interposition of the friends of Sarkies 
to release him ; nay, he did more, for when 


this chief expressed contrition for what he had 
done, and made the most positive assurances 
of his future obedience, Gagik made him his 
friend, and retained him near his person. After 
this the king made a tour through his dominions, 
regulating and reforming whatever needed reform 
in the state in which he found the different cities, 
towns, and villages. Shortly after every thing 
had been placed in a state of ordei, Armenia 
was invaded by a numerous horde of Scythians. 
Gagik immediately assembled an army of 
16,000 men, and advancing against the enemy, 
met them near the river Hurastan, on the 
banks of which they lay encamped; the Arme- 
nians being on the opposite side. Gagik having 
taken his measures, placed 6,000 of his men 
in ambush, and then with the remainder pre- 
tended to flee, as if terrified by the sight of 
the enemy. The Scythians gave into the 
snare, and fancying they were pusuing a party 
of fear-stricken fugitives, immediately crossed 
the river and engaged ardently in following the 
Armenians. On a sudden the pursuers were 
assailed by those who were in ambush, and at the 
same moment Gagik with the main body turned 
and charged . The most horrible slaughter ensued, 
for the enemy only studying means of escape, 
offered no resistance. Multitudes were drowned 
in the attempt to recross the river, and a few 
made their escape to Corchais. Here they 

1'2S HISTORY or aumf.xia. 

received iarge reinforcements, and after a little 
rest invaded Vaspurakan. On their entry into 
the province of Thorevan, they were opposed 
by a very powerful n)an named Lion Catch ick 
at the head of seventy men. This Catcliick 
had a son named Tshkhanik wliom he tenderly 
loved, and on liis setting- out to oppose tlic 
invaders he insisted upon the latter remain- 
in'^- at home. The youth, unable to endure 
tlie anxiety he felt about the safety of his 
father, shortly after the departure of the latter 
set out to join him. He arrived at the moment 
when his father was engaired in a warm 
struggle with the Scythians, and giving way 
to the ardour of his youth rushed into the 
thickest of the fidit. Ishkhanik was most 
unfortunately slain in presence of Catchick, 
which awakening in the bosom of the latter 
all the grief that the fondest love could inspire, 
rendered him totally insensible to any other 
object but his son's bloody corpse : his trusty 
weapon fell from his hand, and at the same 
moment he was struck to the ground by a 
host of swords. Catchick's men on seeing the 
fate of their leader fled. The enemy then 
despoiled the province and retired to their 
country. Catchick however left two sons be- 
hind him, who at the period of the death of 
their father were in Constantinople. Their 
names were Hasan and Chunchluk (the bird). 


these young men, as soon as they heard 
the tragical end of their father and brother, 
obtained 5,000 men from the emperor, and 
set forward to Thorevan to revenge their 
deaths. On their arrival in this province they 
found the Scythians had departed, and were 
then ill the province of Hier. Without delay 
thcv advanced thither, where they found their 
enemies already prepared to receive them. 
On the armies meeting, Hasan and Chunchluk 
called aloud and demanded the murderers of 
their father and brother. Upon this two Scy- 
thians of gigantic bulk issued out from the 
enemy's rank, and exclaimed in a haughty and 
taunting- tone, "We are the individuals who 
slew your father and brother. You, it appears, 
are ambitious of the same fate, and come to 
perish by the same hands.' Hasan and Chunch- 
luk, urged to fury by the sight of the murderers 
and tiic tauntiuL^ language they used, without 
deigning a reply rushed upon them. The 
conflict was short between simple courage 
and valour inspired by filial and fraternal piety. 
The Scvthians both perished at the same mo- 
ment, the two brothers splitting them in halves, 
by two well directed blows. Their troops then 
charged, and the barbarians after a loss of 
3,000 of their bravest troops, took to flight. The 
brothers then returned to their country. Some 
VOL. rr. k 



time after the elder, Hasan, died, leavin^^ a 
son named Abulkliurib, who afterwards on going 
to Constantinople was received with kindness 
by the emperor, who a})pointed him governor 
of the city of Tarsus and all its dependencies 
in Cilicia. 


The eaik of Gagik from his kiiigdom. 

AD. in43. Gagik by a prudent management of the 
era 492. Fcvenues of his kingdom, and a just administra- 
tion of the government, became exceedingly 
powerful and popular. Monomachus who had 
succeeded Michael the Fifth in the imperial 
throne at Constantinople, about this period 
renewed his claims to the city of Ani, on the 
strength of the old document which Johannes 
had given to one of the preceding emperors. 
Messengers having arrived from Monomachus 
to Gagik, urging the delivery of Ani to the 
Greeks, the king replied, ** I will in all cases 
prove my attachment to your majesty as far 
as I can, consistent with my dignity as an 
independent prince; but I can never be pre- 
vailed upon quietly to relinquish my paternal 
inheritance to any individual!" The emperor 



again and again sent messengers on this^ 
subject, but the king was inflexible in his de- 
termination to retam his capital. Upon this 
Monomachus sent into Armenia a large force 
under the command of his general Asita. They 
were opposed, defeated, and driven out of 
the country. The emperor sent another army 
thither under the command of Nicholas, but 
they were as unsuccessful as the former, 
being routed in a general engagement. Mo- 
nomachus then wrote to Apusvar the infidel 
governor of Duin, soliciting him to ravage 
Armenia with his troops, so as to weaken the 
power of the king. Gagik, however, by means 
of valuable gifts gained Apusvar to his interests. 
Then lookin^r about him, he suspected that Vest ad.io44. 

'^ ^ Haicaa 

Sarkies was the instigator of these continual era 493. 
aggressions of the Greeks, and seizing him 
was about to put him to death. Hereupon 
Sarkies declared that Gregorius Magistratus 
was in the interest of the Greeks, and that he 
was perfectly innocent. This created enmity 
between the king and Gregorius, and saved 
Sarkics's life. Gregorius being apprehensive 
of his safety quitted his native place Bujney 
and flefl to Taron, whence he proceeded to 
Constantino])le. Here, having at any early age 
become a proficient in Greek literature, he was 
much honoured and respected by the emperor. 



who conferred upon him some public office, 
from which he was called Magistratus or ma- 
gistrate. Gregorius then applied himself to 
literature, translated a number of Greek works 
into Armenian, and wrote several elegant treatises 
on various subjects. He had four sons, viz. 
Vahram, Vasak, Basilius, and Philip. All these 
were employed by the Greek government, and 
the eldest, Vahram, after exercising the office 
of his father for some time, became pontiff, and 
took the name of Gregory Vikayaser (lover 
of martyrs). Gagik having heard that Gre- 
gorius was much honoured by the emperor, 
felt convinced that he actually was the author 
of that monarch's hostility against him, yet 
on the former writing to him in defence of 
his innocence, the king felt that he was unjust 
in his suspicions and became pacified. In the 
mean time Sarkies never ceased trying to make 
Gagik believe that Gregorius was guilty. This 
wicked man also created enmity between the 
king and the pontiff; and on all occasions 
where he mixed with the other chiefs, he en- 
deavoured to vilify the character of his master 
and make him an object of hatred. Having 
formed a cabal with several of the chiefs, he 
with their consent privately wrote to the em- 
peror, informing him that now was a favourable 
period to take Ani, which might be done by 



a little artifice. Monomachus at his instigation Ha?c^!»^^^' 
then wrote a friendly letter to Gagik, inviting "** ''^^• 
him to come on a visit to Constantinople. 
This invitation was declined by the king. Upon 
which the emperor again wrote to him, pressing 
him to come thither, and assuring him on oath 
that no harm was intended him. This im- 
portunity of Monomachus only served to sharpen 
the suspicion of Gagik, increased by the sug- 
gestions of Vahan the Pahlavie, and some other 
chiefs who were attached to him, and who 
advised him not on any account to quit the 
country. ** For," said they, '* when you depart 
the Greeks will seize upon Ani!" The cabal 
however, with Sarkies at their head, were con- 
tinually urging him to go ; and on his appearing 
to doubt the safety of the city, they sent for 
the pontiff, and before him solemnly declared 
they would not permit the Greeks to take 
Ani. They also made solemn oaths on the 
sacrifice of the altar, in the church, to the same 
ett'ect, and delivered written declarations of the 
same nature to Peter the pontiff. 

Gagik, confiding in these solemn assurances, 
and fearful that these chiefs would rebel if he 
did not comply with their request, determined 
to go to Constantinople, lie forthwith made 
over the city to the particular charge of the 
pontitt", appointing one Apirat his favourite as 



as the governor, placing under his charge the 
Armenian army. He gave his palace in charge 
to Vest Sarkies, and then accompanied by a 
few troops and the most devoted of his friends, 
set out on his journey. He arrived in Con- 
stantinople in the fourth year of his reign. 
On his approach to this city the Greek nobles 
came out in great pomp to receive him, and 
with great respect and honour conducted him 
to the emperor, who gave him such a reception 
as was due to a king of Armenia. After a few- 
days residence here Monomachus put to him 
the old and much agitated question about 
the city of Ani, offering if Gagik would consent 
to give it up, to place in his possession the 
city of Melitiney in Armenia Minor, with the 
province in which it stood. Gagik refused; 
and the emperor violating all faith placed him 
in confinement on an island. On the news 
of this reaching Armenia, the chiefs were di- 
vided into two factions, one urging the delivery 
of the city to the Greeks, the other advising 
its being retained. After considerable dispute, 
the former party prevailed on the latter to 
join with them in their opinion. They then 
unanimously wrote to the emperor, sending 
him the keys of the city and the royal mansions, 
saying, " Henceforward the city of Ani is yours, 
and all the country lying to the eastward of it!" 


On the receipt of these the emperor drew ^;P^^°^^- 
Gagik from his confinement, and shewed him '''^^^'■^^^ 
the letter he had received from the Armenian 
chiefs; when, after some consultation, the king 
consented to all that Monomachus required; 
who, in lieu of Ani, gave him the cities of 
Pizu, Khorzen and Likandia, with lands on 
the frontiers of Cappadocia, together with a 
magnificent palace in Constantinople, and a 
pension from the Greek government. 

Thus was the kingdom of Armenia completely 
destroyed, nothing more of it remaining in the 
possession of its exiled sovereign, who, con- 
sumed by care, mourned over the downfall of 
his nation and his house. 

Gagik resided for some time in Constantinople, 
where with the consent of the emperor he 
married the daughter of David the Arzrunian, 
formerly king of Sebastia. He afterwards retired 
to his city of Pizu, where he built a convent, 
to which he often resorted to weep in secret 
over the woes of his country. He had two sons 
born some time afterwards, named Johannes 
and David. 

On the exile ofGagik,Apusvar the chief of Duin a. d. 1047 

1 A • 11- Hfiican 

began to persecute the Armenians, compelling era 496. 
many to renounce Christianity, on account of 
which grief and mourning overspread the land. 
Vahrara the Pahlavie having observed this con- 



ductofApusvar, assembled a few choice Greek 
and Armenian troops, with which he attacked 
the tyrant and drove him to the gates of Duin. 
Here he made a stand and a dreadful contest 
ensued, in which the brave Vahram and his 
son Gregory were killed. Vahram at this 
period was eighty years of age, and on the 
interment of his remains in the convent of 
Sanahin, a brilliant light descended from heaven 
and illumined his grave in a most miraculous 
and beautiful manner. This old warrior was 
an admirable exception to the base, degraded 
and treacherous nobility who now disgraced 
Armenia. His sword in all cases of emer- 
gency proved a safeguard to his country, and 
it was not until he found all further oppo- 
sition vain, that he consented to its disgraceful 
transfer to the Greek government. His at- 
tachment to the king of Armenia will always 
be fondly recollected by those of his now 
dispersed countrymen to whom friendship 
once plighted is sacred ; and the gallant exploit 
with which he closed his honourable career in 
this life, will ever be justly appreciated by 
all true lovers of philanthropy. At his death 
a governor was sent to the city of Ani from 
Greece named Camenas, who on his arrival 
drove from thence Peter the pontiff. The 
latter having appointed bishop Catchick to act 


as his deputy, took refuge in the city of Arzn. 
A few days after his arrival here, he was seized 
by order of the emperor, and confined in the 
castle of Khaltoy Arich. His nephew Catchick 
was taken about the same time and placed 
in another castle called Siavkar, or the black 
rock. Some time afterwards they, together with 
some other bishops and priests, were dispatched 
to Constantinople, where the emperor allotted 
them a residence and appointed them pensions 
for their maintenance, being determined to 
destroy the nation entirely. Peter, after re- 
maining at Constantinople three years, was 
taken to Sebastia by Atom the Arzrunian, 
who pledged himself to the emperor that he 
should not escape. He resided with Atom 
for three years, when the latter allotted him 
a place of retirement in the convent of the 
holy cross, where he lived five years longer. 



The slaughter of the Armenians hij Tugliril, and 
the sever it 1/ exercised npon them hy Afonojtiachus. 

During the first three years of tlie exile a. r).i048. 

•' Hniran 

of Gagik, the troops of Tughril twice made era 497. 
incursions into Armenia. The first time their 
forces amounted to 100,000 men, with which 


they desolated twenty-four provinces, as far 
as Basen. Tlie second time they came in^ 
greater numbers, their army amounting to 
200,000, with which they completed the ruin 
of that part of the country, draining it also of 
almost all the inhabitants, whom they carried 
into captivity. 
A.D.1049. A third invasion of these barbarians took 


era 498. place in this year, when they besieged the city 
of Arzn, the population of which amounted to 
300,000 souls, and which contained 800 churches. 
The citizens made a spirited resistance, but 
the enemy at length got possession, and ma- 
sacred in cold blood 140,000 people; the 
remnant they carried away into captivity. The 
city they consumed by fire, and the ruins of 
it are to be seen even to this day. They acted 
in the same cruel and ferocious manner with 
many other cities of Armenia. At this period 
there were 60,000 Greek troops in the country, 
under the command of Camenas, who resided 
in Ani ; and Aron, a Bulgarian, who dwelt in 
Vaspurakan, yet they did not take a single 
step towards repelling the invaders, as they 
preferred seeing the Armenians slaughtered, 
A.D. 1050. even to the fame of conquest. The Greeks never 

eJlTyy! lost an opportunity of annoying these unfor- 
tunate people, whom they hated and oppressed. 
The Persians, however, in one of their inroads. 


penetrating as far as the parts where the Greeks 
resided, war was declared between the two 
nations. The emperor sent Uirge bodies of troops 
into Armenia, which in their first encounters 
wilh the Persians w^ere success'.ui, but in the 
end they were defeated and dispersed. 

The Persians then extended their ravages 
to Yanand in Cars, where Gagik Abas ruled 
with the title of kin'4. The infidels attacked 
his principal city during the Epiphany, and 
having taken it by storm, massacred most of 
the mhabitants; those who escaped with life 
were led into captivity. Gagik hmiself with 
some trouble etiected his retreat with a few 
adlierents into the citadel, while the enemy- 
were enterino. On tlieir retreat he began to 
repair the city which had terribly suffered 
from their wantonness. During all these trou- a. d. 1051. 


bles the inhabitants of that part of Armenia era 500. 
called the Fourth, had been permitted to remain 
111 a state of tranquillity, but by means of 
some calumnies that were spread abroad by 
some evil disposed persons, the emperor Mo- 
nomachus, who desired to extirpate the Ar- 
menians, sent into that ([uartcr his general 
Perns Cai^atan with a great force. This army 
bciii'^' arrived at its destination ravaged the 
country with bari)arian ferocity. Perns the 
Greek general then sent a positive order to 


all the Armenian chiefs to come to his camp ; 
but the latter, aware of his evil disposition, 
avoided him, determined to seek protection 
from some other power. In the mean time 
one of their number, named Thorasak, trea- 
cherously informed Perus of their designs, 
which induced the remainder out of fear of 
the general's resentment to go quietly to him. 
But Harpik the chief of Arzn, and his brothers, 
having retreated to their castle, still kept a- 
loof, and persisted in refusing all communication 
with Perus. On this the Greek general marched 
with his army and besieged them. On his 
arrival near the castle where they were, he 
called to the people whom he beheld on the 
battlements, and offered to bestow on any one 
who would bring him the head of Harpik, the 
whole of the possessions of the latter, besides 
making the assassin a great chief. When 
Harpik heard of this offer, he became greatly 
alarmed for fear that his followers out of 
covetousness might destroy him. Sleep fled 
from his eyelids, and he was three days without 
tasting the sweets of repose, being constantly 
alert to prevent surprise ; at the expiration 
of this time, being quite exhausted, he retired 
to a distant part of his castle, accompanied 
by some of his friends who had been his 
companions from childhood, and confiding in 


their promises to watch over and protect 
him, he reluctantly fell asleep. The wretches 
who surrounded him, totally disregarding every 
principle of faith established among men, then 
cruelly butchered him while unable to offer 
resistance, and cutting off his head took it to 

The castle then surrendered, and Greek 
guards w^ere placed in it. Perus then returned 
to Constantinople, carrying with him all the 
Armenian chiefs whom he had allured into 
his power. The emperor Monomachus, without 
seeing them, banished them to an island, being 
determined, by degrees, to destroy the Ar- 
menian nobles. This also was eagerly desired 
by the Greek chiefs, who longed to possess 
the lands which belonged to those persecuted 
individuals in Armenia. In course of time 
however, when Monomachus died, all the Ar- 
menians who had been exiled by that emperor 
were permitted to return to their country by 
the empress Theodora, who succeeded him 
on the imperial throne, and reigned alone one 
year and a half. 




The second 7narch of Tiighril to Armenia, the 
siege of Ala/iazkert, and the pontificate of 
Catchick the Second. 

A. D. 1053. TuGHRiL having heard of the death of Mo- 
era 502. nomachus again invaded Armenia. He first 
captured the city of Berkrey, situated near 
the sea of Van, whence he proceeded to the 
regions of Basen, where his troops destroyed 
numbers of places and took multitudes of pri- 
soners, whom they doomed to slavery. 

Immediately before this invasion, Gagik Abas 
had finished the repairs of his city of Cars, 
which had been almost destroyed in a former 
irruption by the infidels, and when he perceived 
that they were again devastating the country, 
he assembled his chiefs, and gathering a small 
force boldly made a stand against the invaders. 
The Armenians were headed by Gagik, assisted 
by his general Thatul ; a battle ensued in which 
the infidels were victorious, having routed the 
Armenians and taken Thatul prisoner. In the 
course of the fight the son of the Persian prince. 



Arsuran, was dreadfully wounded, and as Tu- 
ghril regarded this young man with much 
affection, on seeing Thatul brought into his 
presence a prisoner, he exclaimed, "If the 
youth who has been wounded lives, thou shalt 
be spared; but if he die, thou shalt be sacrificed 
to his memory!" When Thatul heard this he 
replied, " If the wound has been inflicted by 
my hand, the youth will surely die!" The 
young man died, and Tughril caused Thatul 
immediately after to be put to death. Then 
cutting off his right arm, he sent it to the 
father of the youth, with a letter, in which he 
informed him that although his son was dead, 
the hand that inflicted the wound would never 
strike another blow. Tughril then marched a d 1054. 

' HaicRn 

with all his troops against the city of Manazkert era 503. 
in the province of Apahunies, to which on his 
arrival he laid siege. The chief of this city 
was Basilius, a man who bore an excellent 
character for bravery and military skill. He 
was assisted in the defence of Manazkert by 
a skilful Armenian priest, who by means of 
several artful inventions, rendered all the ma- 
chines which were employed against the wall 
by tlie Persians entirely useless. Tughril ob- 
serving this, commenced undermining the for- 
tifications, when one of his soldiers, to whom 
he liad just before given cause of complaint. 


shot an arrow in the city, to which was fastened 
a letter containing an account of the neAy 
desip^ns of the Persian monarch. Hereupon 
a countermine was begun by the citizens, who 
in the course of their digging suddenly came 
upon the Persian miners. A skirmish ensued in 
which the latter were taken prisoners, together 
with the father-in-law of the king, who was 
superintending them. They were forthwith 
brought to the battlements and there beheaded 
in presence of the whole of the besieging army. 
Tughril stung to fury at this sight, and deter- 
mined to reduce the city, caused to be brought from 
the city of Balesh a tremendously large wooden 
balista, which had been originally constructed 
by the emperor Basilius, but had fallen into 
the hands of the Persians, and so huge was 
its bulk that it required 400 men to drag it. 
When it was raised against the walls of Ma- 
nazkert, Basilius the governor and chief, issued 
a proclamation, wherein he offered large rewards 
to any who succeeded in burning it. At this 
period there was an ingenious Gaul in the 
city, who stimulated by the governor's offer, 
composed an inflammable mixture which he 
put in three bottles, and mounting a swift horse 
rode toward the Persian camp, holding ex- 
tended in one of his hands a letter, as if he 
were the bearer of some official communication. 


He proceeded directly to the spot where the 
balista stood, the guards about it fancying he 
was deputed from the city to the king; and 
seizing a favourable opportunity, he broke his 
three bottles of combustibles on the engine, 
which immediately taking fire burned with 
inconceivable violence, effectually baffling every 
attempt to extinguish it. The Gaul, in the 
confusion that prevailed on the fire taking 
hold of the balista, escaped back to the city. 

Tughiil, after this catastrophe which befel 
his huge engine, began to despair of capturing 
Manazkert. As a last effort, he directed Alkan, 
commander of the Khorazmians, to move for- 
ward to the walls a great number of asses, 
(warlike instruments which we have before fully 
described.) in order to throw down the battle- 
ments. In the mean time the governor Basilius 
caused a number of instruments to be con- 
structed of huge beams of timber, plated with 
iron, and sharpened at one end, and having 
large metal claws at the other, which being 
let down from the walls by ropes on the asses, 
broke their roofs; and then by means of the 
claws many of the men who were employed in 
digging below, were hoisted into the city. Here 
they were cut in pieces and tlirown with con- 
tempt over the walls. Those who were not thus 
taken were destroyed by showers of arrows 
vol.. n. 1 



which the besieged poured upon them. The 
superintendant of the asses, Akan, was taken 
prisoner by two Armenian youths, who, on 
the destruction of these engines, had issued 
out of the city for that purpose. Basilius 
immediately after cut off Alkan's head, and by 
means of a machine of singular construction cast 
it into the presence of Tughril, who thereupon 
raised the siege. He afterwards marched to the 
city of Arzkey, plundered it, massacred the 
inhabitants, and then with his troops returned 
to Persia. Armenia after this enjoyed no repose, 
the Scythians, Persians, and other nations, in- 
vading it twice or thrice every year, devas- 
tating and plunderingall before them ; the country 
being without a head never thought of con- 
centrating its forces for the general protection, 
but each employed himself in guarding his own 
individual property. 
A. D. 1058. In the midst of these calamities, Peter the 


«ra507. pontiff, who had returned from Sebastia, died, 
having arrived at a very advanced age, and hav- 
ing held the pontificate for a period of 40 years, 
reckoning from the time of his election to his 
death. Shortly after this, Gregorius Magistratus 
died, and was succeeded in his government of 
Mesopotamia by his son Vest Vahram, who, 
even then was much celebrated for wisdom and 


Catchick the Second, the nephew of Peter, ^^^-J^''^- 
on the death of the latter was elected pontiff in ''"' ^O'- 
the citv of Ani. Constantine on his accession 
to the imperial throne at Constantinople, sent 
for Catchick, and demanded an account of the 
property of Peter the late pontiff, conceiving that 
the latter had the treasures of the Armenian kmg-s. 
Catchick replying that he possessed nothing, 
the emperor directed him to pay a yearly sum to 
the Greek government for the office he held, 
which the former refused to do. Hereupon two 
individuals came forward and offered to pay 
annually an enormous sum to Constantine, if he 
would appoint them respectively governor and 
pontiff of the Armenians. They, however, were 
unable to perform this, for on the same day, one 
fell dangerously ill and the other died. Catchick 
afterwards remained three years in Constanti- 
nople, at the expiration of which he went to 
Tha\ibhir, and remained there seven months. 

The emperor then ijrocecded to compel the a. d. 106O. 

' _ ' _ ' Haican 

Armenians to conform to the rites of the <-'''^ ^^^• 
Greek church. He sent to Sehastia for the 
sons of kiiiL; Sennacherib, Atom and Abusahl, 
and oil their ani\;d at C()nstantinoj)le disclosed 
to them his micntion. lie then assembled a 
niectiirj^ ot the (J reek clergy to concert with 
hini on the Ixst means for brm-'mu the Arnie- 
nians to a conformity of religious sentiment with 



their church. In this assembly, after some 
discussion, an Armenian monk, named Jacobus 
Sanahinensis, or Carabnensis, who had accom- 
panied Atom and Abusahl from Sebastia, rose 
and presented to the emperor a letter containing 
an avowal of union between the churches of the 
two people. The meeting was then dissolved, 
and Constantine sending for Gagik the king of 
Armenia, joyfully communicated to him the 
contents of the letter he had received. G agik, on 
hearing this, told the emperor that things were 
not so completely settled as he thought ; for the 
letter which he held did not contain the senti- 
ments of the nation, but was the mere production 
of a single individual. Then with the emperor's 
consent, he assembled another meeting, com- 
posed entirely of the Armenian clergy; and by 
their assistance drew up a statement of the reli- 
gious creed of the nation, declaring in the same, 
that whatever was contrary to what it contained, 
the Armenians would never submit to. Thus all 
hopes of union were destroyed, and the Greeks 
irritated at their disappointment, treated the Ar- 
menians worse than ever, regarding them with 
even greater hatred than that with which they 
looked upon infidels. 



The capture of Am by Alp/nislan, mid the conduct 
of Gagik Abas. 

About this time died Tughril king of Per- ^,^!?,i"''^" 
sia, who was succeeded in the throne by his 
nephew Alphaslan, or, as it is written in Tur- 
kish, Elparislan. Tn the second year of his 
reign the new monarch levied an immense 
army, consisting of Persians, Scythians, and 
the people of Khujastan and Sagastan. At 
the head of this force he marched to the coun- 
try of the Aluans, where he married Corekey 
daughter of the king of that people, and a 
descendant of the Bagratians. He then, after 
making a treaty of alliance between the Per- 
sians and Aluans, proceeded to Gugars, where 
he committed horrid devastations. From Gugars A' n. loei 
he marched to the province of Ararat in Ar- era 513. 
menia, and laid siege to tlie cily of Ani, 
which was then governed for the Greeks by 
an Armenian named Hagarat, with tlie title 
of duke, assisted by Gregory a (Georgian. 
Alphaslan having viewed the works, was a little 
daunted at their strength and extent; but having 
discovered one part of the outer wall in a less 



perfect state than the others, he raised against it 
a tremendous balista, with which he commenced 
battering it. Tlie besie<;ed defended this part 
bravely, but at last a breach was made, and the 
Persians commenced the storm. The breach 
being narrow, the citizens nobly defended it, and 
slaughtered an immense number of the assailant?, 
who were at length obliged to retire; dishear- 
tened by this rejudse, the Persians raised the 
siege and began to move off. In the midst 
of the assault, Bagarat and Gregory (the go- 
vernor and his lieutenant), fancying the enemy 
had gained possession of the town, retired to 
the citadel. On the repulse of the Persians, 
the citizens findini? that their orovernor had 
left the town, and imagining that the besiegers 
were preparing for another attack, raised most 
horrid outcries, and a number of them, to the 
amount of 50,000, fled into the country, by that 
side of the town opposite to where the Per- 
sians had encamped. This being perceived by 
some of Alphaslan's army, who had loitered 
behind on his retreat, they hastened to ac- 
quaint their leader of it. One of their soldiers 
having entered through the trench, snatched 
a young child from the arms of a woman he 
met, and to convince his general of the truth 
of what his companions related, brought it with 
him to h'I's presence. 


Alphaslan thereupon countermanded the 
retreat of his troops, and immediately returned to 
Ani, and having entered into that city, gave 
directions to his followers to slaughter all they 
found there. Human blood flowed in torrents, 
and so grreat was the carnasfe, that the streets 
were literally choked up with dead bodies, 
and the waters of the river Akhurian be- 
came quite red from the quantity of bloody 
corpses that were thrown into it. After the 
first fury of Alphaslan's cruelty was a little 
abated, he issued orders to seize the most 
wealthy of the inhabitants who had not been 
killed, and torture them to make them discover 
where their riches lay. He then pillaged the 
churches, murdering all the priests wdiom he 
found therein, some by drowning, others by 
flaying alive, and others by modes which his 
bloodthirsty soul suggested at the different 
moments of their capture. In the midst of these 
horrors the anger of the Almighty was displayed 
most conspicuously. For on a sudden the 
whole face of heaven became clouded ; horrid 
peals of thunder accompanied by sheets of the 
most vivid lightning burst over the city ; rain 
descended in such torrents as if a second deluge 
were approaching, and the streets were like so 
many seas bearing on their surface the ghastly 
remains of the victims of the cruel and rapacious- 


infidels, and with wliich every inch of ground 

was before covered. The dead bodies by this rain 

were swept into the river Akhurian. After this 

storm had passed, the Persians took possession 

of the citadel, which had been deserted shortly 

after their entry into the city. After defacing 

and destroying all that attracted his notice, 

Alphaslan then quitted Ani, leaving a Persian 

governor there, and directing a part of the 

captives he had made, among whom were some 

chiefs, to be sent to Persia; the remainder 

to be kept to rebuild the works which had 

been destroyed. He then marched to the 

country of Vanand, and sending a messenger 

to Cars, in which city Gagik Abas reigned 

as king, directed him forthwith to come and 

pay homage to him. Gagik being informed 

of the approach of this messenger, formed a 

plan of deceit, which he immediately proceeded 

to carry into execution. Having put on deep 

mourning, he caused ashes to be spread upon 

the ground upon which he sat, leaning on 

a black pillow. Being found in this state 

by the messenger, he was asked what was 

the nature of his affliction. " Alas!" replied 

Gagik, with a deep sigh, "since the death 

of my beloved friend Tughril the uncle of 

Alphaslan, 1 have never ceased mourning for 

him, and the world now has nothing in it 


to delight me!"' The messenger then returned 
to his master, to whom he related what he 
had seen and heard; on which Alphaslan was 
so much atfected, that he went to Cars in the 
greatest pomp, where having met Gagik, he 
embraced him, and was prodigal in the marks 
of esteem which he gave him, fancying that 
he really and unaffectedly honoured the memory 
of Tughril. He also presented him with robes 
of royalty, and acknowedged him king of Vanand. 
On Alphaslan's departure for Persia, Gagik 
began to reflect that it was unsafe to remain 
longer in Armenia, and forthwith exchanged 
Vanand, with the emperor, for three cities, 
Amasia, Comana and Larissa, 100 villages, and 
the fortress of Zamindav, in which he took 
up his residence. 


The pontijicate of Gregory Vikayaser (lover of 


During the troubles which lately molested ^ :D.io64. 
Armenia, Catchick the pontiff resided in the <"^'3. 
city of Thaublur. Here he received an account 
of the horrid slaughter of the citizens of Ani 

154 iiisroRY or ar:\ienia. 

by the Persians, which so much affected him, 
that he shortly after died througii excessive grief, 
after a pontificate of six years. On this event 
being known at Constantinople, the Greeks 
signified a desire henceforward to leave the 
Armenians without a pontiff, under the per- 
suasion that, left to themselves, they would soon 
become converts to the Greek faith; but at 
all events, should they not do this, they would 
sink into a state of degradation, which would 
prove a lively gratification to their enemies. 
However, this did not occur, for Mary the 
dauohter of Gao^ik Abas, being a favourite of 
Eudoxia the empress, obtained by the influence 
of the latter, the permission of the emperor 
for the Armenian pontifical chair to be filled. 
A. D 106S. In consequence of this a meeting of the clergy 
fraou. -vvas held in the fortress of Zamindav, where 
Gregory Vikayaser, son of Gregorius Magis- 
tratus, was elevated to the dignity of pontiff. 
Gregory was admirably fitted for this high 
office, having from his infancy been engaged 
in literary pursuits. When young he married, 
and became much honoured by the emperor, 
who conferred upon him the title of Duke, 
and on the death of his father he succeeded 
him in his government of Mesopotamia. Some 
time after this appointment, he became disgusted 
■with the world; and relinquishing his govern- 


ment, and separating himself from his wife, 
he embraced a monastic life. His original 
name was Vahram, but on his being elected 
pontiff he assumed the name of Gregory, to 
indicate that the chair of his ancestor St. 
Gregory the Illuminator was reestablished. He 
was surnamed Vikayaser (lover of martyrs) from 
his having compiled the memoirs of the Christian 

After the storm and massacre of the city Haicaa 
and inhabitants of Ani by Alphaslan, the Per- "*^*^* 
sians thrice made incursions into Armenia 
without meeting any opposition. In this year, 
they made a fourth invasion, which being re- 
ported to the emperor he marched against 
them at the head of a large body of Greek 
troops. On his arrival in Sebastia, by which 
he had to pass in the course of his expe- 
dition, he was met by Atom and his brother 
Abusahl, who brought with them gifts of great 
value. In the mean time slanderers had carried 
tales to the emperor, discreditable to the con- 
duct of these princes, which giving him some 
pretext for annoying the Armenians, whom he 
hated and oppressed, he gave orders to ravage 
and pillage Sebastia. This ruthless order was 
uj)on the point of being carried intf) execution, 
when somcof tiie Greek nobles, compassionating 
the state of the country, interposed and appeased 


the emperor. The order was then rescinded, but 
the emperor degraded Atom and Abusahl from 
their government, and threatened them that on 
his return from his expedition against the Per- 
sians he would make them embrace the Greek 
faith and adopt their ceremonies. Shortly after 
the emperor was betrayed by his army into 
the hands of Alphaslan, who, however, released 
him after a short imprisonment. The Greeks 
however not being able to endure him plucked 
out his eyes. 
^'^Ha?/na Grcgory the pontiff, unable to apply effectual 
era 520. remedies to the distresses that filled the nation, 
abdicated his chair, and appointing George 
Lorensis, a monk from Gugars, his successor, 
retired to the Black Mountain in the regions 
of Taurus, where with a few friars he took 
up his residence. The Armenians still regarded 
him as their pontiff, and in all cases of emer- 
gency applied to him for advice. George 
Lorensis feeling offended at this, took such im- 
prudent measures as rendered him odious to 
the whole nation. Gregory observing this con- 
vened a meeting of the clergy in the Black 
Mountain, and deposed George from the pon- 
tificate, after his enjoying it two years. Gregory 
was then induced to reassume his office, and 
fixing: himself at Mutarasun there exercised 

A. D. 1073. ° 

Haicau ^hc poutifical dignity. About this time there 

OCA 5^«« 



resided in the city of Honi a monk named Sarkies, 
who exercised the controul of the church in 
that place under the title of pontiff. After 
remaining in that capacity three years he died, 
and was succeeded bv one Theodorus surnamed 
Alakhosik, on account of the sweetness of his 
voice. Neither these two,, nor George Lo- 
rensis, are reckoned among the regular Armenian 

Gregory, shortly after his resumption of the 
pontifical chair, visited the city of Ani, then 
in possession of the Persians, and governed 
by one Manuchey the son of a chief named 
Phultun. After a few months residence there, 
and appointing a deputy in the person of his 
nephew Parsick,hewent to the Black Mountain, 
from whence he made a communication by 
letter to Pope Gregory the Seventh, and having 
received a friendly answer proceeded to visit 
him at Rome. Here he met a very kind re- a. d. 1075. 

. , Haican 

ception, and the Pope bemg extremely curious era 524. 
to know all about the religious ceremonies of 
the Armenians, held several long conversations 
with him. After residing at Rome a few months 
Gregory went to Jerusalem, and thence to 
Memphis, where he staid a whole year. Having 
appointed another of his nephews, Gregorius, 
prelate at Mempliis, he returned to the Black 
Mountain and abode in the convent of Areg. 


About this period Oshin, an Armenian prince, 
who presided over one part of the country 
of Arzakh, fearing an attack from some power- 
ful foes, came to Constantinople, bringing 
with him all his family and property. The 
emperor, pleased with the manners of Oshin, 
gave him Fort Lambron and the province 
in which it stand^s, in Cilicia, for a residence. 
Oshin having taken possession of the emperor's 
gift, made a number of improvements in the 
state of the land. He is famous as being 
the great-grand-father of the celebrated Nierses 


The last exploits amd death of Gdgik the exiled 
king of Armenia, by ivhich the kingdom was 
entirely lost to the Bagratians. 

A. D. 1077. The Greeks increasing in their hostility 


era 526. to the Armenians, adopted the basest means 
of gratifying their unjust hatred towards that 
people, assassinating them whenever they had 
an opportunity. By those means perished Vasak 
governor of Antioch, and brother of Gregory 
the pontiff. Vest Cachatur, an Armenian chief 
residing in the castle of Andriana was strangled 



by a Greek monk; but the murderer, being 
caught by the friends of the chief, was precipi- 
tated from the walls of the castle and dashed 
to pieces on the spot. 

The exiled king Gagik, horror-struck at these HaSail"^^" 
enormities, and annoyed by the blasphemies era 527. 
which the Greeks were in the continual habit of 
uttering against the Armenians, went to the 
regions of Cesaria, burning with hatred against 
the oppressors of his country and revilers of his 
religion. Marcus the metropolitan of Cesaria 
was one of the bitterest of the enemies of 
the Armenians, calling them contemptuously 
dogs whenever he had occasion to speak of 
them. He carried his dislike so far as to 
name a huge dog which lived in his palace 
" Armenian;'' the animal, accustomed to the 
appellation, answering to no other name. 
Gagik having heard of this, took his measures, 
and setting out with a few of his attendants 
all armed , arrived at the metropolitan's palace. 
Here he was received by Marcus with a great 
shew of respect, and a feast was given the 
evening of his arrival. During the course of 
the entertainment, Gagik desired Marcus to 
call his large dog, upon which the Metropolitan 
sent for it, and on its being brought in, the 
animal was saluted by his master by the name 
of Armenian. On Gagik enquiring why he 


was thus named, Marcus replied, " he is but 
a i)uppy, and on that account we call him 
Armenian!" On a signal bein^ given by Gagik, 
his attendants seized the dog and put him 
in a large bag, which they had prepared for 
the purpose. They then bound the servants, 
and seizing the metropolitan put him in the 
same bag with the dog, fastening it at the 
same time in such a manner that neither could get 
out. They then procceeded to beat the bag 
in such a manner that all the blows fell upon 
the dog, which becoming furious attacked his 
companion the metropolitan and bit him to death. 
Gagik then plundered the palace, and retreated 
from Cesaria. 
A. D. 1079. News of the horrible death of Marcus 


era 520. Spreading amongst the Greeks rendered them 
still more eager to annoy the Armenians, but 
their enmity was principally directed against 
Gagik, whom they sought for with all the 
eagerness that hopes of vengeance could inspire. 
He in the mean time was residing at Tarsus, 
and when the Greeks became less ardent in 
their search for him, proceeded to annoy them 
again. Having many adherents, numberless 
were the evils which he brought upon the 
enemies of his religion. Unfortunately, however, 
he at length fell into the hands of the Greeks, 
by the following means. Having arrived with 


his people on the plains of Arzias, near the fort 
of Kizistra, he imprudently, accompanied by 
only three individuals, one of whom was 
Reuben his relation, went to take repose 
in a orarden contisfuous to this fort. The 
owners of the fort, three brothers, and the 
sons of a Greek of the name of Mantaley, 
perceiving Gagik so near them, laid fifty men 
in ambush, and then proceeding towards him, 
saluted him by prostrating themselves and kiss- 
ing his feet. They then brought him to the 
place where lay the men in ambush, and by 
a preconcerted signal, he was in a moment 
seized, bound, and taken into the fort. Gagik's 
three companions succeeded in effecting their 
escape. The Armenian chiefs, on hearing of 
this, advanced their followers and laid siege to 
Kizistra, but all their efforts to take it were 
unavailing, the fort being impregnable. In the 
mean time, the sons of Mantaley exercised the 
most horrid cruelties on Gagik, torturing him 
by every method that their ingenuity could 
devise. At length they murdered him, and 
suspended his body on the walls of the fort, 
in presence of all the Armenians who had 
flocked thither to besiege it. The sight of their 
king's bloody corpse had a sensible effect upon 
them all, and they forthwith retired to their 
homes, convinced that nothing could be done 

VOL. ir. m 



aorainst his murderers. His remains were after- 
wards interred by the Greeks without the 
fort, in order to express their greater contempt 
for his memory. Six months after, however, 
an Armenian from the city of Ani, named 
Batiik, secretly conveyed his relics to a con- 
vent which he had built in the city of Piza. 
Gagik perished in the fiity-fifth year of his 
age. He had been three years in quiet pos- 
session of the throne of Armenia, and thirty-five 
years in exile. 
A. D 1080. Shortly after this event, Gairik's youngest son 

Haican '' p 1 • 1 

era 51). David was poisoned by order of his father-m-law 
Abulkliarip, prince of Tarsus, who had suspected 
him of treachery. His eldest son Johannes, 
who had married the daughter of the governor 
of Ani, still resided in that city, although he 
was in Georgia at the time of its capture by 
Alphaslan. Johannes had a son named Ashot, 
who in the course of some years after this, 
was poisoned by the eunuchs of Manuchey, 
through envy of the favour with which he was 
regarded by the chief of Ganzak. His body 
was brought by his servants to Piza his father's 
city and there interred. Some records state 
that Ashot was buried in Constantinople. Jo- 
hannes did not long survive his son, and by 
his death the posterity of the Bagratian kings 
of Armenia became extinct. On the death of 


Gagik the son of Abas, and Atom and Abu- 
sahl, descendants of Sennacherib the Arzrunian, 
their families also became extinct. The Reu- 
benian line next swayed the sceptre of Armenia, 
of which we shall speak in the sixth part, 
which follows. 




300 YEARS. 

The union of valour, prudence, and una- 
nimity forms the cement by wbich states are 
preserved, and opulence or poverty to the in- 
habitants naturally flows from the strength or 
weakness of the government. An excess of valour, 
without its proper accompaniments, prudence 
and unanimity, destroyed the government under 
Vahey. A want of prudence removed the crown 
from the Arsacidae; and a melancholy want of 
unanimity caused the downfal of the Bagratians. 
The first form of government was overturned 
by Macedonian skill and courage; the second 
was changed by the cunning of the Persians, 
and the last subverted by the hatred of the 

It may naturally suggest itself, that the cause 
of the ruin of the three previous dynasties being 
known to the fourth, some stability might be 
ensured to the latter, by their knowing how to 
avoid the errors committed by their predecessors. 



The same fate, however, befel it in the course 
of time, caused by internal disunion, and the 
fruitless interference of the western nations. 


The rat")} of Reuben the First. 

On the capture of Gagik the last king of ^.J^JJ"^^' 
Armenia, by the sons of IMantaley, it will be ^"^"^^g. 
recollected by our readers, that of the three 
individuals his companions who effected their 
escape, one of them was his relative named 
Reuben. This person afterwards retired with 
his son Constantine to Cilicia, where by his 
warlike character and personal prowess, he 
made many partizans among the Armenians re- 
siding in that part. In several contests which he 
had with the Greeks he invariably worsted them, 
and becoming more bold as more successful, he 
attacked and took the fortress of Barzrberd 
(the lofty fort.) From this period he assumed 
independent power over the Armenians residing 
in Oilicia, styling himself lleuben the First. 
He was much assisted in attaining this object by 
an Armenian chief named Basilius, a man of 
courage and practised in all the wiles and stra- 
tagems of war, for which he was generally known 


among his contemporaries as " Basilius the 
Crafty." At this epoch several Armenian chiefs 
distinguished themselves in the service of the 
emperor, among whom were Bacuran, a man of 
eminent wisdom and valour; Varaz, a youth 
of extraordinary courage; Ilalcom, the brother 
of Oshin ; Michael Taronensis, and his sons 
Johan and Gregory ; all enjoying posts of honour 
and trust. 
A. D. 1082. Gre^-orv the pontiff being at this time in 

Haioan ^ ^ ,. • f 

era 531. mount Taurus in Cilicia, the eastern Arme- 
nians considering themselves totally without a 
head to their church, obtained his sanction to 
the election of his nephew Parsick, then bishop 
of Ani, to the pontificate. Two years after this 
event, a prince of the name of Philartus having 
settled in Marash, caused Paul, abbot of the 
convent of Varag, to be consecrated pontiff of 
the church in that part. The number of pontiffs 
now amounted to four, viz. Gregory Vikayaser, 
in the region about Mount Taurus, Parsick, his 
nephew in Ani, Theodorus in Honi, and Paul 
in Marash, These were in continual enmity with 
each other, causing much confusion amongst the 
Armenians. Paul being of a lowly disposition, 
when he perceived the hatred which his ele- 
vated situation drew upon him from the others, 
relinquished it and retired to his convent. The 
nation at large acknowledged Gregory alone as 
pontiff. They regarded Parsick as his deputy. 


Melickshah having succeeded his father Al- ^JIJJ^^^- 
phaslan in the throne of Persia, marched at the "" "^• 
head of a po.werful army to dispossess the 
Greeks of Armenia, they having taken the Persian 
division of that country without the least sha- 
dow of lawful pretension to it. He met with 
no opposition, and reconquered the whole of the 
country lying between Persia and the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, whither being arrived, he rode into 
the water, drew his sword, and thrust it thrice 
into the waves. Then offering thanks to the Al- 
miglity for his success, he sheathed his weapon 
and threw it into the sea, exclaiming, " It is 
the sword of God with which he has given me 
to rule from sea to sea !" He then appointed go- 
vernors over the whole of the newly conquered 
country, and returned to Persia. Henceforward 
the Greeks had no power or influence over 
Armenia, being entirely expelled by the arms of 
Melickshah. In the course of a short time the 
Persian c^ovcrnors began to torment the Arme- 
nians by laying on them enormous taxes. 
Parsick the pontiff hereupon, accompanied by 
manv of the nobles, bishops, and priests, bearing 
magnificent presents, went to Persia, and en- 
treated the king to relieve them from the heavy 
exactions which were im[)osed upon them. 
Melickshali graciously granted their desires, and 
forthwith furnished him with royal letters to 


the governors of Armenia to desist from laying 
burthens on the people. The king also permit- 
ted Parsick to have the cross carried before him. 

A. D. 1087. Parsick then returned, and took up his abode at 
era b:\6. Edessa, after deposing Theodorus from the pon- 
tificate, and taking from him the cross Ketadarz 
(the miraculous cross v^ith which Peter the 
pontiff blessed the waters in the river of Con- 
stantinople, which we have fully detailed above.) 

A. D. 1092. On the death of Melickshah, the Persian go- 


•ra54i. vcmors again began to annoy the Armenians, 
many of whom fled to Cilicia where Reuben 
ruled; and others to the borders of Cheson 
where Basilius the Crafty governed. A number 
of the clergy retired to the Black Mountain, 
and took refuge in the Armenian convents, many 
of which had been erected there. 

Among these was a young priest named 
Stephen, then but eighteen years of age, but a 
prodigy of learning and sanctity. He took up 
his residence in the red convent of the desert of 
Shughr, and sometime afterwards was conse- 
crated by Parsick the pontiff, bishop of the 
province of Cheson. Stephen had four scholars 
all equalling their master in the extent of their 
acquirements. These were Ignatius the monk, 
•annotator on St. Luke ; Sarkies the monk, 
annotator on the general Epistles ; Gregory the 
Pahlavie, and his brother Nierses the graceful. 


Shortly after the arrival of these fugitives in ^;JJ„„^"^^* 
the regions about Mount Taurus, the prince "»544. 
Reuben died at the age of sixty, or as other 
records state, seventy years; having ruled over 
the Armenians fifteen years. His remains were 
interred in the convent of Castalon. 


The reign of Con.stantine the First. 

On the death of Reuben, liis son Constantine a. d. 1095. 

' Haican 

succeeded him in the throne, a prince of con- era 544. 
siderable merit, who exercised the supreme 
authority with mildness and justice. At the 
commencement of his reign he had some contests 
with the Greeks, whom he defeated, and took 
from them several important ])laces, among 
which was the castle of Vahkali, where he fixed 
the seat of his government. 

Immediately after this the Latins to an im- a.d. i09fi. 

•^ Hiucan 

mense number, accompanied by a multitude of era645. 
bishops and priests, arrived in Palestine for the 
purpose of dispossessiug the infidels of the land 
in which our Saviour j)erformed his pilgrimage. 
The chief of these peoj)le was named Gothofredus 
or Godfrey of IJoulogne, and his forces amount- 
ed to 100,000 cavalry and 000,000 infantry. 


At the head of these he marched into Bitliynia, 
and took the city of Nice with various other 
pl-.ices. On tills army laying siege to Antioch, 
tiicir provisions were exhausted, and a famine 
broke out in their camp. Constantine the 
Armenian prince, on being informed of this, sent 
them an abundance of provisions, and the same 
was done by Oshin and Bazuney, two of his 
chiefs some time afterwards. BasiHus the Craf- 
ty, and the monks of the convents in the Black 
Mountain also sent provisions to the Latin camp. 
On the taking- of Antioch, the Latins to shew 
their sense of the kindness they had expe- 
rienced from Constantine, sent him valuable 
presents, created him a marquis, and conferred 
on hiiu an order of knighthood. They then 
marched against Jerusalem, which they took 
on Friday the 5th of July, A. 1). 1099. Their 
chief, Godfrey, then became king of that city, 
and for eighty-eight years that dignity was 
held by Christian princes. 
'^"^iili'(^a!i Gregory Vikayaser was in Jerusalem at the 
eia548. time of its captnre, where, although much 
annoyed by the confusion that took place at 
that event, he escaped unhurt; and retired to the 
convent of Areg in the Black Mountain, where 
he collected around him a number of learned 
Armenians, Greeks, and Syrians, with whom 
he remained a long time engaged in the trans- 


lation of various foreign works into Armenian, 
particularly a Greek history of the lives of 
the saints. There was with him a Greek 
philosopher named Theophistey, conversant 
with Armenian, whom he caused to translate 
the commentary on St. John, from the Greek 
of St. Johannes Chrysostum. This was after- 
wards corrected and shaped to the Armenian 
style by the monk Kirakus. Theophistey also 
translated, by desire of Gregory, the lives of 
the above St. Johannes, and Gregory the theo- 
logian, both of them undergoing revision by 
the priest Matthew, the fellow scholar of 
Kirakus. Theophistey some time afterwards, at 
the instigation of a native of Balu, wrote an 
epistle to the Armenians, containing an account 
of the religious creed of the Greeks, and ex- 
pressing the most profound contempt for the 
former. To this a reply was written by a 
monk of Taron, who proved himself no way 
inferior in polemical controversy to Theophistey. 
Hut both of these epistles were written in an 
intolerant style, and produced no good to either 
of their authors. At this period, the following 
distinguished individuals ornamented the litera- 
ture of their comitry by their various pro- 
ductions, viz. the monks Meklirik, George, 
and Kirakus. (jlcorge was a native of Urch, 
and excelled by the soundness of his learning 



The Other two were alike distinguished for 
wisdom and piety. To these we will add the 
monk Johannes, styled the deacon, who, besides 
other works, was the author of the anthem 
called " the childrai of the Levomt'iajis;"' also, Sa- 
muel of Ani, who published an abridgment 
of the history of Armenia; Mathew of Urha, 
an historian; Marcus the pious recluse, and 
Gregory Mashkovor. While Gregory Vikayaser 
was residing on the Black Mountain, the prince 
Constantino died, after a reign of five years. 
He left two sons Thorus or Theodorus and Leo. 


The reign of Thorm the First, tuul the pontificate 

of Parsick. 

A.D 1100. Thorus the elder son of Constantine suc- 

Haicnii /■ i a 

•ra 549. cccdcd to the government ol the Armenians on 
the death of his father. This prince was of a 
far more warlike disposition than his father, and 
waged many wars with the Greeks, whom he 
continually defeated. He took from them the 
city of Anarzaba, in which he built a church, 
which was called St. Zoravark (generals). 
He repaired many of the churches which had 


been permitted to fall into decay in his territo- 
ries, and extended his dominion to the borders 
of the Mediterranean }^ea. 

In the second year of his rule happened the ad. 1102. 
difference of the time of the Easter festival, era 551. 
called by the vulgar Zurazatik, or the wrong 
Easter, between the Armenians and Syrians 
on one side, and the Greeks and Latins on 
the other. The reason of this difference is, that 
ninety-five years acio the latter people cele- 
brated the Easter feast a week before the former. 
According to the Armenian calendar, this dif- 
ference of observing the ceremony of the Easter 
festival happens in every ninety-five years be- 
tween the above mentioned christian nations. 
At this period the envy and inaliunity of the 
Greeks had risen to a hi^h pitch against the 
Armenians, occasioned by the former perceiving 
the restoration of royalty in the family of Reuben, 
and the flourishing state of the kingdom under 
Thorus. On the approach of the l^'aster festi- 
val the people were much harassed by the 
Greeks, who wished to make them celebrate it 
at the same time with tliem. In the course of 
the dispute that arose on this subject between 
the two nations, some of the Armenians wrote 
to Gregory Vikayaser for advice, who, not wish- 
ing to provoke the enmity of the Greeks against 
himself, replied in general terms, that it was 
becoming to adhere to all those customs which 


had been established by their ancestors. Some 
abode by this advice ; others dissenting, joined 
the Greeks, and proved afterwards more virulent 
against the Armenians than the Greeks tliem- 
selves. Among the hitter class was Constantine 
of Urha, Gramartic of Hiromcla, Enoch the 
priest of Vahkah, Paul of Tarsus, and a few 

Shortly after this, Gregory Vikayaser, at the 
request of Basilius the^Crafty and his consort, 
took up his residence in the red conventatRapan, 
near the city ofCheson. Here, after a short time 
lie fell sick, and sending for Parsick the pontiff 
and Basilius the Crafty gave them charge of the 
two sons oi" his ncjihew Apirat, viz. Gregory and 
Nierses, whom he had hitherto brought up with 
the greatest care, and who had early discovered 
signs of great wisdom and piety. He expressed 
his desiic that on the death of Parsick, he should 
be succeeded in the pontificate by the elder of 
these two youths, (jlregory. He then becoming 
worse, received the sacrament and expired; 
havinu attained a very advanced age, and enjoyed 
the dignity of pontiff forty years. His remains 
were interred in the convent in which he died. 
A. n 1105. Parsick by the death of his uncle Gregory, 
era 554. "was put ill possessioii of the full power of pon- 
tiff, and he exercised the function of that office 
henceforward, sometimes in the desert of 
Shughr, and sometimes in the city of Edessa. 


The youths, Gregory and Nierses, whom he 
received in joint charge with Basilius the Crafty, 
resided with him, and were educated by him 
with all the care and diligence necessary to 
make them ornaments of their nation. Gregory 
was shortly after ordained priest. 

The tranquillity which the Armenians had of a. n. 1107. 
late enjoyed was disturbed in this year, by an emooi;. 
irruption of the Persians into Cilicia, where 
they plundered many places and captured a 
number of prisoners. They were at length 
opposed by Thorus who defeated and drove 
them out ot his territories. They then proceeded 
to ravaije the countrv under the government of 
Basilius the Crafty, but here they met with less 
success than in Cilicia, for Basilius having col- 
lected a few troops, gave them a complete 
overthrow, depriving them of all the plunder 
and captives they had taken during the whole 
course of their expedition. Basilius after this 
returned to his capital C"hest)n, whence he dis- 
patched to Thorus a part of the spoil he had 
taken from the imaders. lie released all the 
captives who had been recaptured by him IVom 
the hands of the Persians, and sent them with 
iov to their homes. 

When Taphar the king of Persia heard of the .\.n. iios. 
defeat and dispersion of his ^inny by Basilius cm :,i7. 
the Crafty, be assembled an immense Ibrce, and 



marched in person against this gallant Armenian, 
to revenge the loss he had sustained. 

He first appeared near the city of Ilasanmisur, 
and the season being- autumn, he captured a 
great numl)er of people whom he found in the 
fields, employed in gathering the harvest. He 
then proceeded agaiii.4 the castle of Harthan, to 
which he laid siege. In the mean time Basilius 
the Crafty had not been idle, having collected 
a gallant band of Armenians, all men of ex- 
traordinary bodily prowess, with whom he set 
forward to repel the invaders. On coming near 
the Persian armv Basilius formed his force into 
four divisions, giving the command of the first 
to his uncle Peter; the second to one Basilius, 
surnamed Tighah (boy), of the race of the 
Camsaracans; the third to Tigranes, a descen- 
dant of a noble Armenian family; the fourth 
he headed himself. An Armenian chief named 
Abulasath son of Tachat, of the province of 
Taron, also assisted Basilius with a select body 
of cavalry, which he commanded in person. 
Basilius then directed all his four divisions to 
march to different quarters of the enemy's camp, 
and at a given signal to make a simultaneous 
attack. This was done, and the Persians taken 
by surprise, made a very faint resistance, and 
after losing an immense number of troops, took 
to flight. The Persian general on the first 


alarm of the attack of the Armenians, endea- 
voured to inspire his men with confidence, and 
to check the progress of the panic with which 
the sudden nature of the assault struck them. 
While he was in the act of encouraging his 
men, Tigranes came up to him, and with one 
blow split his head through his iron helmet. 
On seeing the fall of their general, his guards 
immediately surrounded Tigranes, who, however, 
having slain two of them, succeeded in ex- 
tricatmg himself. Many Persians of distinction 
were taken in this encounter. The victors, 
gathering an immense booty from the camp 
of the vanquished, returned to their respective 


Continuation of the reign of Thorns the First, and 
the pontificate of Gregory Pahlavie. 

Two years after the defeat of the Persians by ^ P- ^^^^' 
Basilius, near the castle of Harthan, Cilicia "a559. 
was invaded by numerous hordes of Scythians. 
Thorus on this occasion, having obtained as- 
sistance from the Armenian chiefs, Tigranes 
and Abuiasath, marched with his brother Leo 
at the head of all his troops to resist the 
marauders. A battle ensued, in which the 

VOL. H. n 


Armenians were defeated, owing to the vast 
superiority of numbers on the side of the Scy- 
thians. Not at all disheartened by this ill success, 
Thorus exhorted his troops to put their trust 
in God, and again led them against the enemy. 
In this second encounter the gallant chiefs, 
Tigranes and Abulasath, fell after performing 
prodigies of valour. The loss of these gallant 
individuals was most deeply felt by all patriotic 

At the time when they received their death 

blow, Leo, the brother of Thorus, was near them, 

and was so much affected by the sight, that 

losing all command of himself, and being as 

it were under the inspiration and guidance of a 

superior and invisible power, he furiously rushed 

into the midst of the enemy's thronged troops, 

and there, like an eagle in a dovecote, spread 

destruction and terror. The Scythians, unable 

to offer opposition to his impetuosity, which 

they had never seen paralleled, precipitately 

fled. Victory crowned the exertions of the 

brave Leo, but, strange to tell, so lost was 

he to every thing that occurred about him 

while under the impulse of rage and fury at 

the sight of the death of his friends, that when 

he came to himself he declared he did not 

recollect a single circumstance of the gallant 

feat he had performed. The Latins look upon 


this achievement as a miracle. The Scythians a. p.iiu. 
oa their rout by Leo, quitted the territories <«560. 
of Thorus, and advancing to the small sea 
of Kharberd, laid siege to the strong fortress 
of Zovk (seas), then in the possession of the 
great Armenian chief Apirat Pahlavie, grandson 
of Gregorius Magistratus, and father of Gregory 
and Nierses the graceful. Here they were 
baffled in every attempt to capture the fortress, 
and at length raising the siege, set forward 
on other expeditions. Apirat, however, exposing 
himself on the walls to view the enemy in 
their retreat, was shot by an arrow discharged 
at him by a Scythian who had lain concealed 
beneath. He died in the course of a few 
hours, and his son Basilius succeeded him in his 
possessions, assisted in the government by his 
brother Shahan, surnamed Zoravar or the ge- 
neral. A year after this, Basilius the Crafty died, 
and leaving no children, his government was 
exercised by Tighah Basilius the Camsaracan. 

At this period hostilities broke out between a. p. 1112. 
Thorus and the three sons of Mantaley the "asei. 
murderers of king Gagik, their castle Ki- 
zistra being near the territories of Thorus. 
The Armenian monarch having assembled his 
troops, marched to Ki/istra, and arriving there 
at night stationed his infantry in ambush, 
and in the course of the next day, appeared 

n 2 



to despair of taking the fort, and with his 
cavalry retreated. The garrision fancying that 
Thorus would not return again, opened their 
gates, and issued in and out in supposed 
perfect safety. At this juncture the concealed 
troops rushed suddenly to the gates, and killed 
all they found there. While this was going 
forward, Thorus appeared with his cavalry, 
when all entering the fort, they seized the three 
sons of Mantaley and put the remainder of the 
garrison to the sword. When the murderers 
of king Gagik were brought into the presence 
of Thorus, he demanded of them the sword 
and apparel of that unfortunate monarch. They 
brought them to him, but one of the brothers 
anticipatino- the fate to which they were doomed, 
on their going for the apparel and sword in 
question, ran to the top of the castle, threw 
himself from the wall, and dashed out his brains 
by the fall. When Thorus heard of this, 
he seized a cudgel with which he beat one 
of the survivors to death, exclaiming, that such 
monsters did not deserve to perish by the sword. 
The other brother being less guilty in the black 
affair of king Gagik's murder, was less harshly 
treated; he was bound and sent to Cilicia. 
Thorus having plundered the fortress placed 
a few troops in it, and then returned to his city 
Vahkah. Just after this event Parsick the 

A. D. 1113. 

era 562. 


pontiff died in the convent of the desert of 
Shughr, having enjoyed that dignity thirty-one 
years, during: ei^iht years of which he exercised 
the office of sole ruler of the Armenian church 
the remaining period conjointly with Gregory Vi- 
kayaser. Agreeably to the wishes of the latter, 
expressed in his last moments, Gregory the son 
of Apirat succeeded Parsick in the pontificate, 
his election taking place in the red convent 
in the desert of Shughr. 

Gregory the Third, although but twenty years 
of age at the time of his elevation to the 
pontifical dignity, was already celebrated for 
the wonderful extent of his knowledge, and 
the wisdom and piety which all his actions 
displayed. In personal graces few of his con- 
temporaries equalled him, and in the amiable 
nature of his disposition he was never surpassed 
by any of his predecessors. He was the author 
of manv valuable treatises, he made several 
highly creditable translations of scarce foreign 
works, and is known as tiie composer of two 
excellent anthems, viz. " tJie ificwprcssible mys- 
ten/,'' and " the ic^'cat icoudery 

When the news of the election of Gregory a.d. iiu. 
became known, David, the son of one Thornik, *ra ;-)t;:5- 
then archbisho)) of Akhtliamar, refused to 
acknowledge him, and having induced five 
bishops to join him in his disobedience, caused 

11 :i 


himself to be consecrated pontiff in the convent 
ofZor. On Gregory becoming acquainted witli 
this, he convened a large meeting of the clergy, 
amounting to 500 persons, v^ho by common 
consent rejected the new pontiff, and anathema- 
tized both him and all his adherents. It w^as also 
enacted in this assembly, that henceforward, 
on the election of a pontiff, the unanimous 
consent of the four sees of Bujncy, Ilaghbat, 
Thaddeus and Stathev, should be indispensable 
to the success of a candidate. In the mean 
time, David was resolute in retaining his illegally 
acquired dignity, and continued to exercise 
the functions of pontiff in Akhthamar, and 
when he died others succeeded him in the 
same office. In the course of a few years after 
this, Gregory removed from the red convent 
m the desert of Shughr, and settled himself in 
the castle of Zovk his paternal inheritance, and 
situated between the small seas of Kharberd 
and Arzn. Having much improved this castle, 
and newly fortified it, he established the seat 
of his spiritual government there, A. D. 1125, 

H. E. 574, and consecrated his brother Nierses 

the graceful, a bishop. 
AD. 1141. About this period a nuncio from the Pope 
craTyo! of Rome arrived at Antioch, where he held 

a meeting to settle some religious points, 

to which Gregory was invited. On the dis- 


solution of this meeting the nuncio went to 
Jerusalem, and as the pontiff Gregory was 
under a vow to visit that city, he accom- 
panied him. Another assembly was held here, 
when a discussion taking place respecting the 
Armenian religious ceremonies, Gregory distin- 
guished himself by a very able speech with 
which all present were much pleased. On 
the pontiff's return to Zovk, the Latins wrote 
many commendatory letters to the Pope con- 
cerning him, and his holiness thereupon sent 
him a pontifical sceptre and veil, accompanied 
by a letter full of kindness and high considera- 
tion. A reply was returned by Gregorius in 
which he testified his sense of the honour 
which had been conferred upon him. 

In this yearThorus the king of the Armenians 
died, after a reign of twenty-three years, leaving 
no issue. His remains were interred in the 
convent of Dirazark. 


A. D. 1123. 

era 572. 

C H A P T E R V. 

The reign of Leo the First. 
Ox the decease of Thorus, Leo his brothfer a.».ii23> 

succeeded him in the government of the Ar- erITri. 
mcnians in Cilicia. Immedrately after tak- 
ing possession of his authority, he assembled 
his force* and besieged aad took the city of 


Mamestia. He then marched all over his 
territories, and advanced as far as Tarsus. In 
the course of this tour he expelled all the 
marauders who had been induced by the news 
of the death of the late king to enter Cilicia 
for the purpose of plunder. Some few places 
had also been taken by them, which after a 
little trouble he recovered. The fame of Leo 
became so great, that he was an object of fear 
and dread to all the enemies of the Armenians, 
and the Greeks avoided all dispute with him. 
On account of his valiant character he was sur- 
named the New Ajdahak, (meaning the Median 
king Ahasuerus, of whom mention was made in 
the sixth chapter of the first part) and no one 
disputed his title as king of the Armenians. 
A. D. 1130. At the time of the accession of Leo there 


era 579. was a Latin count named Bedewin residing in 
the city of Antioch, who having heard of the 
renown of that monarch sought to get him into 
his power. Fearful of encountering him in 
fight, he set about the attainment of his object 
by treachery. For this purpose, after writing 
to Leo assurances of his high consideration 
and regard, he invited him to an entertainment; 
and on the invitation being accepted, the Latin 
breaking through every law of hospitality 
and good faith, with the assistance of some 
of his countrymen perfidiously seized his guest 



•and confined him in a castle. After an impri- 
sonment of two months Leo obtained his release, 
by giving Bedewin, the cities of Mamestia and 
Adana, the castle called the rock of Sarwand, 
•and 60,000 pieces of money, besides leaving in 
his hands one of his sons as hostage for hence- 
forward taking no hostile steps to revenge 
himself on the count. 

Leo, however, after his release, attacked and ad. iisi. 
recaptured the whole of the places which had "a 58o. 
been extorted from him, and in revenge annoyed 
•the Latin chief whenever he found an oppor- 
tunity. The Latins being much molested by 
him called to their aid Fulk the king of 
Jerusalem, and hereupon several bloody battles 
were fought between the two parties. Leo 
'however proving victorious in all his encounters 
'with them, the Latins sought to make peace. 
By the mediation of Choslin count of Edessa, 
one of whose relations was Leo's wife, this 
was effected ; the Latin chief restoring the 
Armenian monarch's son, and entering into 
•engagements never more to molest him. 

The emperor Johannes Porphyrogenitus hav- a. d. 1137. 


ing perceived that Leo had obtained possession of era riSfi. 
several Greek cities in Lsauria, and that he was 
daily becoming more powerful, declared war 
against him. To render his defeat impossible, 
Johannes assembled all tiie forces of Greece, 



to whicli he added various troops from other 
nations, and at the head of the vast army which 
they formed he marched into Cilicia. When 
Leo perceived this immense body coming 
against him, he retired with his wife and two 
of his sons, Reuben and Thorus, into a ])art 
of the mountains where the Greeks could not 
reach him. His two younger sons, Mtleh and 
Stephaney, were at this period with their ma- 
ternal relations at Edessa. Leo was obliged 
to retreat before his enemies; for at that time 
he and his chiefs were at variance. When 
the emperor heard of the retreat of Leo, he 
sent a large detachment of his army to pursue 
him, to prevent his sudden reappearance to 
attack the Greeks in the event of his obtaining 
troops. Johannes then, at the head of the 
emainder advanced against Mamestia, which 
he captured, as also Tarsus and Adana. After 
obtaining possession of these places he de- 
tached a strong force to lay siege to Anarzaba, 
a city built on a high hill, strongly fortified, 
and containing a large population, all of a 
warlike and undaunted character. On the 
approach of the Greek troops to this city, the 
inhabitants armed, and issuing out of the gates, 
attacked and completely defeated them. The 
emperor then marched with all his numerous 
army and besieged jt. For thirty-seven days 



he continued incessantly engaged against it, 
but the citizens by means of red hot iron and 
stones which they successfully hurled on the 
besiegers, destroyed all their battering engines. 
This produced a short cessation of hostilities; 
but the emperor determined not to raise the 
siege, constructed new machines which he caused 
to be covered with clay, to prevent their being 
burnt like the preceding ones. The operations 
of tlie besiesrers were then recommenced, and 
in the course of a short time they made a 
breach. The Greeks stormed,' and a dreadful 
conflict ensued ; the Armenians disputing every 
inch of sfround with the most determined bra- 
very; even the women took part in the fray, 
hurling from the tops of their houses stones, 
bricks, and furniture, upon the heads of the 
assailants. Dreadful was the confusion that 
prevailed. The Greeks, although slain in heaps, 
still continued to rush in, and the citizens 
were finally obliged to retire to the citadel. 
Here they were besieged by the enemy, and 
finding that their capture was inevitable should 
they remain much longer there, they boldly 
issued out, and cuttinsj^ their way through the 
besiegers, left the city. The emperor, although 
he obtained possession of Anarzaba, lost such 
an immense number of men in the siege that he 
felt little or no joy at his success. He then 


proceeded to besiege the castle of Vahkah, 
after leaving a garrison of Greek troops in 
Anarzaba. On his arrival before this castle 
he sent in a summons to the Armenians to 
surrender it quietly, but they treated it with 
contempt. Vahkah was commanded at this 
time by a chief named Constantine, of the 
Reubenian race^ a man of tremendous bodily 
strength and great experience in war. This 
chief having mounted on the battlements of the 
castle, dared the Greeks to produce a man to 
contend with him in single fight. Hereupon 
a Greek named Eustratius offered himself as 
the champion of his nation. Having armed 
himself at all points, he cried out to Constantine 
to descend and meet him in the field, not with 
words, but with weapons, as one warrior should 
meet another. Constantine then issued out of 
the oates of the castle and attacked Eustratius. 
The conflict was well supported on each side, 
both displaying the art of perfect swordsmen. 
Constantine at length received so violent a blow 
on his shield that it was dashed to pieces, 
which obliofed him to retire within the castle. 
The siege was then pressed with double vigour, 
and Vahkah was at length taken; when the 
emperor seizing Constantine, sent him in chains 
to Constantinople. On the arrival of the ship 
in which he was conveyed, at that city, Con- 



stantine succeeded in effecting his escape by- 
breaking his fetters and killing the guards who 
had him in charge. Through the treachery 
of some Armenians he was some time after 
retaken by the Greeks^, but what was the nature 
of his subsequent adventures our historians do 
not state. 

In the mean time the troops who were sent 
in pursuit of Leo, followed him to the mountains 
where he had taken refuge, and seizing all the 
passes completely blockaded him. This pre- 
venting a supply of food being furnished him, 
he was reluctantly obliged to surrender himself 
into their hands, together with his wife and 
sons. They were all bound and conducted to 
the emperor, who sent them in chains to a place 
of secure confinement. He then drove all the 
Armenian troops from Cilicia, and appointed 
Greek governors over all the cities he had cap- 
tured, leaving a force of 12,000 men to protect 
them in their offices. He forthwith, with the 
remainder of his army, returned to Constan- 
tinople. These events occurred A. D. 1137, 
H. E. 586, and the fifteenth year of Leo's 

In the course of a year after his return to Ji). iiss. 
Constantinople, the emperor moved to ])ity by era 587. 
the representations made to him by the friends 
of the captive Armenian monarch, released him. 


his wife, and his sons, but retained them near his 

person, giving- them apartments in the imperial 

palace, and treating them with honour and respect. 

A. D. 1139. Some time after this, on an occasion when 


era 588. the GRiperor went to the bath, Leo's son Reu- 
ben wiio accompanied him gave a proof of 
strength which is almost incredible. He took 
a large marble cistern which stood in the bath, 
and which four men could with difficulty move, 
and bearing it in his hands with all the ease 
that he would have borne a basin, placed it 
before the emperor. All who observed this 
feat of strength, cried out ''a second Sampsonl" 
Some envious individuals, however, found means 
to raise suspicions in the emperor's mind with 
regard to this extraordinary strength of Reuben, 
and he directed his eyes to be thrust out, which 
occasioned his death. The emperor shortly 
after, entertaining unjust suspicions respecting 
Leo, caused him and his son Thorns to be fet- 
tered and remanded to their former prison. 
A. D. 1140. Here thev remained for some time, earnestly 
era 589. supplicatiug the Almighty to assist them, when 
one night Thorus had a remarkable dream 
which he related the next morning to his father. 
"I thought," said he, "a man of a most glorious 
appearance entered our prison and presented 
me with a loaf on which was a fish. You asked 
me for it, and on my giving it to you, you did 


not eat of it!" Leo then exclaimed with joy, 
" My son, the time will arrive, as the loaf indi- 
cates, when thou shalt recover all the country 
which I have lost; and as the fish represents, 
thou shalt become powerful at sea. I partook 
not of the gifts, therefore I shall not see the ac- 
complishment of these things !" 

Leo died a year afterward in prison, on which H^J^^i^^^" 
the emperor compassionating Thorus, released ^'■* ^'■^^• 
him and kept him near his person as before. 


The reign of Thorus the Second. 

Whilst Johannes Porphvrosrenitus remained a. n. 1142. 
in the imperial throne, Thorus resided with him, erassi. 
and by his engaging manners became a great 
favourite not only with him, but with all who 
knew him, high and low, chiefs and domestics. 
He was of a cheerful disposition, and uncom- 
monly handsome person, generous to a fault, 
and brave even to rashness. On the death of Jo- 
hannes and the succession of Manuel Comncnus 
to the imperial throne, which haj)prncd about 
a year after tiie decease of Leo, Thorus de- 
termined to withdraw to Cilicia. He was unable 
to do this immediately that Manuel Comncnus 
became emperor, as he had recently married a 


Greek lady of vast wealth; besides, Cilicia was 
in a dreadful state of confusion, in consequence 
of the inroads which the enemies of that country 

A. n iH.i. were continually making:. Tlie year following 
eras'jj. howevcr, his wife died ; and Thorns gathering all 
his property secretly quitted Constantinople, 
and proceeded by water to Antioch disguised 
as a merchant. From thence he went to Cilicia, 
and arriving in the mountains of Taurus, disclosed 
to a priest his name and family, who thereupon 
took him to his house and there kept him in a 
state of concealment. 

A. i>-i)4*- At this period, numbers of Armenians had 
erasya. taken refuge in the mountains of Taurus from the 
persecution of the Greeks, and ardently longed 
for an opportunity to break the chains which 
these usurpers had thrown upon their country. 
The priest who had given Thorns protection in 
his house, having assembled the Armenian chiefs 
who w^ere in that quarter, informed them that 
the son of Leo was amongst them. They there- 
upon desired to see him; and joining with 
enthusiasm in his desire to drive the Greeks from 
Cihcia, soon procured him an army of 10,000 
men. Thorns at the head of these, attacked the 
castles of Vahkah and Amuda and captured 
them. He then proceeded against other places, 
and the most unbounded success accompanied 
him. He took successively Amarzaba, Adana, Sis» 


Areuzberd and Barzrberd, and succeeded in esta- 
blishing himself in the throne of his ancestors. 
Shortly after this, Zanghie the chief of Aleppo, 
attacked and took Edessa from the hands of 
the Latins. At this period Stephaney and 
Mileh were in that citj-, but in the confusion 
that followed its capture they found means to 
escape to their brother Thorns, by whom they 
were appointed to offices of trust under him. 
On the news of Thorus's success reaching Con- a. d. 1145. 


stantinople the emperor became highly in- e.a 594. 
censed, and raising an immense force, placed it 
under the command ot" his cousin Andronicus 
Cesar, with directions to march into Cilicia 
and extirpate all the Armenians. 

On the arrival of Andronicus and his army ;^?^ 'i^c. 
at the frontiers of Cilicia, Thorus sent messen- <'"i^''-'- 
gers to him, saying, " I will submit to the 
emperor, if he will rule justly. ^^ hy has he 
sent you with such a multitude of troops against 
me? If he doires to hold a despotic sway 
over the country, let him know that free men 
will never quietly submit their nocks to the 
yoke!" Andronicus treated this message with 
contempt, replying, " Know tliat the justice of 
the em|)er(>r is of such a nature that he lias 
ordered me to bind Thorus with chains, as 
he formerly bound his father!'' 

Irritated at this answer, 'J'ii(;rus prepared to 

VOL. il. o 


receive the invaders. He assembled his troops, 
and placino- the whole of his infantry in ambush 
in a certain pass by which the Greeks would 
have to ^o, he by a circuitous route <rot in their 
rear with the whole of his cavalry. The Greek 
army fell into the snare that was laid for them, 
and on their arrival at the pass where the 
Armenians lay in ambush, they were suddenly 
attacked on all sides. A dreadful slaughter of 
the invaders followed, and a multitude were 
made prisoners, among whom were several 
Greek chiefs, and an Armenian named Basilius 
who had turned to the faith of the Greeks, and 
from whom Thorns had before taken the city of 
Barzrberd. Andronicus, who had with difficulty 
escaped, wrote an account of this aflair to the 
emperor, declaring that the loss of the army 
was not to be attributed to the want of coura2fe 
in his soldiers; and basely asserting that Thorns 
had deceived him by false oaths. In the meau 
time the Armenians quietly returned off to their 
habitations with the spoil and captives they 
had taken. 

The emperor much concerned respecting the 
number of Greek prisoners in the hands of 
Thorus, sent ambassadors to him to treat for 
their ransom. On their arrival, Thorus ex- 
claimed with affected astonishment, "What! are 
ray captives so much esteemed by the emperor 


that he wishes to ransom and appoint them chiefs- 
of his nation!" He then demanded at what price 
they were valued, which produced much per- 
plexity in the breasts of the ambassadors, wdio 
were unwilling to say little for fear of degrading 
those for whom they treated ; and they dared 
not say much, as in that case they would be 
obliged to pay heavily. In this dilemma they 
told the king to fix his own price. Thorus 
then said, " If these people were of any use 
to me, I would not part with them, but as they 
are not, take them for what you choose!" 

The ambassadors then consulting with each 
other preferred giving large sums for the ransom 
of the Greek chiefs, as they reflected that were 
they to give little, they would be sadly vilified 
in the eyes of the Armenians. They then 
brought to Thorus an immense quantity of trea- 
sure, which when he saw, he exclaimed with 
surprise, " Wiiat ! are my ca})tives indeed worth 
so much!" lie then distributed the whole of 
the money to his troops. The ambassadors 
being astonished at this munificence, Thorus 
addressed tlicm thus, " I reward my soldiers 
that they may again take your chiefs .uid fa- 
vourites and bring them in fetters to me!" The 
ambassadors then set out with their released 
countrymen for Constantinople, and on their 
arrival there made the emperor acquainted with, 

o 2 


all that had befallen them. Upon this he 
despaired of being- able to subdue Thorns, and 
by the mediation of tlie court of Antioch made 
peace with him. A war, however, subsequently 
broke out again between them, in which Thorus 
was again successful, havjng captured the Greek 
chiefs and received ransom for them as before. 

A.D.1H6. About this period the Scythians commenced 
era 51(5. making destructive inroads into Kharberd and 
Marash ; and Masuda the chief of Iconia exer- 
cised a despotic power in Mesopotamia. In 
consequence of these events, Gregory the pontiff 
quitted the castle of Zovk, and accompanied 
by his brother Nierses and all the clergy 
belonging to the pontificate, went to Hiromcla, 

A. D. 11)7. then in the possession of the Latins. Here he 

eraTyi'! scttlcd, and in the course of some time afterwards 

established a distinct pontificate in Hiromcla, 

which he ornamented with a splendid church 

built in the form of a cupola. 

A. D. 1)54. jj^ ti^g mean time the Scythians continued 

Haiciin '' 

era 603. harassing Marash and Kharberd, extending their 
depredations to the Black Mountain and plains 
ofCilicia. Here, however, they were met by 
Thorus and driven out of the country with loss. 
The son of Masuda named Ghulich Asian, (in 
Turkish, Guluch Arslan) at the instigation of the 
emperor, and contrary to the express stipulation 
of his father, about this period marched to attack 


Thorus, but was routed and put to flight. 
Thorus then carried arms intoGhulich's country, 
and committed horrid devastations; but in the 
course of a short time was prevailed upon to 
make peace with him. At this epoch Stephaney „;P^^^^^' 
the kin<r*s brother rebelled, and became inde- era go*. 
pendent. He, at the head of a body of bold 
determined troops, recaptured the Black Moun- 
tain from the Scythians, and marchinp^ into 
Marash subdued the whole country. On his a. n. 1157. 
return from this part, the Greeks with whom emeos. 
he had before had some contests, in which they 
were beaten by him, waylaid, and caught him. 
They then put him to a most cruel death, tying 
his hands behind him, and throwing him alive 
into a cauldron of boiling water. His body being 
thrown carelessly away by his murderers, was 
afterwards found by some of his countrymen, 
and buried by them in the convent of Arkah 
Calin. Stephaney left two sons, named Leo 
and Reuben, both of whom in the course of 
time reigned in Cilicia. The news of the a. d. 1159. 

I • mi Hairnn 

dreadful fate of their brother reaching 1 horus cra607. 
and iMileh, they were seized with boundless 
grief and horror, and forthwith began to seek 
vengeance on his murderers the Greeks, destroy- 
ing numbers of their towns and villages. They 
afterwards made a descent on the island of 
Cyprus, where they caused extensive mischief, 



taking a vast number of ca{)tives, cutting off their 
ears and slitting their noses, and in this maimed 
state scnduii; them to Constantinople. The 
siglit of his subjects tlius mutilated, excited 
the warmest anger olthe em|)eror, and he forth- 
with levied a large army and sent it against 
Tliorus. Tiie Armenian monarch met this force, 
attacked, and entirely defeated it. The emperor 
then assemblnig a still larger force than before, 
marched at their head mto Cilicia. After se- 
veral encounters which sometimes were de- 
cided in favour of the Armenians, and at other 
tmies of the Greeks, Thorus became reconciled 
with the emperor, by whom he was honoured 
A.D. 1167. with the title of Pansebastus. A few years after 
era 616. this Thorus died, after possessing the govern- 
ment twenty-four years, leaving one son yet in 
his mfancy, whom he delivered in charge to his 
father-in-law Thomas Pail, a renowned chief and 
a native of Antioch. This individual having 
received the boy, governed Cilicia for one year. 




The pontificates of Nierses the Graceful, and 
Gregory Tighah (the hoy), and the proceedings 
of the Council of Union. 

The country of Cilicia having enjoyed for y^^^y^^* 
some time a state of repose, Gregory the pontiff ^"^ ^^'^' 
being arrived at extreme old age, convened a 
meeting of clergy at Hiromcla, and with their 
consent consecrated his brother Nierses pontitf 
of the Armenians. He then retired to a se- 
cluded spot, and three years afterwards died, 
having been in the pontificate fifty-three years. 
His remains were interred at Hiromcla. Nierses 
the Graceful on his elevation to the pontifical 
chair, with much zeal and activity set about 
improving the condition of the people, whose 
spiritual concerns were committed to his care. 
The Armenians being dispersed in various parts 
of the world, he sent missionaries to many 
distant ])arts wiiere they had settled, and with 
the consent of his l)ishops wrote a general 
letter to all the nation, lull of heavenly wisdom, 
wherein he exhorted all to rectitude of conduct. 


A. D. i\r>s. 

era 617. 


ITo also wrote to the inliabit;.nts of Mesopotamia 
on account of the Arevordies or worshippers of 
the Sun, and other heretics. In consequence 
of the destruction of the kinodom of Armenia, 
some irregularities had unavoidably crept into 
Ihe church, to remedy which Nierses made 
many excellent regulations. He wrote also 
a collection of anthems. 

In consequence of the mild, easy manner 
in which he exercised his functions, and the 
peculiarly sweet tone of his literary produc- 
tions, he was suniamed Shinorhali or the 
Graceful. He was also called Clajensis, in 
consequence of his exercising his pontifical 
dignity in the fortress of Hiromcla. 

Through the medium of Duke Alexius, the 
son-in-law of the emperor Manuel Comnenus, 
Nierses endeavoured to effect a union between 
the churches of Greece and Armenia. After the 
pontiff had written several times on this subject 
to the emperor, and to Michael the Greek pa- 
triarch, a theologian, named Lezion Master 
Theorianey, was sent by them into Cilicia, 
accompanied by the abbot of an Armenian 
convent, named Johannes Uthman, from Phillip- 
poli. On their arrival at Hiromcla they held 
a long conference with Nierses, Theorianey 
committing to paper every thing that fell from 
the pontiff. Having arranged their measures. 


the two deputies returned to Constantinople, 
bearing a letter from INierses. Shortly after 
they came again to Hiromcla with letters from 
the emperor and patriarch containing their 
consent to the union contemplated. The 
pontiff then summoned a meeting, writing to all 
the Armenian bishops on the occasion. While ^/^• ^^^^' 
Nierses was busily engaged in preparing for cra622. 
this meeting, he was suddenly taken ill and 
died in the 7oth year of his age and eighth of 
his pontificate. An annual feast was appointed 
to be held for him on the 13th of August. 
The most distinguished of all this pontiff's 
disciples was Nierses Lambronensis, one of 
his relations, the son of Oshin, who greatly 
resembled his master in his acquirements and 
productions. The following are a few of the 
Armenian worthies who flourished during the 
pontificate of Nierses. His fellow-scholar Sar- 
kies the Graceful; Ignatius the annotator ; 
George the monk, abbot of the convent of 
Haghbat, who wrote a commentary on Isaiah; 
Johannes of Tavush ; Mukhithar of Ganzak, 
surnamed Cosh, who wrote fables, the instruc- 
tions of Adam to his sons, and Eve to her 
daughters, and composed statute books; and 
IMuchitha of Ani, who is the author of the 
lives of the ancients. 

On the death of Nierses, Gregory the Fourth, HaJ^^i''"^' 

era C22. 

202 HISTORY or armenia>. 

snrnrimcd Tighali, (the boy) his nephew, suc- 
ceeded to the pontificate by the consent of all. 
Gregory conciliated the afi'ection of all who knew 
him by llie ease and elegance of his manners. 
In his person he was tall and commanding, 
witii a i)eculiarly sweet expression of counte- 
nance, and in his character every thing was 
guided by the rule of virtue and precepts of 
religion. The emperor on hearing of the death 
of ?'>'ierses, and the election of Gregory, wrote to 
the latter condoling with him on the loss he had 
sutlered, and exhorting him to carry into exe- 
cution the union proposed by his predecessor. 
After some correspondence on this subject 
Gregory convened a meeting at Tarsus, where 
IVierses Lambronensis made a splendid oration. 
The Greek metropolitan also convened an assem- 
bly at Constantinople, from which they wrote to 
the Armenian council the conditions upon which 
the union contemplated could alone be effected. 
These were, that the latter would consent to ac- 
cept the council of Chalcedon, and acknowledge 
two distinct natures in our Lord Jesus Christ. 
A.D. iir;). On the receipt of these conditions another 
er»6Js. meetin<^ was called in Iliromcla, consisting of 
the ])ontiff of the Aluans, thirty-three bishops, 
and an infinite number of priests. These, 
with unanimous consent, and with the con- 
sent of 300 archbishops who were absent, but 


bad written to the assembly their opinions, 
consented to accept the council of Chalcedon, 
and to admit distinctly in Christ two natures. 
They then wrote to the emperor and Greek 
council an account of their decision ; but the 
messenger who bore their letters was detained 
by the disturbances in the way of his journey 
to Constantinople and obliged to return to 
Hiromcla. Shortly after, news arrived of the 
death of the emperor Manuel, for which all the 
Armenians mourned greatly, as a stop was put 
by this event to their intended union. 

When an account of the proceedings of the a. d. 1130. 

* ° Haicaa 

Armenian council reached the people of Zora- "* ''■^^• 
get and Sanahin, some tumult was occasioned 
amongst the inhabitants, one of whom, Gregory 
Tuteordey, a friar of Sanahin, had the presump- 
tion to write a very rebellious letter to the 
pontiff, who returned him a very mild but wise 
reply. This not producing its proper effect 
on Tuteordey, he caused a number of people to 
renounce all obedience to Gregory, and elect 
Parsick bishop of Ani, as their spiritual chief. 
The majority of the nation and even the citizens 
of Ani unanimously approved of Gregory's 
measures, and continued to obey him as their 



The reigns of Mileh and Reuben the Second. 

A.D. ii(;3. On the death of Thorus kino: of the Arme- 
era6]7. nians, his brother Mileh, who had revolted 
from him, resided at Aleppo. On his hearing 
of the decease of his brother, he borrowed the 
cavalry of the chief of Aleppo and-proceeded to 
Cilicia. Here he found Thomas Pail in posses- 
sion of the government, as we before stated, 
and the Armenians not acknowledging his claims, 
but treating him with neglect, he returned to 
Aleppo. Here he procured more troops and 

A. D. nro. set out for the conquest of Cilicia. On his 
era 618. arrival at the frontiers, the Armenian chiefs 
finding that they were not able to cope with the 
large army which accompanied him, consented 
to receive him as their sovereign instead of the 
son of their last monarch. Mileh then took 
possession of the country and dismissed his 
foreign troops with large presents. Thomas 
Pail, the late governor, fancying that Mileh was 
plotting against him, fled to Antioch, whence 
he had originally come, accompanied by the 


young son of Thorus. Here the latter was mur- 
dered by some wretch probably the agents 
of Mileh, as he was a man of bad principles. 
He, however, did not long enjoy the government, 
for addicting himself to base and detestable 
vices, his troops became disgusted, revolted, and 
killed him after a reign of five years. 

He was succeeded by Reuben the Second, son a. d. 1171. 


of Stephaney and nephew of Thorus and Mileh, erafi23. 
who on the death of the late monarch was 
residing with his brother Leo under the pro- 
tection of Bacuran an Armenian chief. By 
the consent of all the nation he ascended the 
throne. Reuben was of a mild disposition and 
became beloved by all his subjects. Immedi- 
ately after his accession he set about repairing 
all the towns and villages which had been per- 
mitted to fall into decay during the preceding 
reigns. He also cultivated the friendship of the 
neighbouring powers, particularly the Latins, 
from whose nation he took a wife by whom he 
had two daughters. 

About this period war broke out between a.d. 1182. 

1 /-^ 1 1 A 1 -r\ 1 11 Haican 

the Greeks nnd Armenians, and Reuben laid era 63i. 
siege to and captured Tarsus and Amisda, which 
some time before had fallen into tlie hands of 
the former people. In consequence of his suc- 
cess against Tarsus, \\v. drew upon himself the 
hatred of Hcthum Sebastus, the brother of 


Nicrscs Lambronensesand son-in-law of Thorus 
the Second, nethnm at this period was governor 
of Lambrou, which appointment he held from the 
Greeks. This enmity at length rose to such a 
pitch, that Keuben's anger was excited, and le- 
vying a large force he marched and laid siege 
to Lambron. Hethum on this applied for as- 
sistance to Bohemond the Latin count of An- 
tioch, vjho, willing to serve him, but not being 
able to meet Reuben openly in the field, took 
the following base measures to oblige the Ar- 
menians to raise the seige. He wrote to Reu- 
ben, and alter many protestations of regard, in- 
vited him to a certain place where they might 
make a treaty of alliance together. The king 
not suspecting that any treachery was intend- 
ed, repaired to the place named by the count, 
who had already arrived to receive him. Here 
he was seized by the latter and put in confine- 
A. D. 11 B"?- ment. When Leo the brother of Reuben heard 
tiafi:v2. of this, he immediately pressed tlie siege of 
Lambron, and distressed the place so much that 
Hethum was obliged to procure the liberation of 
the king from Bohemond, to prevent the des- 
truction of hunself and his city. Reuben was 
released, and afterwards made peace with the 
governor of Lambron. In the mean time, the 
Greeks still regarding the Armenians with dislike, 
endeavoured to foment disturbances between 



the Latins and them, representing to the former 
that the hitter were followers of the heresies of 

Upon this beino: made known to the pontiff a.d ns4. 
Gregory, he wrote a very submissive letter to era 633. 
Pope Lucius, representing the hatred the 
Greeks bore his countrymen, and begging 
that the Latins would not listen to their fabri- 
cations in prejudice of the Armenians. He also 
requested the pope to send him an account 
of the regulations of the Romish church. 
Lucius replied by observing that the Arme- 
nians should conform to the practice in use 
amongst all true Christians, whether in the east 
or west, of mixing a little water with the wine of 
the eucharist, and celebratmg the birth of our 
Lord on the 25th December. He also sent the 
pontiff a copy of the regulations of the Romish 
church, with a mitre, a splendid pallium, and a 
small sash, which is considered to be the great- 
est of all ecclesiastical ornaments. 

About this time Zechariah and Evaney, the 
sons of Sarkies the chief, became greatly cele- 
brated, the former in the office of general, the 
latter grand vizier of the Georgians, Evaney 
was generally known by the honourable title of 
Athabeg, or father of the king. These worthies 
distinguished themselves greatly against the 
Persians, whom they frequently defeated in ac- 

208 HlSTOltV Ol' AHMEMA. 

tions fought in Armenia, and recaptured from 
their hands the country of the Seunies, and Ge- 
larcunies, and the provinces of Shirak and Cars, 
bv which their fame was extended throui>liout 
all the territories of the Huns and Persians. 
A. D. 1185. At this period Reuben the Second, king- of the 
era 0.14. Armenians, alter governing them with milclness 
and prudence for a period of eleven years; 
came to the resolution of resigning the crown to 
his brother Leo. This he did in a public assem- 
bly of the chiefs convened for the purpose; 
when he retired from the world, and became a 
friar in the convent of Dirazark. Here he died 
a short time after. 


The 7'eign of Leo the Second, and the pontificates 
of Gregorij the Rasli, and Gregory Apirat. 

A.D. iis.i. Leo the Second, on the abdication of his 
ev^SZ brother Reuben, succeeded to the government 
ofCilicia. He was a prince of remarkable wis- 
dom and pietv, and greatly contributed to the 
happiness of his subjects by the wise laws he 
instituted for llieir government. He also ex- 
tended the boundaries of his country beyond 
Mount Taurus, taking up his residence at the 
city of Tarsus, which he occasionally changed 


for the city of Sis. He was an ardent admirer 
of the lectures ofNierses Lanibronensis, and on 
dominical festivals would permit no other mi- 
nister to perform the sacred offices in the church 
which he frequented. • 

The year after his accession, Cilicia was in- 

A.D. 1186. 


vaded by Rustum chief of Iconia, at the head ««»"s- 
of a large army. Leo having assembled the 
Armenian troops attacked and defeated the 
invaders. Rustum on again leading his men 
against Leo, suddenly expired in his tent, and 
his army being attacked just after, was routed 
with great slaughter, the victors gathering 
immense spoil on their defeat. Leo some time 
after this conquered the country of Isauria, the 
province of Arasus, and captured the great for- 
tress of Baghursa. He then invaded Syria and 
took the city of Atalia, with some other places 
of minor importance. From hence he marched 
and laid siege to the city of Cesarea in Palestine, 
and pressing it hard, the governor made him 
immense presents to induce him to desist from 
his operations against it. After this he captured 
seventy-two castles in different parts of the 
country, and then returned to Cilicia, where he 
commenced improving his kingdom. 

He built and endowed a number of hospitals 
and alms-houses, repaired all the dilapidated 
castles belonging to his government, and totally 

VOL. II. p 


Tebuilt the great city of Sis. In order to lenrrt' 
the best method of civil government then 
known in tlie workl, he dispatched emissaries 
in disguise to all countries, from whose reports 
he corrected the errors which he found in his 
own law institutes. Indeed this prince was the 
most famous and worthy of all the Reubenian 
line, whether he be regarded in a civil or a reli- 
gious point of view. He was particularly dis- 
tinguished as defender of the pontificate of Syria ; 
and the Syrian pontiffs, in token of their grati- 
tude, generally ratified their sacerdotal dignity 
with letters patent granted by their contem- 
porary Armenian monarchs. 

A. D. 1187. /^^ t}^is epoch lussuf Salahadin from Alep- 
era G36. pQ raiscd liimsclf to great celebrity. Having 
invaded and conquered Egypt, he waged war 
with the Latins in Palestine, defeated them in 
several engagements, and finally took the city 
of Jerusalem, A. D. 1187, H. E. 630, wdiich had 
been in the possession of the western christians 
for a period of eighty-eight years. The Arme- 
nians residing in that city obtained from this 
warrior, by means of immense gifts the convent 
of St. James, wherein he had beheld some time 
before a miraculous work. 

AD. 1189. When the news of the fall of Jerusalem 
era 638. rcachcd Europe, the Latins, headed by the empe- 
ror Frederick, proceeded to Palestine in great 


numbers, to reconquer it. On this occasion 
pope Clement the Third wrote to Leo and 
Gregory the pontiff, exhorting them to lend all 
the assistance they could to their European 

The Latins havino: arrived in Asia took pos- A.D.1190. 

~ * Haican 

session of Iconia, from which their leader the era 639. 
emperor Frederick, wrote to Leo and the Arme- 
nian poutiftfor assistance, saying, " we are well 
aware how friendly you are to the cause in 
which we are engaged, and expect powerful aid 
from you against our common enemies the in- 
fidels!" Gregory and Leo hereupon proceeded 
to Musis from whence they sent to the emperor, 
saying, " we wait here to receive you!" With 
this message they sent an abundance of pro- 
visions, because scarcity existed in the Latin 
ramp to such a degree, that many were induced 
to eat their horses. 

The emperor on observing this returned his ad. 1191. 

' ^ Haicaa 

v/armest thanks, and promised to confer on «-'.a640. 
the prince Leo the suj)reme power of a king. 
Shortly after the Latins came to the frontiers 
of Cilicia, but unfortunately the emperor was 
drowned in crossing a river in Seleucia. His 
remains were iiiUrrcd at Antioch. The Latins 
then proceeded against Jerusalem, but were 
unable to take it, being sometimes beaten by 
Salahadin and at other times defeating liim, 



'^hrec years after these events Gregory the pontift 
tl'.cd at the age of sixty, havhig- been in the 
jioiiiiiicate twenty years. He was buried in 
liironicla. Tliis pontiff made many improve- 
ments in the church regulations, and it was he 
who inserted the order of the church services 
ordained by his uncle Nierses the Graceful, in 
the Armenian calendar. He also built a splen- 
did church in Hiromcla, which he dedicated 
to St. Gregory the Illuminator. 
A. D. ii!>3. Gregory the Fifth, nephew of the late pontiff, 

Hairaii _ 

em 642. on the death of his uncle was elevated to the 
pontifical dignity, by order of Leo, although at 
that time very young. Some opposition was 
made to his appointment by Lambronensis, 
not only on account of his youth, but of his inca- 
pacity : but all was unavailing, the inhabitants of 
Zoraget, Haghbat and Sanahin, who were much 
attached to the late Pontiff, having some time 
before the death of the latter requested Leo to 
nominate his nephew to the pontifical chair 
when it should become vacant. 
A. D. 1194. The young pontiff, after going on very well 

era*643. for a year, began to shew his evil propensities, 
which disgusting" the chiefs, they preferred a 
charge against him to Leo, who thereupon 
caused him to be seized and placed in con- 
finement in the castle of Copitar. Leo then 
wrote to the eastern primates for advice in this 


state of disorder in the Armenian church, in- 
viting some of them to visit him at Sis. 

After Gregory had been in confinement four 
months, he perished miserably in an attempt to 
effect his escape. Having found means to elude 
the vigilance of his guards, he had procured a 
few pieces of linen, with which he was endea- 
vouring to let himself down from the battlements 
of the castle wherein he was confined, when the 
knots with which he had joined the linen to- 
gether, slipping, he was precipitated to the 
ground and died on the spot. It is to this 
circumstance he owes his surname of " the 
rash !" 

He was succeeded in the pontificate by Gre- ^:^^;,y''^- 
gory the Sixth, surnamed Apirat, the nephew of "*»644. 
Nierses the Graceful, a man of mature age, of 
a pleasing face and figure, and of wise and vir- 
tuous principles. The inhabitants of Haghbat 
and Sanahin were much displeased at the 
elevation of this individual, desiring to put their 
own favourite Parsick Aniensis in the pon- 
tifical chair. Not being able to express their 
dissatisfaction at the conduct of tiieir sovereign 
Leo, they vented their anger on Lambronensis, 
conceiving that he had some hand in the election 
of Gregory the Sixth, by writing complaints 
against him to the kinjr. Lambronensis on this 
occasion defended himself will) much wisdom 



and moderation, effectually baffling his enemies 
in their attempts to injure him. 
A. P. 1197. j,^ ti^js y^gj. i-j^g Zurazatik, or wrong Easter, 
era 646. again occurred, upon which the Greeks renewed 
their persecution of the Armenians situated 
under their controul. Gregory upon learning 
this, sent Lambronensis to Constantinople, with 
a letter to the emperor Alexis Angelus, supplicat- 
ing him to put a stop to the persecution of the 
Armenians. On his arrival there he was re- 
ceived with much honour by the Greeks, as hig 
name was renowned amongst them. Having 
performed his mission, he astonished bolii the 
emperor and the Greek ecclesiastics by i\\Q 
extent of his wisdom and learning. He then 
returned to Cilicia, having obtained nothing 
satisfactory from the emperor. On the Greeks 
continuing to molest the Armenians, Lambro- 
nensis wrote a letter, much famed on account 
of the wisdom displayed in it, to the holy 
and learned hermit Husik (Voskan) exhorting 
him to try some method to put a stop to the 




Continuation of the reign of Leo the Second, and 
his battles with foreign nations. 

Leo observins: the prosperity which his a.d. U97. 

^ . • Haican 

government enjoyed, began to wish for a pubhc era 646- 
coronation , which would stamp him in the records 
of all nations as king of the Armenians. To 
attain this object he dispatched ambassadors to 
Pope Celestinus the Third, and Henry the 
Sixth, emperor of Germany, claiming the per- 
formance of the promise made him by the 
emperor Frederick of crowning him king. 

Henry, who was the son of Frederick, readily 
agreed to this, and signified his desire to the 
Pope that it should be done. Hereupon Ce- 
lestinus sent Conrad, archbishop of Moguntia, 
to Cihcia with a magnificent crown, for the 
purpose of gratifying Leo. The emj)cror at the 
same time sent the Armenian monarch a splendid 
standard, having in the middle a lion rampant, 
in allusion to his name. This device was hence- 
forward borne by the kings of Armenia in lieu 
of the ancient oncot tiic eagle, pigeon anddragon^ 


On the arrival of Conrad in Cilicia he was 
met by Leo and Gregory the pontifi', to whom he 
proposed three conditions for their acceptance, 
to wliich the Pope conceived all true Christians 
ouuht to auree. The first was to celebrate 
the festivals which are acknowledged by all the 
followers of Christianity ; secondly, that divine 
service should be performed in the midst of the 
congregation, and the latter never to be kept 
outside the church durmg the performance of 
the holy sacrifice of the altar ; thirdly, not to 
break the fast on Easter eve. The observance 
of these ordinances would remove all causes of 
disagreement existing between the Romish and 
Armenian churches. 

Leo readily promised to vigree to all this, but 
Conrad required that at least twelve bishops 
should on oath promise to perform the stipula- 
tions of the condition. Hereupon twelve bishops, 
amongst whom was Nierses Lambronensis, took 
the oath required, being forced to it by Leo. 
A. D. 1198. Leo then assembled an immense concourse 
era 647. of pcoplc fiom all parts in the city ot larsus, 
consisting both of the clergy and laity, chiefs, 
o-enerals, bishops, priests, citizens, and soldiers, 
and he was there, in presence of all, solemnly 
crowned by Gregory the Pontiff, king of all the 
the Armenians. After the ceremony, Lambro- 
nensis pronounced an oration in the church of 


St. Sophia, setting forth the glory of the king, 
and praising the Armenians and Latins. This 
memorable event took place on the sixth of 
January, A. D. 1198, H. E. 647. 

When Conrad the archbishop returned to 
Rome, Leo and Gregory the Pontiff' wrote to 
the Pope conveying their thanks for his kindness 
and condescension. The latter some time after- 
ward sent Greijorv a ring and a cloak, and the 
king tlie cross of St. Peter. 

On the news of the coronation of Leo be- 
coming generally known, the Caliph of Bagdad 
sent ambassadors to congratulate him on the 
occasion, and the Greek emperor Alexis sent him 
a splendid crown richly set with precious stones. 
The inhabitants of Zoraget, Haghbat, and 
Sanahin, when they heard of the oath the twelve 
bishops had taken respecting their religious ce- 
remonies were greatly disgusted, and imagining 
Nierses Lambronensis was the cause of it, 
they sought every means of injuring him. They 
again complained of him to the king, but 
Nierses on his defence completely overthrew 
their accusations by the power of his eloquence. 
He died shortly afterwards at the age of forty- 
five years. 

By the death of Nierses Lambronensis the ^- "jjJJ^^^",; 
age was deprived of its greatest ornament, er«c47. 
none of his contemporaries equalling him in the 


extent and soundness of his learninir. The 
following are the most considerable literary 
characters who flourished during the time of 
Nierses Lambronensis, viz. Nierses his nephew; 
Gregory of Skevr, the author of a well written 
eulogy on Lambronensis, of the anthem of the 
" Sotfs righteousness,^' and " the exercise of faith'' 
printed at Constantino})le at the end of the 
Narek; Aristakes, who learned from CJregory of 
Skevr grammar and rhetoric, and was the author 
of a book on penmanship; George, a monk of 
Skevr, to whom some ascribe the Commentaries 
on Isaiah, while others attribute it to George a 
native of Haghbat; Catchatur, a monkofTaron, 
author of the beautiful hymn " the prcfound 
mystery' and other pieces of the same des- 
cription. The compositions of this last were 
much praised for their powerful descriptions 
and the intense feeling which they contain. 
A. D. 1200. Leo, firmly seated on his throne, and his 

Haican . 

era 649. kingdom being in the most profound tranquulity, 
began to beautify it by the erection of public 
institutions. Many churches and convents were 
built by him in several parts of the country, 
and it was he who constructed in the city 
of Sis the great church named Etchmiatchin. 
While he was enirasred in these laudable labours 
his queen died. He married again some time 
after, his second consort being also a Latin, 



daughter of Guido king of Cyprus, by whom 
he had a daughter named Zabel, who by some 
writers is called Elizabeth. 

When Kaykavuz the chief of Iconia heard a. d. 1201. 
of this connection between the Latins and Leo, era tso. 
he assembled a large army and invaded Cilicia, 
and captured the fortress of Berdunk, with the 
governor Gregory, whom he retained prisoner. 
He then laid siege to the castle of Capan. Leo 
hastily gathered his troops on hearing of this, 
and advanced to give battle to these unprovoked 
assailants. On the Armenians approaching the 
enemy they rashly rushed t<p the attack without 
waiting the orders of the king, while the chief of 
Iconia having skilfully formed his order of battle, 
received their charge coolly, and then dividing 
his army into four divisions surrounded and 
completely defeated them. A great number 
of the Armenians were slain, and many made 
prisoners, among whom were several chiefs. Leo 
in the mean time, not at all dispirited by this 
misfortune, collected the scattered remains of 
his army, and procuring reinforcements marched, 
with a view to cause a diversion, into Lycaonia. 
Here he committed dreadful depredations, des- 
troying towns and villages, and carrying their 
inhabitants into captivity. Immense was the 
booty that he acquired during this expedition. 
When Kaykayuz the chief heard of the ravages 


the Armenians were committing in his country, 
he hastily raised the siege of Capan, and 
returned to Lycaonia. He then made peace 
with Leo, after each party had restored what 
he had taken, both places and persons. 

Some short time after Kaykayuz was driven 

out of Iconia by his brother Rugnadin, and 

took refuoe in Greece. Ruonadin then took 

possession of the government. 

A. D. 1202. In the beginning of this year the chief of 


era C51. Alcppo, son of Nurcddiu, who bore a great 
enmity towards Leo, approached the frontiers 
of Cilicia at the head of a large force. At this 
time it was Easter, and the chief of Aleppo 
on his arrival near the territories of Leo sent 
forward messengers to him, saying, " if you will 
become my tributary, I will protect you and 
render you powerful and great; but if you refuse, 
I will devastate your coimtry with fire and sword 
and convert the joy of your present festival 
into weeping and wailing !" Leo being apprized 
by his spies of the approach of these messen- 
gers and the nature of their mission, sent two 
of his chiefs to meet them, with directions 
to lead them astrav so as to lenjfthen their 
journey. Jfe then gathered his troops and 
marched towards the enemy with all possible 
speed. While the chief of Aleppo was awaiting 
the return of his messengers, and permitting 


his troops to indulge in the greatest ease, all 
of a sudden Leo and the Armenians attacked 
his camp. Taken thus by surprize the enemy 
made a very faint resistance, and in the course of 
a few minutes took to flight, leaving every thing 
behind them, their leader having had a very 
narrow escape of being made prisoner. Leo 
after plundering the enemy's camp, taking with 
hun their tents and standards, returned with 
his troops to his capital. On the banks of a 
river near it he ordered the tents and standards 
he had taken to be pitched in the same form 
as they were in the camp of the enemy. This 
beino; done he directed the messensrers above 
spoken of to be brought to him. On their ap- 
proach, and observing their own tents and 
standards, they were struck with terror and 
astonishment. When they became informed 
of the defeat of their army, they fell at the 
kings feet and implored him to spare their lives. 
Leo generously released them, sending them 
to Aleppo with the same message from him to 
their chief as the latter had charged them to 
deliver to him. 

Shortly after this the king went on a visit 
to his father-in-law in the island of Cyprus. 
During his absence Hcthum the chief of Lam- 
bron and brother of Nierses Lambronensis broke 
out into rebellion. On the return of Leo, how- 


ever, he, by a stratagem, caught the rebel, and 
putting him in chains, confined him in the city 
of Sis. He then took possession of Lambron. 
Gregory the poniiff having heard of this, inter- 
posed and persuaded Leo to release Hethum. 
The king, however, would not restore Lambron, 
but allotted Hethum and his sons a habitation 
in Sis. Shortly after this Gregory the pontiff 
died in the convent of Arkah Calin, having 
ruled over the Armenian church seven years. 


The pontificates of Johannes the Sevefith, and 
David the Third. 

A. D. 1202. On the death of Gregory the Sixth, Johannes 

era 651. the Seventh, archbishop of Sis, became pontifi 

and took up his residence in Hiromcla. He 

was surnamed the majestic on account of the 

stateliness of his carriage. 

The bishops of Armenia Minor bein^ dissatis- 
fied at his election, appointed Anania, the bishop 
of Sebastia, their pontiff. The people of Shirak 
also were not pleased with Johannes, and there- 
fore made Parsick of Ani their spiritual leader. 
Leo not taking any steps toward the prevention 
of these things, Johannes began to look upon 


Ivim Avitli suspicion, and at length totally dis- 
regarded his orders. Upon this the king being 
irritated, convened a meeting of bishops, in Sis, 
where they deposed him from the pontificate 
after holdins: it one year. 

He was succeeded by David the Third, from f,-^f^,J^°^- 
Arkah Calin, who on his election took up his ^'a^^^. 
residence at Sis. At this period there were 
four pontiffs in Armenia, but they did not at 
all interfere with each other. 

In this year Zechariah Spasalar, the brother 
of Evaney Athabeg, of whom we have lately 
spoken, being incessantly engaged in fight- 
ing at the head of the Georgian army, and 
remaining at tmies a considerable period without 
hearing the service of the sacrifice of the altar, 
wished to make use of a portable altar, and 
to have that ceremony regularly performed 
in his camp by priests. He consequently wrote 
to Leo and Johannes tiie pontiff (not being 
aware of David's succession) and requested 
their sanction to his doing this, as also to the 
celebration of fasts and festivals according to 
the rites usually practised by the Georgians. 

The kins: havin"- consulted with David, they a. n. 1204. 
convened a meeting of the clergy in Sis, where ermw.j. 
Zechariah's requests were sanctioned, and eight 
articles fixed by them for tlie guidance of the 
Armenians residing in Georgia. An account 



of the proceedings of the meeting were then 
forwarded to Georgia. In tlic mean time Jo- 
lianncs, who had received the letter addressed 
him by Zechariah, sent oif in haste to that 
general a church in miniature, with a marble 
altar and e\ery thing requisite to adorn it, 
together with a bishop named Minas, three 
priests, four deacons, and several chanters. 
A letter accompanied these presents, in which 
Zechariah was permitted to do all that he 
A. D. 1205. had requested. On the arrival of all these 
era 654. articlcs with the bishop and his clergy, Ze- 
chariah convened a large meeting of bishops 
and monks in the city of Lorey, and commu- 
nicated to them the nature of his late application 
and its success. Many made objections, others 
approved, among the latter were the monks 
Mukhithar surnamed Cosh, and Cachatur a man 
of extraordinary talent. Some days after the 
dissolution of this assembly, Zechariah caused 
the sacrifice of the altar to be performed as if 
he actually were in a church. On this occasion 
the monk Cachatur sang spontaneously, and 
without previous composition, that most excellent 
of all the hymns, " nii/stcri/ profound, incompre- 
he7isU)le, witJwut ljegin?iif?g," relative to the priests 
putting on his sacerdotal robes, and which to this 
day is sung in all the Armenian churches on 
the robing of the priest who is about to perform 


mass. Some disturbances were created by the 
novelty of such a custom of celebrating the 
sacrifice of the altar in a camp, but Zechariah 
succeeded in appeasing all. 

Intelligence of these little broils reaching a.d. 1206. 

O <-* Haican 

Cilicia, gave pain to Leo and Johannes; but "a^ss. 
it was the means of their reconciliation, as on 
this occasion they sent to each other for in- 
formation on the subject of their grief. Shortly 
after this, David the pontiff died after a pon- 
tificate of three years. Just about the same 
time Anania, the irregular pontiff of Sebastia 
died. Hereupon Johannes was reestablished 
in the pontifical chair. 

About this period Zechariah Spasalar general a. p. 1210. 

. Haican 

of the Georgians, died, and was succeeded m era 659. 
his office by his brother Evaney Athabeg. In 
a short time after, the monk Mukhithar of 
Ganzak surnamed Cosh, died. His scholar, 
the monk Johannes, surnamed Vanakan (con- 
ventual) from Arz-akh, wrote a commentary on 
the book of Job, an account of the proceedings 
of the several holy councils, and a history of 
the events that happened in his own time. 
Johannes had two disciples, both distinguished 
characters, Kirakus of Ganzak and Vardan of 
Barzrberd. In these times an abbot, who 
afterwards became a hermit, of the name of 
Astwazatur, of a noble family from the city 
VOL. II. q 


of ArcliGsh, became greatly celebrated for his 
sanctity. On the death of his mother, this 
individual to shew his filial piety, took much 
silver and gold which i>he had left at her decease, 
and placing it in her hands, although a corpse, 
caused a number of bcsfirars to be collected 
to receive it from her, as if in charity. On the 
death of his father he distributed the whole 
of his patrimony to the poor. He lived in a 
state of the greatest bodily mortihcations, and 
on his death was interred in the convent of 
which he had been abbot. 


The (Lath of Leo, and the admimstratioji of the 
government hy his daughter queen Zabel, and 
her husband Philip of Antioeh, together with 
the pontijieatc of Constantine the First. 

A n. i:or. Aroit this period a great quarrel took place 
eraiod. betwccn Lco and the Latins residing in his 
dominions; in consequence of which he drove 
the whole of them, clergy as well as laity, out 
of Cilicia. He also made an incursion into 
the country about Tripoli and Antioch, and 
took a number of Latin chiefs whom he retained 
prisoners, and although much correspondence 
passed between him and the Pope, and the em- 


peror of Germany, on this subject, he was 
inflexible in his enmity against the Latins, nor 
would he allow any of them to return to Cilicia. 

Leo at this period was at the zenith of his Hak;^^^'' 
prosperity: he saw himself feared and respected "*^^8. 
from Cilicia to the Euphrates, from Lycaonia 
to the Fourth Armenia. He suddenly fell ill, 
and finding his last hour draw nigh, he sent 
for the pontiff and all the chiefs of the Ar- 
menians, and charged them, that as he had 
no other child but his daughter Zabel, then 
in her sixteenth year, on his decease they 
should permit her to succeed him on the throne. 
Then becoming worse he gradually declined 
until on the first of May A. D. 1219, H. E. 
GGS, he died, after a glorious reign of thirty-four 
years. He was buried in Sis: some part of his 
relics, it is said, were deposited in the convent 
of Akner. 

On his decease his daughter Zabel ascended a. d. 1219. 


the throne with the consent of the whole nation, era 668. 
She exercised the administration of government 
with the assistance of Constantino, a prince of 
the Reubenian race, who had some time before 
married tl»c daughter of Hctluun and niece of 

Shortly after tlie accession of Zabel a chief 
of the Reubenian race named Reuben, having 
made a party in the nation of several other 

4 " 


chiefs, broke out into rebellion and attacked 
and captured the city of Tarsus. From this 
he marched, and laid siege to Mamestia, and 
was just on the point of taking it when Con- 
stantine, who had assembled a body of troops, 
arrived at that city, and attacking the besiegers 
gained a complete victory. The rebel Reuben, 
and the chiefs his partizans, fled to Tarsus, 
whither they were pursued by the victors. 
The city was soon reduced and the rebels 
put in confinement, where they died. The 
same year in which this rebellion was quelled 
Johannes the pontiff surnamed the Majestic died, 
after being in the pontificate eighteen years. 

^* °H!.i7a*Ii Constantine the First, a native of Barzrberd, 
era CG9. ^j^gf^ bccame pontiff. He was a man of extensive 
knowledge, and so kind and gentle in his nature, 
that the Armenians found in him all the ten- 
derness of a father. With the consent of this 
pontiff the prince Constantine and the Armenian 
chiefs married the queen Zabel to Philip the 
son of the Count of Antioch, who was the 
offspring of an Armenian mother and a Latin 
father. Philip was afterwards crowned king 
of Armenia^ having sworn at his coronation 
never to attempt to alter the religious ceremonies 

^'^nika^n of the Armenians. Philip after ascending the 

era 6G'j. throne conducted himself very well for about 

two years, when his heart became estranged from 



the nation. He removed all the regalia that had 
been in use with the Armenian princes to 
Antioch. Thither he was preparing to follow 
them, when the Armenian chiefs exasperated 
at his disgraceful conduct seized and confined 
him in the fortress of Barzrberd, telling him 
at the same time, that until he had restored 
to the royal treasury in Sis all that he had 
sent to Antioch, he should remain there a pri- 
soner. His father the Count made a loud 
remonstrance on hearing of his son s captivity, 
but was unable to do any thing to effect his 
release. Philip a year after died in confinement. 

On this event takini^f place Constantino wished a. d. 1223. 

^ Haicari 

queen Zabel to espouse his son Hethum, but era 072. 
she had determined on the death of her late 
consort to embrace a monastic life, and therefore 
would not consent. Zabel shortly after retired 
to the city of Seleucia where her Latin relations 
dwelt, and meditated entering a convent of 
nuns which was in that place. Constantino 
in the mean time continued sending her mes- 
sages urging her to marry his son, but she 
still persisted in refusing. Finding her inflexible, 
with the consent and by the advice of the 
other chiefs of Armenia, Constantino assembled 
the Armenian troops and marched to Seleucia 
with the view ol' forcing tlie queen to the 
marriage. On his arrival finding the gates oT 



the city closed against him, he proceeded to 
lay siege to it. Zabel perceiving this, rather 
than subject her friends to the horrors of a 
siege, reluctantly consented to the marriage, 
and leaving Seleucia accompanied Constantino 
to Sis, where shortly after she was united to his 
son Hethum. 


The reign of Hethum the First, the appearance 
of Jenghis Khan, and the incursions of Jala- 
laddin into Ajineiiia. 

A. D. 1224. Immediately after the marriage of Hethum 

Haican i i • c 

era 673. witli quccn Zabcl, he was crowned kmg of 
Armenia, A. D. 1224, H. E. 673. This prince 
was a descendant of the Arsacidee as well as 
the Reubenians, being connected with the 
family of Nierses Lambronensis, and at the 
same time belonging to a distant branch of the 
family of Reuben the First, on which account 
he is classed among the monarchs of the latter 
line. Hethum with the assistance of his father 
Constantino greatly embellished their dominions, 
erecting various works of public utility, and 
establishing many institutions for the benefit 
of the poor. The queen by her example pro- 
duced a great reform of manners amongst her 


subjects, being a mirror of every virtuous and 
amiable quality which adorns her sex. In 
the course of her life, never did she perform 
a deed or utter a word at which the strictest 
morality could frown. On the accession of 
Hethum to the throne there appeared in the 
East an extraordinary warrior of the race of 
the Scythians, being a Tartar named Jenghis 
Khan, who by the force of his mditary genius 
conquered almost the whole of Asia. 

This prince at the head of an army amounting 
to 700,000 men, invaded Persia, entirely subju- 
gated it, and drove its king Mahmud, or in 
Turkish, the Sultan Mahomod Kharezm Shah, 
into exile. On the death of Jenghis Khan and 
the succession of his son Ukhatha Khan to the 
throne of the Tartars, the son of the exiled 
Mahmud, called Jalaladdin, or in Turkish 
Chelaladdin, having mustered troops invaded 
Armenia. Having first marched to the province 
of the Seunjes, Jalaladdin committed horrid 
devastations there, and thence he proceeded 
to the province of Ararat, where he took pos- 
session of all the j)rincipal towns and cities. 

The Georgians seeing the storm approaching a. d. 1226. 
near them, mustered their troops, and under era67i. 
their general Kvancy Athabeg marched to 
oppose the. spoilers. Evaney having arrived 
at the city of Garncy, near which Jalaladdin lay, 


was alarmed at the vast army which accom- 
panied the latter. Two of the Armenian chiefs, 
however, who had assembled a few men to 
resist the invaders, on the approach of the 
Georgian army, encouraged Evaney by saying 
to him, " do not be afraid of their number: 
we will first commence the attack, and when 
the foes are in a state of confusion you can 
lead forward your troops to our assistance!" 
These two gallant chiefs accordingly began 
the assault, but instead of being seconded by 
Evaney, the latter with his army took flight 
without striking a blow. The enemy pursued 
and massacred a vast number of them. Jalalad- 
din then spread his troops all over the countries 
of Armenia and Georgia, compeUing all the 
inhabitants of the towns and villages which 
fell into his hands to deny their faith. Those 
who refused were cruelly martyred. Jalalad- 
din at length tired of butchering so many, 
issued orders to his followers to circumcise by 
force all whom they captured, and to destroy 
by fire every vestige of Christianity that these 
countries exhibited. 
A. D. 1227. Jalaladdin then marched to the country of the 
eraT/e". Buznunians where he practised the same cruel- 
ties and committed the same excesses. He 
laid siege to and took the city of Khilath 
belonging to a Bey named Thamur, whose 


-wife named Thamtha, a daughter of Evaney, 
fell into his rapacious hands. From hence 
he proceeded to Asia Minor and devastated 
the whole of Iconia, taking an immense num- 
ber of captives. 

Jalaladdin now became so formidable that h^^^J^^^" 
every one feared a hostile visit from him. e^aezz. 
Roused, however, to exertion by the knowledge 
of the inutility of all attempts to make peace 
with him, the chiefs of the different countries 
in Asia Minor collected their forces, and being 
assisted by king Hethum with a body of 6,000 
hardy troops, made a furious attack upon 
the invaders. Fortune rewarded their bravery, 
and they gained a signal victory. Jalaladdin 
humiliated by this overthrow retreated to recruit 
his forces, and while making preparations for 
another expedition he was taken off by the 
hand of death. On this event Thamtha, the 
lady whom he had taken in Khilath, escaped 
to Georgia, where she took refuge with Ruzu- 
than the queen of that country. The year 
following, her father tlvaney Athabeg died. 



The mvaaioii of Armenia by the Scytliians. 
A. D. 1233. Whkn the country of Armenia had a little 

HaicHu '' 

era68J. rccovered from the distress into which it had 
been plunged by the troops of Jalaladdin, the 
Scythians marched, by order of Ukhatha Khan 
to invade it. These in vast numbers under 
the command of Charmaghan first attacked the 
Aluans, whose province they laid desolate. 
Having taken the city of Ganzasar, they mas- 
sacred all its inhabitants, with the exception 
of children of both sexes, whom they made 
captives. After their taking Ganzasar the 
winter came on, upon which they returned to 
the plains of Mughan where they lay encamped 
twenty months. 
A.D. 1237. At the end of this period the invaders divided 

HaicaQ ' 

era G86. thcmsclves iiito three parties, and spreading 
themselves all over Armenia reduced it to a 
state of desolation. They besieged and took 
Lorcy, in Upper Armenia, and blockading the 
impregnable castle of Kayen, then commanded 
by Avag the son of Evaney, forced it to sur- 
render by cutting off all supplies of provi- 
sions. Here they committed horrid excesses. 


ravishing the women and massacring their 
husbands. Avag however contrived to make 
his escape. Shortly after this, Jalal, go- 
vernor of the fortress Khachen, and the nephew 
of Evaney, together with Vahrani chief of 
Shamkor, and Ehkum Urbelian, quietly surren- 
dered to the Scythians, and were treated with 
less harshness than the rest. On Charmaghan's 
conquering Upper Armenia, the monk Vanakan 
and his disciple Kirakus were made prisoners, 
but after a year's captivity they effected their 

Charmaghan then marched against the city a. d. 1239. 

. . . Haicau 

of Am in the province of Shirak, then under era 688. 
the £;overnment of a son of Zechariah named 
Shahinshah. On his approaching it, he sent 
a messenger to the citizens requiring them to 
submit quietly and yield up the city. They 
replied "the city belongs to Shahinshah the 
son of Zechariah, without whose order we can 
never surrender it!" While the Scythian mes- 
senger was on the point of returning with this 
answer, the mob of tlie town seized him and 
put him to death. 

Charmaghan highly irritated at the death 
of his messenger, then laid siege to Ani and 
pressed it viL^ouroiisly. After a short |)eri()d 
famine broke out wiiliui the walls, so that many 
of tlie citizens in dei»pair rushed out and gave 


themselves up to the Scythians. Charmaghaii 
caused them to be well received and a sufficient 
quantity of food to be immediately given them. 
This induced many more to leave the city, until 
more than half of the inhabitants were in the camp 
of the Scythians, when the latter dividing the 
unfortunate wretches into small parties, under 
the pretext of better protecting them, fell upon 
them and massacred every individual. They 
then easily obtained entrance into the city, 
where they brutally murdered the remaining 
inhabitants, and destroyed their habitations by 

On the news of the capture of Ani reaching 
Caruz, the principal inhabitants of the latter, 
fearing to meet the same fate as befel the citizens 
of the former, took the keys of their city and 
hastened to give them to Charmaghan. The Scy- 
thian, however, perceiving that this measure was 
produced rather by fear than love, on his entering 
Caruz gave orders to his troops to kill all they 
found there with the exception of children and 
artizans, whom he directed to be kept captive. 
The city was then reduced to desolation, and a 
few wretches being stationed in the ruins, the Scy- 
thian general returned to the plams of Mughan. 
A. D. 1240. After this, Ukhata Khan, in consequence of the 


era689. intcrccssiou of somc individuals near him, wrote 
to Charmagan to desist from harassing the Arme- 


nians, to deliver over their country into the hands 
of their chiefs, settHng the tribute which it was 
necessary to pay, and then to march to other 
conquests. Upon the receipt of these orders 
Charmaghan ceased molesting Armenia, and it 
began to enjoy a little peace, which when known 
to those who had fled in terror of the Scythians 
they returned to their country. 

About this period Charmasfan the great gene- ad. 1242. 

^ S o o Haican 

ral of the Scythians died, and was succeeded eraeyi. 
in his command by Bachu. The latter imme- 
diately after marched his troops against Carin, 
then under the authority of the great chief of 
Iconianamed Khiathatin, in Turkish Ghiaseddin, 
and taking it put all the inhabitants to the 
sword. Khiathatin, who was then in the city 
of Iconia, no sooner heard of the fall of Carin, 
and the excesses committed there by the Scy- 
thians, than he assembled his troops and marched 
against the spoilers. Bachu advanced to meet 
him, and in a battle which followed, Khiathatin 
was beaten, and with difficulty escaped with life 
and liberty. On the news of this misfortune 
reaching Iconia, Khiathatin's mother, wife, and 
daughter fled to Cilicia, where they were kindly 
received by king Hcthum, who appointed them 
a residence and pensions for their support. 

The Scythians in this year took the cities a. d. 1243. 
01 Cesarea, Scbastia, and Lzunka, with many eraC'j2. 


larjre towns and villages, and created much 
distress in Armenia. 

They afterwards took Khilath, Amid, Edessa 
and Nisibis. Khilath was restored toThamtha the 
daughter of Evaney, to whom it rightfully be- 
longed, as we have seen in a preceding chapter. 
A. D. 1244. When king llcthum observed that the Scythians 

Haican i • r f T 

era 693. had couqucrcd the powerful chiet ot Iconia, 
bein"- sure that these invaders would at 
length approach him, he endeavoured to avert 
the contemplated evil, by making proposals 
of alliance with them. With the consent of 
his chiefs he dispatched ambassadors to Bachu 
with valuable gifts, proposing peace, and pro- 
mising to remain under subjection to the Scy- 
thians. The ambassadors being arrived on the 
frontiers of Khachen, through the medium of 
Jalal the Armenian chief, obtained introduction 
to Bachu the Scythian general and the other 
chiefs of that nation. Having laid before them 
the gifts which they had brought, the ambassa- 
dors unfolded the object of their mission. The 
Scythian chiefs, with Bachu, consented to the 
desires of Hethum, and accordingly they dis- 
patched back the ambassadors to inform him 
of the success of their negotiations, and to 
require from him on the part of the Scythians, 
the delivery of the mother, wife, and daughter 
of the chief Khiathatin, who had taken refuge 


in Cilicia. When Hethiim heard.this demand 
he became very unhappy, but being afraid of 
the Scythians, he with rehictance debvered the 
females over to them, after loading them with 

When the Scythians received tlie women they 
were overjoyed, and ibrthwilh sent Hetluun a 
letter, wiiich they called Althemgha, (written 
in the Armenian books Eltamgha^, consisting 
of assurances on oath of perpetual love and 


Wlule Ilethnm was enqaoed m this negotia- a. n. 1245. 

'^ - Haican 

tiou his uncle Constantino the chief of Lambron, eraG94. 
rebelled, and joining the chief of Iconia, Khia- 
thaiin. who recfarded the king with the bitterest 
enmity in consequence of his having given up 
bis familv to the Scythians, commenced depre- 
dating Cilicia. Ilethum upon this gathered a 
few troops, attacked the country of Constantino, 
and captured all his possessions with the ex- 
ception (;f the city of Lambron, in which he 
had fortified himself. Constantine finding the 
king too |)f)worful to contend with, sent several 
times to him to endeavour to make peace, pro- 
mising to give li'in his two sons as hostages for 
his future obedience; but Ilethum distrusting 
his sincerity refused to listen to him. C/Oiulan- 
tine tli( II fled fioiu Lambron, and going to the 
chief of Iconia, succeeded in raising troops, with 


which he invaded CiHcia. The king in the 
mean time, conceiving- by the flight of his re- 
bellious uncle that there was no more reason 
to dread him, disbanded his troops. Constan- 
tino therefore on his entry into Cilicia found no 
opposition, and spreading his followers into 
the diflerciit provinces committed terrible de- 
predations, massacrins: numbers of the Arme- 
nians resident there. Hethum observing this 
hastily gathered his troops, and marched to 
oppose the rebel. He encountered and over- 
threw him in five successive engagements, un- 
til at length Constantino was obliged to shut 
himself up in the city of Lambron. Here he 
was besieged and shortly after died, being 
unable to effect his escape, the king completely 
blockading him. 
A. D. 1246. About this period died Ukhatha Khan the 
era 695. great king of the Scythians, and was succeeded 
by his son Ghiug Khan, with whom Hethum 
renewed the treaty of peace which he had 
formerly made with his father. Ghiug Khan 
proved a most avaricious character, and on his 
succession to the throne, dispatched collectors 
into all the countries that were under his sub- 
jection, for the purpose of draining them of their 
treasure. The two principal of these collectors 
were Argun and Kharabugha. The latter was 
sent into Armenia, where he laid enormous 


taxes on the people, and on their not being 
able to furnish them, he harassed them exceed- 
ingly. The chiels remonstrated with him, but 
instead of proving more moderate he proceeded 
to increase his exactions. Tliis tyranny at 
length excited tlie vengeance of the Deity, and 
Kharabugha died a most cruel death, through 
dreadful ulcers which broke out in his neck. 


Contij2uatio7i vf the reigyi of HctJiion the First, and 
the proceedings of the assemblies fur the refor- 
mation of the Armenians. 

During this and the nrecedinof a-^e the man- a. n. 1213. 

• '~ ~ n I.e. Ill 

ners of the people hi all parts of Christendom "'' ^'•''^' 
were exceedingly depraved, as well amongst 
the clergy as the laity. Licentiousness was 
carried to its greatest height, and to this our 
historians attribute the destructive w;irs with 
which the Almighty troubled mankind for the 
last century. 

In the west many assemblies of the clergy 
were at different times held fur the purpose of 
deliberating about the Ijcst means of reforming 
the looseness of manners which prevailed. In 
Armenia also, Consluntinc the pontilf about this 

vol.. II. r 


period convened a meeting in the city of Sis, 
tor the same laudable purpose, consisting- of 
bishops, priests, the chiefs of the nation, and 
kina- Ilethum. Here, after much discussion, 
twentv-tive canons were fixed for the better 
government of the church and people, the last 
of which regulated the }>erformance of the 
sacrament of extreme unction, at the request 
of the pope of Rome, and agreeably to a former 
enactment by Johannes the ])hilosopher. 

A copy of these canons with a letter of 
benediction from the pontift" was sent to Ar- 
menia Major, by the hand>^ of the monkVardan 
of Barzrberd, which being approved of by the 
clergy in that quarter, a letter of agreement 
to perform all that they contained was returned 
to Constaniine, signed by Nierses the pontiff 
of the Aluans, the monk Johannes surnamed 
Vanakan (cojwentual) and many others of the 
distinguished clergy. Constantine sent another 
copy of these canons with a letter of bene- 
diction to the eastern people. Here some 
opposition was made to their reception by a 
few ill disposed and ignorant individuals. 
A.D. 124S. j,^ ^^g course of a few years after this meeting, 
era 697. ^ nuucio from popc Innoccut arrived in Cilicia, 
bearing letters to Hethum and the pontiff 
Constantine. The purport of his mission was 
to enquire into the religious ceremonies and 


traditions of the Armenians, as some blame had 
been cast on them by a few of the Latin clergy. 
A discussion hereupon took place between the 
Armenian clergy and the nuncio, in which 
the former declared, that with regard to the 
essential points of the Christian belief they were 
perfectly in unison with the Latins, but that 
with respect to the ceremonies in use with 
the nation, hallowed as they were by their 
continuance for several centuries, and coexistent 
with Christ himself, they could not consent 
to any change; particularly as they contained 
nothing foreign to the most scrupulous morality. 
In the mean time an obscure individual named 
Vardan or Varham, wiio resided in the Black 
Mountain, having seen a copy of the letter 
which the nuncio had brought from the pope to 
Hethum, took upon himself to write to the 
king, wherein he brought forward fifteen charges 
of heresy against the Latins, and displayed 
as much ignorance oi' tiieir customs as affected 
contempt of them. Another man named Muk- 
hillrar a native of Skevr, arraigned tlie claims 
of St. Peter himself to the suj)remacy of the 
churcli. These ))roductioiis however were little 
regarded by wise men. 

Two years after this p()|)(; Jimocent wrote a.d. i'2r.o. 

II II I HaW-.ui 

a gener;n letter to ;ill the eastern nations, a crad'ji*. 
co[)y of which came to king IJelhum, wherein 

1- 2 

244 HisrouY of akmenia. 

he proposed their acceptance of the doctrine of 
the Holy Ghost, emanating- from the Father and 
the Son, admitted by the Latins. On the receipt 
of this letter Hethum caused the pontiff to 
convene a meeting of the clergy in Sis, v/here 
the proposal being laid before them, after a 
little discussion, they accepted it. 
A.D. 1251. The meetino: then wrote to Armenia Major 
era 700. to all the bishops and clergy, and separately 
to Vanakan Johannes the monk, the fame of 
whose wisdom was widely circulated, and ac- 
quainted them with their decision on this subject. 
They all thereupon received the same doctrine, 
declaring in a reply to the pontiff and meeting 
that it was perfectly consistent with the holy 
writinfTs and the sentiments of the fathers of 
the church. The monk Vanakan Johannes also 
replied, and demonstrated in the clearest manner 
from the nature of Christianity, that the point in 
question was an incontrovertible fact. The 
pontiff Constantine then wrote to the pope 
to intimate the acceptance by the Armenians 
of the doctrine of the emanation of the Holy 
Ghost from the Father and the Son. 

The same year in which this event happened 
Vanakan Johannes died, and was buried in the 
convent of Khoranashat. His scholars or dis- 
ciples were Kirakus of Ganzak, Vardan of 
Barzrberd, Joseph, Arackiel and Malachi, and 


several others. Kirakus wrote a history of 
Armenia; Vardan made an abridgment of the 
same, and wrote a short commentary on the 
Psalter, annotations on the five books of Moses, 
on the songs of. Solomon, and on the book 
of Daniel. He is the author of the three beau- 
tiful anthems, '' who foreknew, c^t." ''from the 
boundless sea, i^cr and " those who adorned^ 
^c." Vardan had a scholar much famed for his 
acquirements named Johan of Ezunka, other- 
wise called Zorzorensis. The following are a 
few of the literati who adorned this age, viz. 
the monk Stephen of Artamat in the country 
of Vaspurakan, much famed for his sanctity; 
the monk Johannes of Garney, who after being 
a missionary to different foreign places died 
in Hiromcla ; Johannes of Ganzak, the compiler 
of a book of the dominical feasts, which was 
called Tonapatchar (causer of feasts) ; Johannes 
Archishensis, the author of a commentary on the 
sacrifice of the altar; the monk Isaiah Nuchi- 
ensis, who wrote on the performance of divine 
service; and Muckithar the monk of Sasun. 

r > 

246 HISTORY or Armenia. 


The persecution of the A?^??ieniatis by the Scythians, 
and the visit of Hethiim to Mango Khan. 

A.D. 1251. In this year died Ghiug the great king of the 
eraTool Scythians, and was succeeded in his government 
of that people by his relation Mango, who 
equalled if not exceeded his predecessor in the 
avarice of his disposition. On his taking posses- 
sion of the Scythian government he dispatched 
the collector Arghun, of whom we spoke in the 
last chapter, into Armenia, with a band of cruel 
ruffians for the purpose of placing upon the 
nation a capitation tax. On his arrival, Arghun 
demanded from every Armenian, from the age 
often upwards, a sum of sixty pieces of money. 
Those who were unable to pay this were 
exposed to the most intolerable tortures, Those 
who possessed lands were deprived of them, 
and their children and wives forcibly taken and 
sold as slaves. If any of the wretched Ar- 
menians were detected in an attempt to flee 
the country, they were stripped, scourged se- 
verely with green rods, and then torn in pieces 
by furious dogs trained for the purpose. 


On tlie whole of this tax being- collected, 
Aruliuii ordered that henceforward a similar 
tax should be made yearly, not only u[)oa in- 
dividuals, but upon tlie produce of agriculture, 
corn and corn-tields, houses, bullocks, horses, 
c^-c. Nothing ever equalled the l.orrors that 
now overspread this unhappy land, most of the 
inhabitants having no means of paying this 
enon; ous tax, and no ])lace to flee to for pro- 
tection from tiieir oppressors. 

Hethum havina: heard of the accession of a d. 1252. 
Man -o Klian to the Scythian throne, and the ciaroi. 
horrible exactions of his collectors in Armenia, 
conttjni])latcd visiting- that monarch in person 
in behalf of his distressed countrymen; but 
about this period his queen Zabel died, and 
he was obliged to defer the prosecution of his 
design until two years after. 

Hcthuin, then, leaving his old father Con- a. n.1254. 


stantinc in tlie government of Cilicia, set out eiaroj. 
on his journey, and at first travelled in disguise, 
to elude his enemies the Scythian collectors. He 
liad before sent his property and some brave 
troops to the city of Cars, and joining them there, 
he set forward to the country of the Aiuans. 
TiRiicc ))rf)ceeding by the pass of Chorah, lie 
arrived in llir dmninions ol Mango Khan, by 
whom he was received w ilh di<lingiiished respect 
and attention. Iletliuin then disclosed the object 


of his journey and Mango Khan promised ta 
rtdrcss all the grievances of the Armenians, 
lletluun remained here filiy days, at the expira- 
tion of which he set out on his return, after 
beiiiu furnished by the Scythian monarch with 
IcUurs pUent wherein he was acknowledged 
a sovereign prince, and promises of continual 
fiientlship and alliance given on the part of the 
Scythians as long as the king of the Armenians 
and his successors should remain faithful tribu- 
taries to them. Mango Khan also gave him 
sep nate letters, in which the imposts of the 
Armenians were directed to be lessened and the 
ireedom of their churches secured. At the 
request of Hcthum, the tyrannical collector 
Arghun was recalled and put in prison. A 
detachment of Scythian troops was also ordered 
to accompany the Armenian prince on his 
journey back to Cilicia. Ilethum then went 
to Armenia where he met the chief Bachu in 
the province of Shirak, and having shewn him 
his letters, was nmch honoured by him/ While 
he remained here, all the chiefs of the nation 
together with the principal clergy, visited him 
and trsated him with all the respect due to a 
king of their nation. Hethum exhibited the 
greatest kindness towards them, presenting all 
with some little token of his regard, and con- 
juring them to live in peace and unanimity 


with each other. He then accompanied by his 
Scvthian escort proceeded to Mesopotamia, 
where dismissing his foreign attendants he 
returned to Cilicia; and arrived at the seat of his 
government on the fifth of June, having been 
a year and four months absent on his journey. 

The chief of Iconia havina: heard of the A-pi255. 

~ Haican 

alliance which king Hethum had entered into era704. 
with the Scythians, assembled his troops and 
invaded Cilicia by the pass of Vahkah. Here- 
upon Hethum with his sons marched against 
the invaders, and driving them out of the coun- 
try, proceeded at the head of his troops toward 
the north-east, where he captured from this 
chief the cities of Germanik and Behesney 
with several other places. He then went to 
the assistance of his son-in-law the count of 
Tripoli, who was at that time much distressed 
by his enemies. He captured the fortress of 
Mundas, and proved of signal service in several 
instances to the Latins, especially to those 
of Antioch, delivering them from the power 
of their ibes. 

Some time after this. Mango Khan appointed 
his l)rother Hulacn, king of Persia and Armenia, 
with all the countries between the latter and 
Greece. Hulacu hereupon set out at the head 
of 70,000 cavalry to visit his new dominions. 
On his arrival at Bagdad he put an end to the 


government of the Caliphs and extended his 
power to the shores of the Mediterranean. 

A.D. i2:.9. King Ilethiini and Constantine having be- 
eia7os. held these actions of Hulacu, became alarmed 
for the safety of Cilicia, and with the consent 
of all the chiefs, they went to him with valuable 
presents, carrying with them the usual tributes 
which they voluntarily consented to increase. 
They were received by him with honour and 
respect, and permitted to return in peace. 
Shortly after Hulacu retired from these quarters, 
leaving behind him superintendents over the 
cities and provinces which owned his authority. 

A.D 1:^0. When the Egyptians heard of the departure 
era/O'j. of llulacu, tlicy marchcd into Palestine and 
captured the cities of Jerusalem and Aleppo, 
where they massacred a multitude of Chris- 
tians. The governors of the cities and provinces 
whom Hulacu had left behind him, unable to 
resist the Egyptians, took refuge in Cilicia. 
After remaining here for a short time, they were 
sent by Hethum in safety to Flulacu, provided 
with every necessary they required, by which 
the king of the Armenians acquired a great 
popularity with the Scythians. 



The invasion of CHicia by the Egyptians, and the 
succession of Jacob the First to the pontificate. 

The chief of Egypt, who in the Armenian a. d. i265. 
records is called Phuntukhtar, (in Turkish Pun- "a7i4. 
tugtar) having heard that Hethum was in alliance 
with the Scvthians, and with their assistance 
had captured a few cities formerly belonging to 
the Egyptians, wrote to the Armenian monarch 
demanding the restitution of those places. He- 
thum replied, that the cities in question originally 
belonged to the Armenians, that they had been 
unjustly taken by other nations, and that on 
their capture by the Scythians they were res- 
tored to their rightful owners. On the receipt ^ ^ ^n^a. 
of llethum's answer the Eufyptian chief was ^^"^^!l 

~ J r era 715. 

enraf^ed, and being informed that Cilicia was 
at that moment in a defenceless state, he hastily 
assemldcd a lar^^e army and sent it into that 
country, where his troops committed terrible 
depredations, Hethum, as soon as he heard 
of the invasion, collected iiis troops, and forming 
them into two divisions placed them under the 
command of his sons Leo and Thorosc, to march 


ngainst the invaders. lie then set out to obtain 
aid from the Scythians, but before his return 
the Egyptians had entirely conquered Cilicia. 
They had encountered and twice defeated Leo 
and Thorose. In the latter battle between 
them and the Armenians, Thorose was killed, 
after displaying amazing feats of valour. Leo 
was shortly after betrayed by some of the Arme- 
nian chiefs into the hands of the enemy, who 
put him in chains. At this period he was about 
thirty years of age. The victorious Egyptians 
then spread themselves over Cilicia, burning 
all before them even to the city of Adana, and 
taking innumerable prisoners. The castles and 
fortified towns however still remained in the pos- 
session of the Armenians, tiie Egyptians not being 
able to take them. The capital, however, Sis, 
after a long blockade was betrayed into their 
hands, and plundered of all its riches. The 
Egyptians then set fire to the great temple 
which Hethum had constructed there, and col- 
lecting all the plunder they had made during 
their expedition, together with their captives, 
amounting it is said to 40,000 souls, returned 
to Egypt. 

On their arrival Leo was presented to Phun- 
tukhtar their chief, who in a short time became 
much attached to him and promised to send 
him back to Cilicia. The chief, however, was 



dissuaded from his design by his counsellors. 
Leo shortly after this obtained the permission 
of Phuntukhtar to go on a pilgrimage to Jeru- 
salem, and was attended thither by Egyptian 
troops. On his return he was put in prison, 
where he devoted his time to religious occupa- 
tions, which produced comfort to himself and 
enabled him to comfort others. 

When Hethum returned to Cilicia and saw a. d. 1267. 


the desolation that overspread it, and learned era7i6. 
the fate of his two sons he became disconsolate. 
For some time the king gave himself up to the 
indulgence of the bitterest grief, sometimes 
assuaged by the pious attentions of the monks 
of the convent of Akunk. He was in the mean- 
time obliged to conceal his sorrow for fear of 
rendering his people unhappy, and exciting the 
anger of the chiefs, who all rejoiced at Leo's 
captivity. Hethum wishing to lessen the rancour 
of these latter against his only surviving son, 
on a certain public occasion when all were 
assembled together, demanded if all the chiefs 
were present. On their answering in the affir- 
mative, he exclaimed, " are they indeed all 
present?" They again replied "yes!" upon 
which the old king heaved a deep sigh and 
said, "where then are the princes Leo and 
Thorose? where their lionours? their riches? 
Your names, my children, are called, but no an- 


swer is returned ! Leo is in captivity, and the life- 
blood of Thorose has stained the blades of the 
infidels!" He then wept aloud, and his chiefs 
were unable to resist the infection. That day 
was indeed a day of mourning, llethum then 
with their consent sent an embassy to the 
chief of Egypt, with magnificent presents, and 
implored him to release Leo. The chief replied, 
*' You are on friendly t^rms with the Scythians, 
** who have with them a captive named Sughur, 
" who is a relation of mine. If you will pro- 
" cure his liberation I will restore your son 
" to your arms!" Hethum upon this immedi- 
ately obtained Sughur from the Scythians, and 
sending him into Egypt, Leo was forthwith 
permitted to depart for Cilicia, where on his 
arrival all ranks of people tesiified the most 
immoderate joy. Immediately before this event 
Constantine the pontitt'died, at a very advanced 
age, after governing the Armenian church forty- 
seven years. 
A. D. 1268. For a few months after his death the ponti- 


era 7J7. fical chair remained vacant. It was at length 
filled by Jacob the First, of Tarsus, or according 
to some of Sis, who at first taking up his 
residence in Hiromcla was on that account 
surnamed Clajensis. Jacob was a man of 
extensive knowledge, on which account he is 
called " the karntdT He was the author of 


many useful and elegant works, and wrote the 
anthem " Vesijig, (^-c." on the birth of the Virgin 
Mary. Shortly after his election he transcribed 
the general epistle of Nierses the Graceful, and 
sent copies of it to all parts where his spiritual 
jurisdiction extended, directing and beseeching 
the priesthood to peruse it often and observe 
the rules it prescribed. 

In this year king Hethum having assembled a. d. i269. 
all the chiefs in the city of Tarsus, abdicated era'Vls. 
the crown in favour of his son, who at the same 
time and place was anointed king of the Arme- 
nians by the pontiff. Hethum shortly after 
retired from the world, and became a monk, 
taking on that occasion the name of Macar. 
After a few months he died and was buried in 
the convent of Dirazark, after governing the 
Armenians in Cilicia forty-five years. 

CHAPTER xvni. 

The rdgn of Leo the Third, and tJie ponlijicate of 
CoiLstiudint the Second. 

Leo the son of the late monarch ascended a. d. 1269. 
the throne under the happiest auspices. His cra7i8. 
kingdom was in the mo^,t profound tranquillity; 


and he enjoyed the protection of the Scythians, 
and the esteem of the Egyptians, at that time 
the two most powerful people in the east. This 
state of prosperity was soon clouded by the 
sudden death of Hethum, and so sensible was 
the king to the loss of his father, that for several 
months he was inconsolable, and falling ill 
through excess of grief was npon the point 
of death. On this occasion the Sultan of Egypt, 
and the Khan of the Scythians, with many 
other chiefs, sent ambassadors to offer conso- 
lation to Leo, and exhort him to resume the 
reins of government, which he had relinquished 
on the death of Hethum. 

Leo at length recovered from his sorrow, 
and settling in Tarsus began to study to improve 
the condition of his subjects. He increased 
the pay of the troops, and was so liberal in his 
donations to the poor, that he fixed regular 
allowances for them. He also rebuilt in a superb 
manner the royal mansion in Tarsus, and in- 
creased the number of his public ministers. 
AD. 1271. He also repaired all the places which had 
era 720. been brought to ruin by the incursions of the 
enemies, particularly the royal city of Sis. 
All the fortifications of the different castles and 
towns which had fallen into decay he caused to 
be renewed, and he repaired all the old convents 
not only in the kingdom of Cilicia but in all 


parts of the east, erecting also public schools 
in various places. He also caused to be rebuilt 
in Jerusalem the walls of the convent of Arch- 
angels, and all the literary productions of the 
Armenians from the earliest ages down to this 
period, were by his order recopied and dis- 
tributed amongst the convents of the kingdom. 
Among these works was the celebrated com- 
mentary on the Psalter by Nierses Lambronensis. 
Leo was one of the most amiable of all his race 
who swayed the sceptre of Cilicia. In person 
he was beautiful even to effeminacy, and in 
manners mild even to weakness. In acts of 
charity he exceeded all his predecessors, and 
during his -reign not one of his subjects ever 
called upon him for assistance without ex- 
periencing his bounty. Indeed his people adored 
him, and cheerfully obeyed the laws which from 
time to time he found it necessary to institute 
for the safety of the state. He was emulated 
in his kind attention to the wants of his subjects 
by his pious and virtuous queen Ann, more 
genernllv known by the name of Kir Ann, who 
bore him eight sons, viz. Hcthum, Thorus, 
Sumbat, Constantine, Nierses, Oshin, and AH- 
nakh, and four daughters, named Zabil or Zablun, 
Rcgina, Mary and Thepaney. 

Whilst Leo was engaged in forwarding the a. n. 1272. 
welfare of the Armenians under his sovereignty, «ra72i. 

VOL. JI. s 


an abominable ])lot was formed by some of tlie 

chiefs, among whom were a few of his relations, 

h. D. \27:\. ot dethrone him. The king- however gaining in- 

Haican . 

lift ;j2. telligence of it, seized the conspirators one by one 
and deprived them of their forts. lie then re- 
leased thein, leaving to God the vengeance of his 
wrongs, w ho in a short time after visited them with 
his retribution, occasioning some to die suddenly, 
and others to be laid up for a long period with 
A. D. 1274. severe illnesses. A few of them, however, having 


era;23. rctircd to Egypt, incited the chief Phuntukhtar 
to break the covenant of peace he had formerly 
made with the kings Ilethum and Leo. Phun- 
tukhtar having assembled a large force, consisting 
of Egyptians, Arabs, and Turcomans, marched 
into Cilicia. Leo being unprepared for this 
invasion, and distrusting the fidelity of his chiefs, 
retired to a distant part of his kingdom and 
fortified himself against the enemy. The invaders 
having no one to resist them, spread themselves 
all over the country, massacring all that fell into 
their hands, both men and beasts, and burning 
all the public and private buildings that fell into 
their hands. The fortified cities and castles, 
however, escaped their devastations, having no 
means of reducing them. Having blockaded 
the city of Sis, the inhabitants in a sortie 
headed by a valiant priest, destroyed a number 
of the enemy, amongst whom was one of their 


principal generals. The priest unfortunately 
iell in this gallant action. Not being able to 
capture Sis, the infidels marched against the 
capital Tarsus, and knowing that it was the 
principal repository of all the treasures of the 
king, invested it with all their forces on all 
sides. They at length took it, and plundering 
it of all Its riches, set fire to the royal mansion 
and the church of St. Sophia. Then taking a 
liuniber ol" the inhabitants into captivity they 
returned to Enypt. Leo on hearinj? of the a. d. 1275. 

^ -^ i '^ Haican 

capture of Tarsus was overwhelmed with grief, i^ra'-t- 
and hardly had he recovered from the first 
trans j)o It of sorrow, wdien a messenger arrived 
to inform him that Phuntukhtar having ob- 
tained fresh supplies of troops was returning 
to Cilicia to recommence his devastations. 
Upon this the king reflecting that nothing- 
was to be obtained by remaining concealed, 
issued from his place of refuge, and assembling 
troops, exhorted them to fight bravely, if not 
for the preservation of their country from pillage, 
at least to defend the altars ol' their God from 
profanation. He then formed them into six 
divisions; heading the first himself, giving the 
second to the charge of his uncle old Sumbat 
the general, and arranging the others under 
the command of dificrent individuals on whose 
fidelity he could rely. The king then ordered 

s '> 


Sunibat witli his division to march towards the 
Eufyptians, followed at some distance by the 
third, fourth, fifth, and sixth, while he at the head 
of the second by a circuitous route came upon the 
rear of the invader's camp. On the approach 
of Sumbat's small body of m.en, the Egyptians 
fancying that they comprised the whole force 
of the Armenians, boldly marched to attack 
them. While they were engaged the other 
divisions successively arrived, and joined in the 
fray. Leo shortly after appeared in the rear 
of the enemy and began a furious assault. 
The Egyptians confused at this manoeuvre gave 
way on all sides, and a dreadful slaughter of 
them ensued. The chief Phuntukhtar with a 
few followers succeeded in effecting his escape. 
Unfortunately the gallant old Sumbat engaging 
too ardently in the pursuit of the fugitives, was 
thrown from his horse, and so severely hurt 
that he only survived the victory a few days. 
This occasioned a considerable damp to the joy 
felt on the occasion. 

The Armenian troops after gathering the spoil 
of their enemies returned to Tarsus, accompanied 
by a number of prisoners whom they had taken. 
Phuntukhtar shortly after sent ambassadors 
to Leo to propose peace, which after a little 
discussion was made, each party engagin^^- on 
oath not to break it in future. The same 


year in which these events occurred, the chief 
of Lycaonia made three incursions into Cilicia, 
but was each time defeated and driven from 
the country with disgrace. 

Some time after this the Lvcaonians joined a- p 1276. 
with the Egyptians to wage war with the "« ' '•^• 
Scythians, but Leo having proved to Phun- 
tukhtar the unworthy character of his new 
alHes, the war was abandoned and the chief 
of Lycaonia treated with contempt. On this 
occasion Leo received the thanks of Apagha, 
Khan of the Scythians, who invited him to 
visit Scythia, upon which the king set out, and 
on his arrival there made a treaty of perpetual 
friendship and alliance with that prince. While 
he was here, the Lycaonians made an incursion 
into Cihcia and committed great depredations. 
On Leo's return he mustered troops and carried 
war into Lycaonia, where he obtained ample 
vengeance for the recent injury suffered by his 
territories from that people, having destroyed 
many of their towns and villages, and carried 
away witli him a vast number of captives. 
This expedition of Leo struck terror into all 
the adjacent nations with which he was on terms 
of enmity, and he received shortly after am- 
bassadors from all of them proposing terms of 
peace and alliance, which were accepted. His 
chiefs also now began to look upon him with 
more tlian their uiual respect, and Oshin, the 


sonof Constantinc 1/anibronensis, having testified 
loyalty to the king, and regret for the rebellion 
of his father, was appointed governor of the 
castle of Askura. 
A.D. i2;8. About this period, when Cilicia was in peace 
cT^r:?. with all nations, the king suffered several do- 
mestic afflictions. His son Nierses with his 
daughter Regina fell ill and died, and they were 
quickly followed to the grave by their mother 
queen Kir Ann. The king overwhelmed by 
these distresses, became sick, and was for a long 
time confined by a dangerous malady. Not 
long after these events a plague broke out in 
the kingdom, sweeping off almost all the po- 
pulation, so that thefields being left uncultivated 
a famine ensued. In the midst of these evils 
Jacob the pontiff died, after a pontificate of 
nineteen years. 
A.D. 1287. He was succeeded on Good Friday in the 
craTi" same year by Constantinethe second archbishop 
of Cesarea, from the village of Catuk, but edu- 
cated in the church of Sis, on which account 
he is called Sisensis. He is also surnamed 
Pronaoorz, or manufacturer of fleeces. The 
year after his election to the pontificate king 
Leo died, after a reign of twenty years, the 
whole of which time was ardently devoted 
to the service of God and the furtherance of 
the happiness of his subjects. 

The secretary of this prince, the monkVahram, 


surnamed Rabun (or doctor) at his request drew 
up in verse a history of the events that occurred 
in Armenia from the days of Nierses the Grace- 
ful until this period. Another production of 
the same individual on the mystery of the 
Trinity possesses considerable merit. In it the 
writer speaks of the emanation of tlic Holy 
Ghost agreeably to the doctrine received by 
tJie Greeks. 


The reign of Hct/ium the Second, and (he pontificates 
of Stephen the Fourth and Gregori/ the Seventh. 

0\ the death of Leo the Third, liis son He- a.d. i2S9. 


thum the Second assumed the sovereignty of the ''•'•'^s. 
Armenians in Ciiicia. Hetliuni was a prince 
who despised ail worldly pomp and orandeur, 
seldom arraying himseliin iiis regal ornaments, 
and exhibiting in his manners the lowliest dispo- 
sition. His principal society was with the priests 
of his capital, with whom he daily engaged 
in prayers and other religions occupations. He 
was particularly attached to the literarv pro- 
ductions (jf the fathers of the chinch, and his 
bible was his constant companion. ]\c had 
caused a co|)y ot the lali'^r work to be written 
in a clear and elegant character, expressly for 


himself, and at tlie end of it he wrote some 
verses expressive oi the high satisfaction and 
comfort he derived from its frequent perusal. 
In the second year, of liis rei«^n a difference 
took place between him and the pontiff, and 
disputes were carried to such a height, that 
the king found it necessary to convene a meet- 
ing of the clergy, by which Constantine was 
deposed from the pontificate and banished, after 
presiding over the church three years. 
A. D. 1290. Stephen the Fourth, from the village of Khakh 
era 739. in the province of Ekeliaz, but educated in 
the pontifical house at Ilirt)mcla, was elected 
pontiff in the room of the banished Constantine. 
He was surnamed ITiromclaensis, and the last 
of the pontifis who resided at Iliromcla. 
A. D. 1292. Two years after, dissension again broke out 
era "41. in Armenia about the celebration of the festival 
of tlie Zurazatik, or wrong Easter, which now 
happened. Some wished to celebrate it with 
the Greeks on the sixth of April, others on the 
thirteenth of the same month. Hethum the king, 
and Stephen the pontifi", observing that each 
party obstinately persisted in their opposition 
to each other, assembled a meeting of bishops 
and monks in the city of Sis, where having 
calculated to find the correctness of the time, 
they decreed that Easter should commence on 
the sixth of April of that year. 


The inhabitants of Armenia Major, however, 
according to their usual custom commemorated 
it on the thirteenth of the month. 

In this vear Melick Ashraf, the son of 
Galavyn, and chief of Egypt, marclied with 
an immense army to the coasts of Palestine, 
at that time in possession of the Latins and 
Armenians. Here he captured the cities of 
Akkey and Tripoli with some other smaller 
places, and massacred all the Christians they 
contained. Having received large reinforce- HaJ^atl^^^ 
ments of troops he marched into the country '^'^='''^^- 
bounded by the Euphrates, and laid siege to 
the strong city of Hiromcla, then the residence of 
the Armenian pontiff". Hiromcla made a brave 
defence, and for a long time the governor, 
who was the uncle of Hcthum, baffled all 
the attempts of the besiegers, although they 
had erected against the city an innumerable 
quantity of battering engines. The Egyptians 
at length, after a severe loss of men on their 
part, captured and sacked it: hundreds of the 
unfortunate inhabitants were cruelly butchered 
in cold blood, and more carried away captive. 
AmoRg the latter was Stephen the pontiff. 
They plundered and then burnt all the churches, 
together with the pontifical house, and took 
away with them the holy hand of our blessed 
Illuminator. Melick Ashraf then proceeded to 


invade Cilicia, but before he had passed the 
frontiers of tliat country a messenjjjer arrived 
to inform liini that his enemies, taking advantage 
of his absence, had invaded and were then de- 
vastating Egypt. He then turiicd towards liis 
own country, accompanied i)y tlie christian 
captives he had talcen. On his arrival in Egypt 
dreadful diseases broke out m the land, which 
almost depopulated it. The chief, Melick, then 
plainly saw that it was the divine retribution 
that had fallen u))on him, for having plundered 
the churches of Hiromcla and carried away 
the hand of the saint with so many christian 
captives. Hereupon he determined to restore 
and release all he had taken ; but on this intention 
becoming known a conspiracy was formed 
against him, and he was assassinated by one 
of his own servants. 

He was succeeded in the government of Egypt 
by a chief called Kithbugha. The mortality 
amongst the Egyptians nevertheless continued,, 
until, at the expiration of a year after the death 
of his predecessor, Kithbugha feelmg convinced 
that the vengeance of the Almighty was upon 
him and his nation, sent back to the Armenians 
the holy hand, and the church furniture the 
Egyptians had so sacrilegiously seized, besides 
releasing all the christian captives. He also 
on this occasion wrote a friendly letter to 



Hethum, desiring to make a treaty of peace 
and friendship with him. On the arrival of the 
captives, the restored hand, and the other church 
plunder in Cilicia, the king and people were 
assured that the Almiorhtv beheld them with 
peculiar favour, and accordingly offered their 
thanksgivings on that account. The king also 
sent to the Egyptian chief valuable presents, 
and ceded to him a city which had formerly 
been taken from his nation by the Armenians. 
Stephen did not live to partake of the joy 
felt on this occasion. He died throusfh "rief 
a year after he arrived a captive in Egypt, 
having held the pontificate four years. 

Gregory the Seventh, from the city of Anar- a. d. 1294. 
zaba or Anavarza, then became pontitt, and cra74j. 
Hiromcia, which was the usual pontifical re- 
sidence, being destroyed, he took up his abode 
in the city of Sis, which was thenceforward 
constituted the seat of the spiritual government 
of the Armenians ; and Gregory was called, on 
account of it, Sisensis. 

Some time previous to this, king llctluini 
annulled the :uKitIic'iii;i liitherto in force against 
the pontificate of Aklithamar, making ])eacc 
betwcou it aiul his own pontificate. He also 
decreed that the spiritual head of each peo- 
ple, (Akhthamar and Cilicia), should hence- 
forward possess distinct power in his own 


country. Gregory the pontiflF at this period 
was on the most friendly terms with his brother 
of Akhthamar. Gregory was a man of a very 
meek and gentle character. He had some 
pretensions to literature, and composed a few 
anthems and treatises, but they were written 
in a very rude, uncouth style. It was he who 
introduced the custom of repeating daily, "??/// 
soul doth magnify the Lord, &c." which prior 
to his time was only read on Sundays and 
festivals. He made great endeavours to make 
the ceremonies of the Armenians agree with 
those of the Greeks, on which account much 
discontent was produced. The eastern monks 
having held a meeting in the city of Little 
Seunies, wrote to the pontiff to desist from 
such unpopular innovations. Their prelate, Ste- 
phen Urbelian composed a small book on this 
subject, called Zernark (demonstration) in which 
he censured the religious creed and traditions 
of the Greeks with an acrimony and illiberality 
totally unbecoming a distinguished member of 
the Christian church. 




The ru'ru of 'I'horus the Third, and the rebellion 
of SiDiihal and Cunstantine, 

Hktium the kiivj:, harassed 1 v tlie cares of J;-^J?^,j^^''^" 
fifovernmcnt, for which he \vas totally incapaci- em 742. 
tated by his reliuions propensities, took the 
resolution of abdicating- in favour of his brother 
Thorns. For this purpose he convened an assem- 
bly of all the chiefs of the nation, and resic:ned 
the crown to his brother, after possessing it four 
years. Hethuni then retired to a convent, where 
he assumed the name of Johannes, and be- 
romin*:^ a monk, put on for greater humility and 
bodily njortification, the dress in use with the 
Latin I-'ranciscan friars. The Armenians still 
regarded him as tluir monarch, and Thorns 
continued to pay him submission. 

In this year an ambassador arrived in Cilicia nairau' 
from the Latin kini;- of Cyprus to Hethum and *^''* ''*'*• 
Thorns, to be'4 tluir sister Zablun in marriage 
to his brother ^L\urice, the count of Tyre. 

The royal brothers consented to the match, 
and Maurice accordinirly came to the city of 
Sis, where the marriage was celebrated. l^>om 


this connection sprung Johannes and Guido, 
who in the course of time reigned over Cilicia. 
About the same period the emperor Andronicus 
sent two ambassadors to Hethum and his 
brother, to request one of their sisters in mar- 
riage to his son Michael, whom he had asso- 
ciated with himself as joint emperor. The two 
princes agreed to the measure, and accordingly- 
sent their two sisters Mary and Thepaney, the 
former fifteen and the latter thirteen years of 
age, to Constantinople, being unwilling to pre- 
fer one before the other; " for," said they in a 
letter which they wrote to the emperor, " our 
sisters enjoy an equal share of our affection, and 
let prince Michael decide upon seeing them 
A. D. 12'J6. which he would prefer for his consort !" On their 


era 745. voyagc Mary was taken ill and landed at Rhodes, 
where she soon recovered, and after returning 
thanks to God for her restoration to health, and 
being confirmed again, according to the usage 
amongst the Greeks with sick people and stran- 
gers, she with her sister proceeded on to Con- 
stantinople. Here they were received with all the 
honour due to their birth ; the emperor Androni- 
cus having set out to meet them on their landing. 
After being here a few days Michael espoused 
the princess Mary, his choice having fallen on 
her. The marriage was celebrated on the 16th 
January, A. D. 129G; H. E. 745. Thepaney 


was shortly after betrothed to the son of the 
great Greek prince Johannes, and like her 
sister was reconfirmed on the occasion ; the 
emperor givmg her the name of Theodora after 
his motlier, intending by that to confer a great 
honour on tlie young Armenian princess. An- 
dronicus also gave her a splendid portion, and 
tlien sent her to her husband, who was in a 
distant part of the empire. Thepaney unfor- 
tunately died on her journey, and v/as buried 
with all possible honour and respect inThessaly. 
]Mary bore the prince Michael two sons and 
two daughters, viz. Andronicus, who afterwards 
became emperor, Manuel, Ann, and Theodora. 
Shortly after the marriage of these three 
princesses, Thorus became tired of holdino- 
the government of Cilicia, and besou2:ht Ilethum 
again to resume his crown. The latter findins: 
Thorus determined to relinquish all ]iower, re- 
luctantly reascended the throne. Some of the 
chiefs having shewn some marks of enmity to 
Hethum, he caused them to be seized and pu- 
nished. He then ))aid a visit to Ghazan, Khan 
of the Scytiiians, with whom he renewed the 
treaty of peace and alliance between the two 
nations, and prevailed upon him to suppress 
the persecution of tiie Christians which had re- 
cently prevailed in the states wlucii owned his 
sovereignty. A few months after this, the cm- 
press Mary invited her brothers Hethum and 

272 HISTORY OF armpjnia. 

Thorns to visit her at Constantinople, which 
they did, the former leaving the government of 
Cilicia in tiie hands of his brother Suinbat, 
then a powerful warlike character. On the 
departure of the two brothers for Constantino- 
ple, SuLuhat having ingratiated himself with 
the Armenian chiefs, and won over to his interest 
his three younger brothers, Constantine, Oshin, 
and Alinakh, determined to seize on the crown. 
He found means also to seduce the pontiff Gre- 
gory from the duty lie owed to his lawful prince 
Hethum, and was anointed by him, in the city 
A.D. 12!)-. of Sis, king of the Armenians. Sumbat, having 
era 746. thus bctraycd his trust as his brother's deputy, 
and violated all the laws of honour and the 
duties of kindred, sought to confirm himself 
in his ill-gotten power by an alliance with the 
Scythians. For this purpose he paid a visit 
to Ghazan Khan, and presenting him with gifts 
of immense value, found means to persuade 
that prince to acknowledge him by a written 
document sovereign of Cilicia. The Khan also 
gave him one of his relations in marriage. 
He then returned to Sis, and neglecting no 
means to ensure his continuance on the throne, 
he wrote, together with the pontiff Gregory, 
letters to the pope of Rome, wherein he made 
over himself and his dominions to the Romish 
power, to which he received kind replies. 
On the return of Hethum and Thorus to 


Cilicia, Sumbat took up arms and drove them 
^ut of the country, and upon their making 
apphcation to the Khan Ghazan for assistance 
against the usurper, the latter caused them to 
be seized in Cesarea and placed in confinement 
at Barzrberd. A few days after, the unnatural 
barbarian caused Thorus to be put to death, 
and Hethum deprived of sight. 

Constantine, the brother of Sumbat, comins: to ^.- ."^^ '-^S' 
the knowledge of these ruthless deeds, was seized "^ ^47. 
with horror, and making a party with some of the 
chiefs who regarded the black acts with the same 
feeling, collected a few bold and determined 
men, at the head of whom he marched to Sis to 
punish the usurper. Sumbat learning this, issued 
out of the capital at the head of his troops, 
and encountered Constantine on an adjacent 
plain. After a hard contest, the latter proved 
victorious, having taken Sumbat prisoner and 
dispersed his adherents. Constantine then re- 
leased his brother Hethum, and placed Sumbat 
in the same prison, after the latter had held 
the sovereign power two years. Hethum being 
blind, the reins of government were held for 
about two years by his deliverer and brother, 
Constantine, at the end of which period the for- 
mer miraculously irad his sight restored to him. 

All the nation rejoiced at this event, but a. 0.1299. 
Ilethuni did not wish to resume his crown, era 748. 

vor,. II. t 


desiring to retire to a convent there topass the 
remainder of his days. lie was, however, pre- 
vented from doin": this, lor the Armenians 
forced him to take possession of the throne. 
This reaccession of Ilethum took place A. D. 
1300, H. E. 749. 
A. D. i.-^oo. Authority in all situations of life is sweet, but 

Haican ■ • i 

«ra749. that which is enjoyed by a sovereign prmce has 
powerful attractions, and there are few who once 
having tasted the delights of reigning can relin- 
quisii them without repming. This was admi- 
rably exemplified in the case of Constantine. 
On being: oblis^ed to come down from his elevated 
situation to make way for his brother Hethum, 
he felt discontent, and meditated procuring the 
release of Sumbat, and joining with the latter 
against the king. Hethum on being made ac- 
quainted with his intentions caused him to be 
arrested ; and then sent both him and Sumbat 
to the emperor at Constantinople, by whom 
they were kept in custody until their deaths. 
A.D.i3fli. Sometime after this Ciliciawas invaded sue- 


em/jw. cessively by the chiefs of Damascus and Egypt, 
but they were met with promptitude by Hethum, 
assisted by Scythian troops, and driven out of 
the kingdom. The Lycaonians and the Egyptians 
then jointly marched against Hethum, but were 
overthrown ihree times by him, and at length 
obliged to make peace. At the request of the 


king, the Khan Gharbant placed on the fron- 
tiers ofCilicia 1,000 Scythian troops, under the 
command of the general Bilarghu, who fixed 
his residence at Anarzaba. Hethum then wish- a. d. i305. 


mg to retire from the world and its troubles era 754. 
adopted his nephew Leo, having no issue him- 
self, and caused him to be crowned in the city 
of Sis king of the Armenians. As for himself 
he was thenceforward called the king's father. 
About this time a certain chief named He- 
thum, governor of the fortress of Korikosa, 
having obtained permission from the king, re- 
signed his charge, and repairing to the island 
of Cyprus became a friar in a Latin convent 
of Premonstrants. He afterwards visited Rome, 
and there wrote a history of the Scythians. 
Here he died. 


The j'dgns of Leo the Fourth and Osliin, and the 
second pont'ijicate of Con.stantuie the Second. 

Leo the Fourth ascended the throne of Cilicia a. d. 1.^05. 
on the retirement of his uncle Hethum, and fra7n4. 
by wise and prudent measures succeeded in 
keeping the country in a state of peace and 
prosperity. This prince was the son of the mur- 
dered Tborus, and like his father, possessed an 

t 2 


excellent disposition, and extraordinary talents, 
and in his person united every manly grace; 
Leo by his modesty seemed unaware of his na- 
tural superiority to other men. In all important 
cases of state, he invariably repaired for advice 
to the convent in which the late monarch He- 
thum had retired, where the latter guided him 
in the path which it was ])roper to pursue. 

The nation being now in the most ])rofound. 
tranquillity, Gregory the pontiff thought it a 
fit opportunity to take some measures for the 
better regulation of the ecclesiastical customs 
and ceremonies. For this purpose he wrote to 
Johannes Orbel, archbishop of Seunies, and 
temporal prince of that country, who possessed 
much influence with the inhabitants of Arme- 
nia Major, opening to him liis views. He then 
made a similar communication to Zechariah 
Zorzorensis, archbishop of Artaz and abbot 
of the fraternity of the apostle Thaddeus ; also 
to the monk Johannes of Ezunka, surnamed 
Zorzorensis from his belonging to the convent 
of Zorzor, and to several other eminent per- 
A.D. nofi. Some dispute having arisen between Jo- 
hannes Orbel and Zechariah Zorzorensis, the 
pontiff feared some opposition would be made 
to the measures be contemplated, and in order 
to lose no time, he forthwith wrote to the 

era 75'). 


father of the king, to whom much deference 
was paid by the nation, and requested him 
to cause a meeting" of che clergy to assemble 
for the consideration of some points he would 
lay before it. In the mean time the pontiff 
composed a religious creed and gave a copy 
of it to king Leo, but before he had time to 
carry his mtentions into execution, and while 
waiting in anxious expectation for the meeting 
to be convened, he was suddenly taken ill and 
died, in the fourteenth year of his pontificate. 

Immediately after this event Leo having 
consulted with Ilethum, issued a proclamation 
throughout his dominions for the heads of the 
Armenian clergy to repair to Sis. On this 
forty-one bishops, seven abbots, ten eminent 
monks, witli many more of the clergy, assembled 
in the church of St. Sophia, in the capital of the 
kingdom, and were tiiere met by Leo, Hetlium, 
and a vast number of the Armenian chiefs. 

Here the creed formed bv Greq-ory the late a. n. 1307. 
pontiff was publicly read, and nine canons em 750. 
enacted thereupon, oneof vvhicli related to the ac- 
knowledgement of two distinct natures in Christ, 
the remainder to the cere?nonies of the church. 
At this mectiu'^' a pontiff was elected, the 
ciioice falling on Constantine Pronagorz, a native 
of Cesarea, who had formerly sat in the pon- 
tihcal chair. 



Immediately on taking possession of his 
office, Constantine endeavoured to enforce the 
enactments contained in the canons of the late 
meetino-, but found it impossible, the people re- 
solutely op])osing- them, so that several murders 
were committed on their account. After nine 
years of strife about these canons, a council was 
held in the city of Adana, where they were again 
confirmed and established, an account of which 
is given by Johannes of Ezunka who was there 
present. The nation, however, acted precisely 
the same afterward as before, determined to 
retain their ancient religious customs. 
A. D. 1308. Again dissension arose about these ill timed 

Haican p • i i i 

era 757. attempts at reforming the church ceremonies ; 
and jealousy, hatred, and every bad passion 
which a difference of religious opinion excites 
in the human mind, took possession of the 
bosoms of all the chiefs and prelates. The 
king and his uncle Hethum imprudently per- 
sisted in forcing the nation to conform to the 
regulations of the unpopular canons, until at 
length they created enemies, who by their 
machinations wrought their destruction. Se- 
veral of the chiefs who differed with Leo and 
Hethum m these matters of religion repaired 
to Bilarghu, the Scythian general, who it will 
be remembered, resided in the city of Anarzaba, 
and commanded a body of 1,000 Scythians, 


and inspired him with the same enmity to the 
king and his uncle as they themselves enter- 
tained. Bilarghu hereupon invited Leo and 
Hethum to visit him in order to confer upon 
some weighty affairs. The two royal victims not 
suspecting treachery, proceeded to Anarzaba 
accompanied by Oshin the general, and forty 
other chiefs of the nation. On their arrival 
here they were received with much affected 
respect by Bilarghu, till seizing his opportu- 
nity, he mercilessly caused them all to be 
butchered. This horrible event took place in 
the third year of Leo's reign. The murderer 
Bilarghu then assumed to himself regal power. 
On the news of this massacre reaching Oshin, 
the youngest brother of Hethum, he was struck 
with horror, and instantly setting out for the 
capital Sis, he collected the remaining chiefs, 
and procuring troops marched against the Scy- 
thians and drove them out of the kingdom. 
Mourning then overspread the nation on account 
of the loss of the king, his uncle and so many 
of the chiefs. 

Oshin succeeded to the crown, and after ad. i308. 
setting the state affairs in order, returned to the "iTs?. 
old point about the canons of the council of Sis. 
He insisted upon their being observed, on which 
discord and dissension overspread the land. Sar- 
kies, bishop of Jerusalem, rejected altogether 

280 HisroKv OK ai^mcnia. 

the council in question, and entirely disregardetl 
the orders sent him thereupon by Oshin and 
the pontiff' Constantine. Having much influence 
with the chief of Egypt, and being beloved by 
A. D. 1311. his clerfjv, Sarkies procured from the former 
era 760. a letter patent authorizing him to hold supreme 
spiritual power over all his diocese, independent 
of all others; upon which he assumed the title 
of patriarch of Jerusalem, A. D. 1311 ; 11. E. 
760. From this prelate sprung the patriarchate 
of the Armenians in Jerusalem. 
A.D. 131/-. About this period died queen Ann the consort 
era 766. of Oshin, leaving one son named Leo. Ihe 
king shortly after married Johanna a Latin, 
and of the royal family of Sicily. Being thus 
connected Oshin demanded, by the desire of 
the pope, assistance from the kings of the west 
against the enemies of the church, which was 
promised by them. 
A.D. 1319. While Oshin expected the arrival of troops 


era 768. from his European allies, Cilicia was invaded 
by Sultan Nasr^ chief of Egypt, at the head 
of 18,000 troops. Oshin at first was inclined 
to retreat before the infidels, but at length 
confiding in God, he assembled a body of 
Armenians amounting only to 200 men, but 
bold and hardy, with which, accompanied by 
Hethum the brave governor of the castle of 
Naghra, on whom he had conferred the dignity 


of general of the army, he attacked the Egyp- 
tians by surprise in their camp. Success followed 
this daring enterprise, and the enemies were 
defeated and fled, after leaving C,000 of their 
bravest troops dead oh the field, and a number 
of prisoners, among whom were some chiefs, 
in the hands of the victors. 

The year after this splendid action, the king f,'^{^J"^'°' 
fell dangerously ill, and finding his last hour em-GU. 
draw ni^h, called to him several of the most 
faithful of the chiefs, among whom was Oshin 
of Korikosa, and delivered to their charge and 
protection his queen Johanna, and his son Leo, 
then about twelve years of age, directing 
that on the latter attaining the age of pu- 
berty he should ascend the throne, which 
he, the present possessor, was about to quit 
for ever, should they think him capable of 
governing the nation. He then appointed Oshin 
Pail regent, and shortly after died in the thirteenth 
year of his reign. His remains were interred 
in the convent of Dirazark. Just about this 
period a violent earthquake shook Armenia, 
swallowing up a number of villages in the 
provinces of Ararat and Seunics. The great 
city of y\ni was also destroyed by this tre- 
mendous convulsion of nature, and the inha- 
bitants dispersed into various ])arts. Some 
took up their residence in Vaspurakan, others 



settled in Persia; a great number went to Scy- 
thia, and resided near Astracan, whence part 
of them removed to Crim Tartary, A. D. 1331, 
H. E. 780, where they built a number of houses 
and churches, the remainder went into Europe 
and settled in Poland, Wallachia, and other 
places, where their posterity exist to this day. 
Ani was never afterward rebuilt. 


The reign of Leo the Fifth, and the pontificates 
of Condantine the Third and Jacob the Second. 

A. D. 1.T20. Leo the Fifth succeeded his father as king 
eia/cy. of the Armenians at the age of twelve years. 
Oshin Pail the regent married the young king 
to his daughter, and being a widower himself, 
he espoused the queen dowager Johanna. 
Oshin then assumed the titles of father of the 
king and lord of Cilicia and Isauria. On the 
death of Hethum, the general of the Armenians, 
Constantine the brother of the regent was ap- 
pointed to that high office. In consequence 
of this act of favour of Oshin, some of the 
Latin relations of queen Johanna provoked the 
Armenian chiefs to conspire against him, abetted 
by Zablun the sister of the deceased king Oshin, 


and widow of Maurice Count of Tyre, by whom 
she had three sons, Henry, Johannes, and 

On discovering the storm that was gathering 
over his head, Oshin Pail invaded Tyre at the 
head of a large army, and capturing Zablun 
and her eldest son Henry, brought them to Sis, 
where they died in prison. The other two sons 
of this princess fled to Cyprus, and found an 
asylum with their uncle the king of that island. 

Nasr the chief of Egypt having heard of ^^'A^^^' 
the death of king Oshin, and the unpopular "a 77a. 
character of the regent of Cilicia, sent an im- 
mense army into that country for the purpose 
of plundering it. A detachment of the invader's 
force marched and laid siege to the city of 
Phayas on the sea coast. Constantine the 
Armenian general, at the head of COO men, 
attacked and routed this body, and on the other 
divisions of the Egyptian army advancing, he 
encountered and overthrew them twice, when 
they left the country disgraced and humiliated. 
The Egyptians lost in this expedition 5,000 
men, while on the part of the Armenians only 
100 fell. 

The Egyptians, however, smarting under the 
defeat they had suffered, procured reinforcements 
from their own country, from Lycaonia, and 
other allies, and again marched to the siege 


of Phayas. Invested by sea and land, the 
garrison made a gallant defence, bnt at length- 
seeing- no prospect of relief they surrendered. 
The infidels destroyed the whole of its for- 
tifications, and massacred a number of the 
inhabitants. After gathering the spoil and 
captives they spread themselves over Cilicia, 
and having devastated it with impunity, on 
account of their vast numbers, they returned 
to Egypt. 
A.D 1.T22. 'j'j^g Armenians had before applied to the 
am 771. Latins for assistance by desire of the pope, 
which had been promised but not given them. 
They now made fresli applications, but met 
with the same success as before. When it 
came to the knowledge of Nasr the chief of 
Egypt that the Armenians expected aid from 
Europe, he prepared an immense army to 
oppose the expected force. After a time, 
however, when he perceived that none was 
likely to appear, he determined to march into 
Cilicia and extir[)ate the inhabitants. For this 
purpose he associated with himself a great 
chief named Emir Omar, who had many Tur- 
kish troops under his command. To ensure 
success to the expedition, he prevailed with 
the great Scythian general Themurtash, by- 
means of large bribes, to join the enterprise, 
who would prove of the greater service, as 


his nation was at that time in friendship with the 
devoted Armenians, and could by that method 
take them by surprise. Thus then was a 
formidable coalition formed against the youngs 
monarch Leo and his regent Oshin, composed 
of Egyptians, Turks and Scythians. 

Hostilities were first commenced by The- 
murtash, who marched into Cilicia at the head 
of 30,000 men. The country was completely 
taken by surprise, and the Scythians began 
their depredations without the least opposition 
being made to them. They destroyed towns, 
villages, churches, and convents, as they ad- 
vanced, plundering the inhabitants of all they 
possessed, and then brutally killing them. Even 
the dead were not permitted to rest by these 
rapacious spoilers. They opened the tombs 
in hopes of discovering treasure, and burnt the 
corpses that lay therein, the more to express 
their contempt of the Christians. They burnt 
the corn in the field and in the granary, and 
carried away all the cattle they found where- 
ever they came. For twenty-five days they 
continued pillaging and despoiling, at the end 
of which period they left the country with the 
booty they had obtained. 

The Egyptians, with their allies the Turks, 
then succeeded the Scythians, and marching into 
the heart of the country committed unheard-of 


28G HISTORY. OF Armenia. 

excesses and cruelties. They laid siege ta 
and captured several of the fortified cities, A- 
dana amongst the number, which they destroyed 
by fire. Wherever they came death and des- 
truction followed : and well has it been said, 
that the record of their invasion forms the 
bloodiest page in the history of the Armenians, 
or perhaps of general history. Having spread 
mourning and desolation over the land, they 
returned to Egypt, carrying with them about 
20,000 souls into captivity. During these cala- 
mitous events the Armenian chiefs, instead of 
joining to resist the invaders, were fighting and 
quarrelling with each other. 
^' ^Haka^a ^^ ^^^^ statc of public distrcss king Leo and 
the pontiff Constantino wrote to Pope Johannes, 
informing him of the ruined state of the country 
and imploring aid. The Pope returned the 
kindest replies, wherein he exhorted them to 
patience, and offered what consolation he could. 
He also sent them money to commence repair- 
ing their towns and villages, and raising troops 
to oppose future invaders. The Pope also 
wrote to the Christian nations to assist the 
Armenians, but his applications were treated 
with neglect. 

The Armenians then applied for assistance 
to Abusait, khan of the Scythians, who gene- 
rously sent them 20,000 troops to protect their 

era 772. 


country, and wrote to Leo to assure him of his 
friendship and alliance. He also sent ambassa- 
dors to the chief of Egypt, to endeavour to make 
peace between him and the Armenians. 

Before the Scythians troops which were sent 
to Cilicia to protect it had arrived, a horde of 
plunderers composed of different nations in- 
vaded that unfortunate country from Asia Minor. 
They captured the great city of Eghias, and 
after plundering set fire to it. They took the 
castle of Mina and dismantled it, but on their 
extending their depredations, the Armenians 
urged by despair took up arms and attacked 
them. Vain, however, was the brave attempt 
to arrest the progress of the spoilers. They 
were so numerous that though an immense 
number of them fell, they did not appear to 
have suffered any diminution in their strength. 
The Armenians after leaving half their force dead 
on the field were defeated, and numbers of them 
taken prisoners, among whom were some chiefs 
The enemy then advanced to the siege of 
Milun, which they took and set fire to, causing 
many of the inhabitants on account of their 
religion to perish in the confla'^^ration, and car- 
rying a vast number into captivity. Tiic pontiff 
Constantine sunk under the contemplation of 
the distresses of his country, dying in the 
sixteenth year of his second pontificate. lie n'.umn' 

era 7 


was succeeded in his dignity as head of the 
Armenian church by Constantino tlie Third, 
from l/ainbron, wlio look up his residence in Sis. 
Some short time after, liaving occasion to go 
on urgent business to Alei)|)u, on his arrival 
there he received an invitation from Nasr tlie 
chief of Jilgypt to visit him. Accordingly 
Constantine repaired to liiiii, and was received 
witli much honour and attention. Tiie pontiff 
succeeded in ])crsuading Nasr to make peace 
with Leo, and the former signed a treaty lor 
a cessation of hostilities for a period of fifteen 
years. Constantine then returned rejoicing to 
Sis, where on his arrival he gave ])leasure to all 
by the news of peace which he communicated. 
The Scythian auxiliaries being arrived, the 
Armenians took heart and began to repair their 
country. Constantine shortly after died, having 
held the pontificate only four years. 
A.D. ir>2r. Jacob the Second, from Sis, and nei^hew of 
cia77(j. Cregory Anavarzensis, then became ])ontifr. 
About this time Guido the nephew of the 
king of Cyprus, and son of Zablun the sister 
of Hetlmm the Second, became greatly distin- 
guished among the Greeks and Latins, by whom 
he was held in high estimation. His aunt, 
the empress Mary, of whofn we before gave 
some account, having heard of his exploits 
invited him to Constantinople, and on his arrival, 


which was in the time of her son the emperor 
Andronicus, was so pleased with him that she 
made him espouse the daughter of one of the 
principal nobles in the empire. His wife dying 
some time after without issue, he married the 
daughter of another noble, named Sergius or 
Serijianus, on which account he was surnamed 
Sergius or Sarkies. He was subsequently no- 
minated to the government of Achaia, which he 
exercised with credit to himself and happiness 
to his dependents. He had at one and the 
same time troops from the Armenians and 
\ Greeks under his command. 

Some time after this, Cantacuzenus, a rebel, a.d. 1342. 


being driven into exile by the emperor Johannes, era 7ai. 
the grandson of the beforementioned empress 
Mary, assumed the imperial purple, and sent 
ambassadors to Guide, callhig upon the latter 
to recognize Inm, the rebel, the lawful emperor, 
and to renounce all obedience to Johannes. 
Guido incensed ;it the insolence of this de- 
mand, replied, " I know wliom to treat as 
emperor without beiivjf reminded of my duty!" 
The ambassadors on receiving this reply, had 
the audacity to threaten Guido with their 
master's anger, on which he seized them and 
put them in conhnement. He then attacked 
the lands of Cantacuzenus, took possession of 
his cattle, and drove away the people employed 



ill £r"^i"<-liiig- them. Alter plundering- all that 
the rebels country afforded he returned to 
his government, and having- some time before 
affianced iiis (hiughter to the son of Canta- 
cuzenus, he immediatelv broke off the con- 
nection. The j)retender to the imperial throne 
afterward invaded Thessaly, but was driven out 
of it by (iuido, who opposed him wherever he 
shewed himself, to prevent his supplanting the 
emperor Johannes, the grandson of his aunt. 
Guido returned to Acliaia, shortly after de- 
feating this rebel, where he was appointed 
king of Armenia, A. D. 1343, H. E. 792. The 
events which led to his elevation, we have 
to detail in the next chapter. 


The crudhj of Leo tJic Fifth ; the hwasion of 
Cillcia by the Egyptians, and the pontifieatc 
of MukJiitJiar. 

A.D. 1330. About this period enmity broke out between 
era "y. Lco the king and his father-in-law Oshin Pail, 
upon which the former sent troops to Adana, 
and seizing Oshin and his brother Constantine 
the general, put them to death. He then sent 
the head of his father-in-law to the chief of 
Egypt, and the head of his other victim to 

HISTORY Oh AltMilNlA. 291 

the Khan of the Scythians. Leo then sent 
to Cyprus for Johannes the brother of Giiido 
Sergius, his cousin, and appointed him Pail, that 
is, chief of chiefs, and nominated a Latin of 
the name of Baldwui to the office of general. 
The king more fully developing his unruly pas- 
sions killed his queen, and then married a Latin, 
daughter of the king of Sicily. These enor- 
mities rendered him hateful in the sight of God 
and man. 

Some time after Leo had diso^raced the sceptre ^- ^- '•'^34 
which he swayed, by the cruel acts we have '^ra/Si. 
related, a report was circulated that the Latins 
were making ])repafations to march to deliver 
the Holy Land from the hands of the infidels. 
This created mucli alarm to the chiefs of Egypt 
and Aleppo, who conceiving that the Armenians 
were the cause of their enemies armin"". and 
would in the event of their cominor render them 
assistance, determined to destroy the whole of 
them. " For," said they, "as long as the Ar- 
" menians remain near us, we shall be constantly 
" annoyed by tl»c Europeans." The chief Nasr 
liad, however, a solen)n treaty with Leo to 
abstain from hostilities for fifteen years: being 
therefore unable to march in person against Ci- 
licia, but alarmed at the report of the approach 
of the Latins, and })rovoked by other nations, 
he assembled his forces, amounting to a great 

u 2 


number of men, and placed them under the 
command of the chief of Aleppo who was at 
that time the avowed enemy of king Leo. 

A. D 1335. The chief of Aleppo marched into Cilicia at 
era 784. the head of his large army during the festival of 
the Ascension of our Lord, and taking the Arme- 
nians by surprise, ravaged the country from one 
end to the other, massacring all the people they 
found, whether clergy or laity. They destroyed 
many towns and villages, and pillaged and 
burnt churches, convents, private habitations, 
and public buildings. Having made immense 
booty, and tnken a great number of prisoners, 
they returned to Egypt and Arabia. During 
this hostile visit Leo fled with his chiefs, and 
fortified himself in impregnable places. 

A. D.1337. This year another invasion of Cilicia by the 

Haican y-, . , 

»<ra78G. Egyptians took place. Leo hereupon having 
no means of resistance, shut himself up in a 
strong castle, from which he sent ambassadors 
to Melick Nasr, to implore a reconciliation, 
and a renewal of their former peace. The latter 
replied, ** I will never make peace with you 
until you promise on oath not to hold any 
correspondence or communication with the 
western nations!" 

Leo forced by distress and the miseries 
which he saw his subjects daily suffer, swore on 
the evangelists the oath required, in presence of 


the Egyptian ambassadors. The enemy then 
left Cilicia, and it again tasted the sweets of 

Notwithstandins: the solemn oath which Leo ad. 1339 

~ Haican 

had taken, in the course of two years after ^ra 788. 
he again renewed his correspondence with the 
pope and the other western powers. This was 
not long concealed from Melick Nasr, who on 
being informed of it, was so incensed that he 
immediately dispatched to Cilicia an army of 
10,000 cavalry to ravage the country. 

These troops on their arrival attacked and 
destroyed to the foundation sixteen castles, and 
having done considerable injury and obtained 
immense booty returned to Egypt. Hence- 
forward, to prevent a recurrence of hostilities 
from the same quarter, Leo never made open 
communications to the pope, yet through the 
medium of the Latins in Cilicia he secretly 
informed him of his distress and supplicated for 

On this account a disnQ:reement took place a. D. 1 

' Haican 

between the chiefs and bishops, and the king crars'j 
and the pontiff, one half of them insisting upon 
the total discontinuance of communication with 
the western nations, declaring that through 
them they were reduced to almost utter ruin, 
the remainder opposing. This dispute at last 
grew so violent between the pontiff and the king 




that the former rebuked the latter, and threatened 
him with the vengeance of the church. Leo 
was so incensed at this that he procured him 
to be deposed from the pontificate, after holding 
it fourteen years. 
A. D. 1311. Mukhithar, surnamed Ter Mukhik, from the 
erajyo. viUagc of Cumah, in the province of Erunjak, was 
then elected pontiff. About this time the sect 
called Unithors began to make a noise. The 
institution of these sectaries originated with the 
monk Johannes, the disciple of the monk Isaiah 
Nichiensis, a man of apparently pious principles, 
who having discovered a mine, formed a re- 
ligious society on the model of the Latin order 
of Dominicans. On their increasing in number 
much confusion was caused in the nation, as 
the sect did not acknowledge the forms of bap- 
tism, confirmation, and receiving holy orders, 
as practised by the Armenians, to be orthodox, 
and ail their proselytes were obliged to be 
again baptized, and confirmed by them according 
to the Latin rites. Priests on embracing their 
tenets were also obliged to renew their ecclesi- 
astical orders before they could recommence their 
duties. Indeed they sought to alter the whole 
of the ceremonies of the Armenian church to 
those in use with the Latins, in consequence of 
which contention arose throughout the king- 
dom, and continued for a considerable time. 


The majority of the Armenians, however, looked 
upon these innovators with contempt, and after 
the novelty of the thing had passed, they began 
to decrease, and at this epoch they constituted 
but a very small portion of the nation. Some 
time previous to the elevation of Mukhithar 
to the pontificate, two individuals belonuino- 
to this sect, Nierses Palienz or Paghun, bishop 
oi' Ormi, and Simeon Beg, bishop of Carin, had 
engaged with more than ordinary zeal in in- 
culcating the peculiar doctrines of their belief, 
and much mischief was done by them in the 
church. The Armenians at length, roused by 
the boldness with which thev arraiixned their 
ceremonies, expelled them from their dioceses. 
Simeon took refuge in Cyprus, and Nierses 
fled to another place. When the latter heard of 
Mukliithar's being placed in the pontifical chair, 
he came to him, hoping to be able to make a 
proselyte of him. 

Tiiepontifi', however, on examiningthe creed of n".,!^^;,^'^^'" 
Nierses, excommunicated hini as a tramplerupon ^"^ '"'"^* 
all good laws and forms. Irritated at this unex- 
pected rebuff, Nierses fortliwith proceeded to 
Avignon, where pope JJenedictus then resided, 
and accused the Armenians l)y the grossest false- 
hoods, of abounding in iicresics. A similar cliarge 
had been befure made against them by Simeon 
Beg. There was at this time in Avignon several of 

296 HISTORY OF Armenia. 

the sect of Unithors, who together with some 
ignorant Latin monks, who boasted of being 
perfectly acquainted with the rites of the eastern 
churches, secretly instigated by Nierses, in- 
vented the most abominable falsehoods, and 
compiling them in a small book, presented it to 
the pope, as containing 117 heresies in vogue 
among the Armenians. This book was for- 
warded by the pope with a letter to the pontiff 
Mukhithar and king Leo. 
A. D. 1342. Hereupon a large meeting consisting of bishops 

HHican . r cf 

era 791. and pricsts was convened in the city oi jms, 
where all the accusations contained in the book 
were investigated, and a reply furnished to 
every one, clearly proving that they were the 
most unfounded calumnies. 

They then transmitted the proceedings of the 
meeting to the pope, who became convinced 
of the slanderous nature of the charges brought 
against the Armenian church, and felt glad at 
the opportunity he had given the pontiff and the 
king of refuting them. Just before the assembly 
of the clergy on this occasion, Leo the king 
died, after a reign of twenty-one years. 



The reigns of Johannes ( Constantine the Third), 
Guido, and Constantine the Fourth and last; 
together with the pontrficate of ]\Iesrop. 

Ox the death of the late monarch, as he had ad. 1342. 


no issue, his cousin Johannes Pail, surnamed era 791. 
Chivan, the nephew of the king of Cyprus, 
and the son of the princess Zablun, was elected 
and anointed king of the Armenians under the 
title of Constantine the Third. Tiiis prince was 
an ignorant and unprincipled character, utterly 
careless of the welfare of his subjects, and 
continually embroiling himself with the chiefs 
of the nation. He altered the royal palace in 
Sis to a most ridiculous and inele<:ant form, 
and despising all laws of decency and order, 
indulged in the most disgraceful pleasures. 
Immediately after his accession he issued an 
order, under severe penalties, for the whole 
of the Armenians to conform to the ceremonies 
of the Romish church, which produced such 
a tumult in the nation that the troops rose 
in mutiny and killed him after a short and dis- 
graceful reign of one year. 


aawm:- On his death the Armenian chiefs nnani- 
*»•»-'-■ mously called his brother Guido, siirnamed 
Syrgius or Sarkies, to the throne. He was at 
this period governor of Achaia, but upon 
bein^- made acquainted with the choice of the 
nation, he immediately proceeded to Sis, where 
he was anointed king. When the news of these 
changes reached the Egyptians, they were- 
aware of the weakness of the nation, and forth- 
with invaded Cilicia in large numbers. Guido 
havinii- no means of withstanding them, retired 
to a fortified castle. After they had robbed 
the open country of every thing valuable they 
returned to Egypt. 
A. PI ■'44. The next year these invaders came again, 
cra7y3. and ravaged Cilicia with the same impunity 
as before. jVo one offered to arm against them, 
but all, at variance with each other, offered 
themselves an easy prey to the spoilers. At 
this period Cilicia was in a lamentable state 
of disunion: the cliiefs divided into factions, 
and engaged ni the prosecution of private feuds, 
lent no aid whatever to the king whom they 
abhorred. Guido had rendered himself very 
unpopular by the measures he adopted on his 
accession. He seized all opportunities of dis- 
placing the Armenians from offices of trust, 
which he gave to his Latin relations, and at 
this period most of the cities and castles of the 



kingdom were commanded by these strangers. 
At length Guido pushed the patience of the 
nation to a last trial, and began to force the 
Armenians to conform to the Latin religious 

This, as might naturally have been expected, 
produced a considerable tumult, and some of 
'the independent and spirited chiefs wrote to 
Ouido, exhorting him to look to the affairs of 
state and not meddle with religion, bringing also 
to his recollection that the identical measure 
he was now pursuing had deprived his brother 
of his crown and life. The king remaining 
inflexible, a conspiracy was formed against him, 
which cut him off in the second year of his reign. 

On the death of Guido the Armenians a. d. 1345. 
raised Constantine the Fourth, son of Baldwin erl'm. 
the Arme4iian general and grandson of a Latin, 
to the throne of Cilicia. This prince acted 
with prudence and honour, and endeavoured 
to restore peace and union amongst his subjects. 
Shortly after his accession he had occasion 
to make some communications with the pope 
and western nations, which coming to the 
knowledge of the chief of Egypt, he collected 
an immense army consisting of Egyptians, As- 
syrians, and Mesopotamians, and determined 
to extirpate the Armenians, conceiving that if 
he could effect this the western nations would 
no more think of hostile marches to the east. 


A. D. 1347. News of the preparations of the chief of 
er«796. Egypt reaching Cilicia, Constantine gathered 
the few brave troops still left in the kingdom, 
and appointing a powerful Armenian chief 
named Libarit, his general, proceeded to meet 
the infidels. At the incitement of the pope, 
Hugh, king of Cyprus, and Deodatus (Astwaza- 
tur), a general of cavalry from the island of 
Rhodes, brought troops to the assistance of the 
Armenians. The invaders having appeared 
were bravely met by the conjoined Christian 
forces, and after a severe contest were routed 
and driven out of Cilicia. A vast number fell 
on each side. The country now became in some 
degree reanimated, and content again appeared 
amongst the inhabitants. Many communications 
passed between the king and the pope on 
affairs of religion, and Jacob Sisensis who was 
formerly a pontiff, was sent on a mission to 
his holiness. On his arrival at Avignon he was 
introduced to the pope, whom he delighted 
extremely by the extent of his information and 
the amiableness of his manners. Having fulfilled 
the object of his visit, which was to convince 
the pope of the calumnies with which the ene- 
mies of the Armenians had attacked them, he 

AD. 1355. returned to Cilicia. On his arrival the pontiff 

era 804. Mukhithar died, after having held that office 

fourteen years. Jacob Sisensis of Curnah, 

was then nominated to succeed him, with the 


consent of all the nation. He, however, enjoyed 
his high dignity only four years, at the expi- 
ration of which he died. 

He was succeeded in the pontificate by ^|^„,|"^^''' 
Mesrop from the province of Artaz, abbot of the "aaos. 
convent of St. Thaddeus. Four vears after this 
event, Constantine the king died, after a reign 
of eighteen years. An interregnum of two years 
ensued, occasioned by the dislike of the chiefs 
to nominate a successor to Constantine from 
amongst his family, and they were afraid to 
elect one of their own body. Thus the country 
was in a state of anarchy, and the enemies 
taking advantage of its defenceless state ravaged 
it from one end to the other with the most 
perfect impunity. 


The rdgn of Leo titt Sivth, and laat ; the pont'ifi- 
Giites of Cunstant'uie the Fourth, and Paul the 
Fir at \ and tlie ent'iix destruction of royalty 
amongst the Armenians. 

O.v the news of the late king's death and the a. d. i3fi,s. 

1 1 1 ,r-.i- • 1 • 1 Hnican 

anarchy that reigned in Cilicia reaching the eraHii, 
pope, he wrote to the Armenian chiefs, exhort- 
ing them to join with each other and a[)point a 
head to the nation, intimating, at the sametimc, 


that their choice could not fall on a worthier 
object tlian Leo Liician, connected both with 
the Armenians and Latins, and a near relation 
of king Guido. After some dispute and discus- 
sion the chiefs and bishops raised Leo to the 
throne, under the title of Leo the Sixth. lie 
was solemnly anointed in the cathedral of Sis 
king of the Armenians. Leo had some time 
before married a Latin named Mary, and belong- 
ing to the family of Lewis Charles king of 
Huncjary. This ])rincewas of a naturally good 
disposition, and proved a much better monarch 
than many of his predecessors. He perhaps 
would have been one of the most glorious of 
the Armenian kings had he lived at any other 
period of their history. But alas! Cilicia was 
now in her last stage of decrepitude. The chiefs 
forgetting the exploits of their forefathers, and 
the glory of their nation, only sought to obtain 
a petty and temporary superiority over each 
other, by which means the whole of the country 
was embroiled with feuds. The lower orders, 
used merely as tools in the hands of the power- 
ful, seeing the unworthy passions which ani- 
mated the bosoms of their superiors, lost that 
affection and respect for them which are abso- 
lutely necessary for the preservation of order in 
a state such as Cilicia, where only the king 
and the nobles possessed power. In short, every 


thing had become degenerate, and the whole 
structure of the government had become so loose 
and tottering that it only required a slight 
convulsion to shake it to pieces. 

This year the Egyptians again invaded Cilicia, h^^j^J^^^* 
ravaging it with the same ferocity as before, ^''*8-^* 
burnmg towns and cities, and destroying all 
the produce of the lands. Hereupon a dreadful 
iamine ensued, and some idea mav be formed 
of its extent, when it is related that a bushel 
of corn was sold in the city of Sis at the enor- 
mous sum of 500 pieces of silver. 

Leo the king attempted to arrest the progress 
of the invaders, but was defeated and severely 
wounded, on which he fled for safety into 
the mountains. Here he remained for a con- 
siderable time, and no accounts being received 
of him, the general belief was that he had 
fallen in the field. The Armenians, after some 
time employed in useless search after Leo, 
determined to appoint Otho, the duke of Bruns- 
wick and a descendant of the royal family 
of Saxony, king, and to make liim espouse 
Mary the queen. While preparations were 
making for these nuptials Leo appeared, to the 
great joy of the queen and the nation. Shortly 
after the king's return, Mesrop the pontiff died, 
after being thirteen years in that office. He a. d. 1372. 


was succeeded by Constantine the Fourth, who era 821. 


only enjoyed his elevation two years, when 
he died, and was succeeded by Paul the 
A. P. 1374. First. About this time a revolution broke 
eiaS out in Egypt, whicii ended in the deposition 
and imprisonment of the Sultan, and the 
usurpation of his throne by his cousin Ashref 
Shaban, an inveterate enemy of the Christians. 
Ashref on hearing of the wretched state of 
Cdicia, and bemg aware of the connection 
between its king Leo and the pope, sent a 
vast army to invade that country. The Egyp- 
tian troops were so numerous that on their 
appearance the Armenian soldiers abandoned 
their arms and dispersed through absolute fear: 
30.000 of the population took refuge in other 
countries from the fury of the infidels. These 
cruel spoilers having spread themselves over the 
country committed the most horrid devastations, 
putting all the inhabitants who fell iuto their 
hands to the sword, and totally demolishing 
all the convents, churches, and other buildings 
they captured. The city of Sis after standing 
a siege of two months was taken by the Egyp- 
tians and sacked. They broke open the tombs 
of the Armenian princes and burnt the relics 
they contained. Then dispatching parties of 
troops to all parts, they destroyed by fire every 
building that a human being could inhabit, 
and rendered the country a complete desert, 


determined, as they declared, that the name of 
Cilicia should be erased from the list of kingdoms 
in Asia. The Egyptians then commenced tor- 
turing their captives to make tliem deny their 
religion, and on their remaining firm to their 
faith, they were put to death in various cruel 
ways, some by being flayed, others by being 
sawed asunder, and a vast number by means 
the relation of which would be an outrasfe 
to decency. Suffice it to say, that the bare 
idea of them would cause the blood to curdle 
in the veins, and excite astonishment at the de- 
pravity of human nature. The priests were 
blinded by red hot irons thrust into their eyes. 
The bishops had their tongues cut out, and 
their fingers disjointed and bruised. These 
were permitted to live as a monument of the 
vengeance of the infidels, who, as our readers, 
will perceive, had with fiendish ingenuity 
incapacitated them entirely from ever pursuing 
their vocation. At the commencenient of these 
horrors, Leo despairing to afibrd assistance 
to his subjects, consulted the safety of himself 
and family, and taking; Mary his queen, Fhinna 
his daughter, and Shahan the cliicf of Korikosa, 
his son-in-law, shut himself up in the strong 
fortress of Ca|)an, where he was afterward joined 
by a few chiefs. Here he was blockaded by 
the Egyptians lui nine months, at the cad of 





which the provisions of the fort were entirely 
cxiiausted. Leo then bv the advice of liis 
followers sent proposals to the f>eneral of the 
Ks^yptian army, wherein he offered to surrender 
provided the lives of the ganison were spared. 
A. D. 1375. The ueneral promised this on oath, wherfui)on 
era 8.'4. the kin,^ issued out of the fortress nnd ^ave 
himself up. lie was immediately fettered, and 
Capan ])lundered. Here the captors found ai> 
immense booty, all the royal treasures havin<r 
been removed thither at the beginning ot the 
mvasion. The Egyptians then de])arted, and 
carried the whole of the royal family in chains 
to Cairo. Many people interposed with the 
Sultan on their behalf, entreating him to spare 
their lives. " If," said the Sultan, " they wdl re- 
nounce Christianity, I will immediately set them 
at liberty." The same offer was subsequently 
made them by his son and successor Sultan 
M click Mansur. They, however, refused and 
remained in ]nison seven years. This ca])tiu'e 
of Leo occurred A. D. 1375, II. E. S24, in the 
eleventh year of his reign, from which period 
we date the extinction of royalty amongst the 
Armenians. For to such a state of desola- 
tion had the Egyptians reduced Cilicia, that 
the most sanguine could not entertain the 
slightest hope of again seeing it reestablished 
as the kingdom of the Armenians. That un- 


fortunate country remained for a considerable 
time in the hands of the Egyptians, from whom 
it passed to the Ottomans. 

Alter the royal family of Armenia had been 'Jj.^JJ;^},-''^^- 
in captivity five years, Shahan, by the mediation cm 829. 
of some friends, obtained his release, on which 
event Leo sent him with letters to the pope 
of Rome and Juan kinp^ of Spain, imploring 
assistance from them to release him and the re- 
mainder of his family from confinement. While 
the king of Spain was consulting means for 
rescuing the unfortunate king of Armenia from 
prison, the Sultan Melick Mansur died, and was 
succeeded on the throne by his brother Melick 
Salih, a chdd six years of age. On news 
of this event arriving in Spain, Juan sent 
ambassadors to Egy])t with valuable presents, 
praying the infant monarch and his guardians 
to release the roval family of Armenia from 
prison, pledging himself that henceforward no 
molestation should be offered by them to the 
Euvptians. The Spanish embassy met with a. n. i382. 
success in their mission, and Leo and his family era83i. 
were released, and the ambassadors furnished 
with letters to king Ju;in. This occurred 
in the year of the Hegira, or flight of >hdiomct 
784, in the month of Kujiib; or according to 
the Christian era \'^H1, or I[. E. H.n . 

The circuinstanccb we have recorded respecting 


308 insiORY OF AKM i:\lA. 

the release of Leo by the Sultan of Egypt, through 
the intereession of the king of Spain, have been 
taken liom the history of J^^gypt; the names 
however, of tlie two sultans are eopied from 
Armenian records. In tiie latter, the place of 
the kinsrs confinement is said to be l^ac^dad, 
but in the Egyptian history it is said to be 
Cairo, which account is the more correct. 

Immediately after his release Leo with his fami- 
ly proceeded to Jerusalem to offer up his thanks 
at the holy sepulchre. Here he left his (jueen 
and daughter agreeably to their wishes, and 
then went to Rome, where he was kindly received 
by tlie pope Urbanus the Sixth. From Rome 
Leo went to Spain, where king Juan gave him 
a very honourable reception, and bestowed upon 
him houses and lands. 

At this period a bloody war broke out between 
France and Great Britain. The pope undertook 
the office of mediator between these great 
rival powers, and on this occasion selected Leo 
the ex- Armenian king to accom])any his legates 
in several embassies to London and Paris, having, 
as he declared, the highest opinion of the 
qualities of the head and heart of this un- 
fortunate j)rince. Leo was particularly pleased 
with this mark of the favour of his holiness, 
as it -opened to him a new field in which he 
could exercise his talents for the good of his 


native country. He hoped to be able to acquire 
in the monarchs of these countries supporters 
in his projected attempt to replace himself 
on the throne of Armenia. But after repeated 
interviews with tlie kings of England and France, 
he found that neither power had any inclination 
to profit by the pope's pacific proposals. He 
was also disappointed in his hopes of assistance 
from them in the dearer interests of Armenia, 
as they declined doing any thing for him, 
tjtherwise than bv wishinsf him success. Some 
short time after, having visited France, Leo 
died at Paris on the nineteenth of November, 
A. D. 1393, H. E. 842, in the sixtieth year 
of his age, and the eleventh of his liberation 
from Egypt. His remains were interred in the 
church of the convent of Celestine, and a mag- 
nificent tomb erected over them. His queen 
Mary died at Jerusalem, A. D. 1405, and was 
quickly followed to the grave by her daughter 
Phinna. lu'om this period the Armenians have 
been a wandering race, their glory sunk, their 
existence as a nation annihilated, and the fame 
of their ancient renown only known to a few 
who have access to their records. 


X :^ 



X HE order of our liistory is well connected 
during the time the Armenians were governed 
by kings or chiefs. 

This state being destroyed, we must continue 
the detail of tiicir actions by the pontihcates 
still permitted to exist, casting an eye at the 
same time to the contemporary patriarchates of 
Constantinople. Before we commence our first 
chapter, it may be useful to mention tliat at the 
period of the destruction of Armenian royalty in 
Cilicia, Armenia Major was taken possession of 
by the Medes, who were also known by the 
name of Kurds or Keurds. These principally 
resided in the country of the Mocks, in Vas- 
purakan, Turuberan, Balesh, Sasun, Buznunia, 
Taron, in the country of the Alznies near 
Mesopotamia. All these districts or provinces 
had distinct governments, and in the course 
of time their population became very numerous. 


swelled by hordes of Scythians and Turks 
Mho occasionally came and settled there, ming- 
ling with the Medes, and forming one nation 
with them. They were afterwards conquered 
by Tamerlane. Since his time Armenia has 
been ])ossessed by various people, all hostile to 
the uboiigmal inhabitants, whom they annoyed 
and persecuted; regarding them rather as fo- 
reigners and interlopers than as the rightful 
owners of the country. 

We will now resume the thread of our history. 



Hie pojitificate of Theodorus the Second, and tlie 
exploits of Tamerlane. 

Paul the First died in the fourth year of his a n i.vs. 
pontificate, and was succeeded in that office by cra827. 
Theodorus, who fixed iiis chuir in the ruined 
city of Sis, yet seldom went there except 
f(;r the purpose of ordaming priests and blessing 
the chrism; neither he nor his successors had 
any certain place of residence, being obliged 
by the distracted condition of the country to 
wander from place to place to obtain sustenance 
and secimty. 

y\b()Ut this time the i;reat coiuiuoror Tamer- 
lane fiourishfd. His real name was Tanuir, 


the otiicr nddition " long" or "lung" being a 
mock siiruanic he received in consequence ot a 
defonniiv in one of his feet whieii occasioned 
him (o luiip. This nidividual at hrst reigned over 
the Afghan Tartars in tlie city of Samarcand, 
A. 1). 1360,11. E. 815. In 1378 he conquered 
Persia, whence l»e overran the country of Atro- 
palia and captured the city of Tabriez. At the 
head of 700, 000 men he invaded Syria and 
conqucMfd Bagdad, A. 1). 1380, H. E. 835; 
A.D. i.'^pr. fiom wlience lie proceeded to Vaspurakan. lie 

Mail nil 1 ' 

rra8:u;. ^jj^,^ marchcd to the country of Seunies, where 
he took the fort of l^lrunjak and massacred 
all who were in it. From this place he marched 
against other cities, and capturing them, by 
his cruelty spread gloom and desolation all 
over Ai'mcnia. 
A. D. 1389. In the year 1380 Tamerlane devastated the 
cra^sS countries of Turuberan and Taron, and while his 
troops were engaged in destroying all the towns 
and villages they contained, an Armenian wo- 
man exhibited an instance of virtue and heroism 
which \ies with the brightest examples recorded 
in the annals of ancient Greece and Rome. 
This female was from tiie province of Mush, 
and possessed a beautiful child, a son eight 
years ol' age, to whom she was so tenderly 
attached, that wlien the Tartars took the village 
in which she resided, she seized a sword, and 


taking her child by the hand resolutely set 
out to seek another place of safety, with a de- 
terminaiion to defend herself and her offspring 
to the last, should she meet any of the invaders. 
In the mean time a party of the enemy perceiving 
her flight, pursued and overtook her. The 
heroine immediately turned upon them ; the peril 
of her child inspired her with double strength, 
and she cut down several of the assailants 
with the fury of a tigress. Perceiving, however, 
that the enemy continued increasing in num- 
ber, so as to shut out all hopes of escape, and 
knowing that if she and her child were captured, 
her j)erson would be violated and the boy 
become a Mahometan, she turned the sword 
she iiTid so nobly wielded in his defence, and 
at tliat moment recking with the blood of 
the mtidels, to the bosom of her darling child 
and j)lunged it in his heart. Then with amazing 
speed she fled to a tower at a very little 
distance, and mounting to the top of it. made 
the sign of the cross and |)recipitated herself 
to the ground, preferring to die in this violent 
manner to living bereft of her ])urity. The 
Tartars astonished at the sight returned to their 
camp ashamed and confounded. 

Tiimerlane after this passed to the provinces ad. isiM. 
oi Shirak, Basen and Vanand, and having na ai;?. 
taken the city of Cais, massacred a great number 

314 HISTORY Ol- AiniFAIA. 

of the inhabitants, nnd carried the remainder 
into captivity. A singidar circumstance took 
phice on the capture of Cars. Tamerlane 
having- taken 300 of the Armenian inlial)itants 
and 3()() aliens, placed them m two ditfcrent 
jiarties. He tlien addressed them in this man- 
ner, " I intend to kill one of your two parties, 
I should preter, however, to kill tiie Christians, 
but let It be decided by lot!" Hereupon 
two of the Armenians j)erceivin^' the monarch's 
dislike to Christians, left their party and went 
over to that of the aliens. Tamerlane then 
oave orders for the latter to be killed, upon 
which the two apostates issued out and de- 
clared themselves Christians. Tamerlane told 
them they were weak and deceitful persons, 
and forthwith caused them to l)e ])ut to death, 
countermanding- his former orders, and leaving 
both aliens and Christians untouched 
A. D.\u<?.. Tamerlane after conquerinn' Armenia, Georgia, 

Hair:iti ' ' '^ 

cr.ib52. India, Persia, and other countries, in all of 
which he left bloody traces of his visits, went 
to Asia Minor and captured a number of cities. 
Havino- laid sieye to Sebastia, which contained 
120, 000 men. he promised that if they would 
surrender he would not put any of them to the 
sword, and made use of this remarkable ex- 
pression to coiuince them of his sincerity. 
" If any oi my army raise the sword against 


the citizens of Sebastia, may it be guided 
to his heart!" Deluded by these solemn 
promises, they gave up the city ; upon which 
the cruel tyrant committed the most horrid 
barbarities upon them. After taking all the 
young men as captives, he selected all the 
wealthy people, and after torturing them to dis- 
cover where lay their riches, he caused them 
to be tied head and feet together, and then 
buried alive in large pits dug for the purpose. 
The women were bound by the hair of their 
heads to the tails of young horses, who being 
let loose tore the poor helpless beings to 
pieces. The remainder of the male citizens 
he caused to be bound hand and foot, and 
laid together in an open plain, where they were 
trampled to death by horses. In commemo- 
ration of this horrid catastrophe that plain was 
and is still called Sev HoLrher, or the Black 
Plain. The soldiers, amounting to 4,000 men, 
were devoted to a death not less cruel than the 
citizens. The brutal Tamerlane, with the exul- 
tation of a fiend, telling tliem that he promised 
not to kill them with the sword, which he 
would not do, directed them to be burned 
alive. Shortly after this he massacred a number 
of lepers, who had escaped his notice before, 
telling them that as he had killed healthy men, 
surely they could not reproach him if he 


killed Iho diseased, who could be of no manner 
of service and vvoidd beside infect liis army. 
He demolished all the churches in the city, 
one of which was tiiat dedicated to the forty 
saints, and was adorned by forty cupohrs, each 
resting over the remains of one of the patron 
saints. He afterward ca})tured Bayazit, one of 
tiie kings of the INIedes, and then accompanied 
by 00,000 captive families, many of which 
were of the Armenian nation, proceeded to 
Khorasan. Tamerlane afterwards went to Sa- 
marcand, where he died, A. D. 1406, H. E. 855. 
He was succeeded in his immense possessions 
bv his son Shahruh. 
A.D. i4nr,. Tamerlane, although he committed so many 
era 855. crueltics, always gave those whom he mvadea a 
choice of surrendering at discretion, in which case 
they would only be made tributaries, or of braving 
his vengeance. It is related of him that in the 
course of his expeditions he used camps of three 
colours, each indicating his intentions. On his 
approaching a city he would pitch a camp of 
white tents, thereby promising favour on im- 
mediate surrender. If this produced nothing, 
white gave place to red, which bespoke anger, 
and that he would desolate with fire and sword. 
On a further continuance of the siege, gloomy 
black tents took the place of the red ones, 
by which they were to understand they were 


devoted to destruction. Tradition states, that 
many Armenians were taken by this conqueror 
from the country of the Aluans, and settled 
by him in Candabar, where they have changed 
their religion. Part of Candahar is called 
after them Aluans or Afghans; some assert in 
confirmation of this tradition that the inha- 
bitants of that part on eating make the sign 
of the cross on their bread. It is also said, that 
whatever books Tamerlane found in Persia and 
Armenia he took to Samarcand and placed in a 
large tower, whence he never permitted any 
to be taken ; but if any persons were desirous 
of referring to any of the works there preserved, 
they were allowed free access to them. 


The pcriud bituce/i the 'pontificates of Carapict 
the First, lutd Constautine the Fifth. 

liKKoKK Tamerlane left Armenia a certain a. d. 1395. 


chief ol' the Mcdes named Melick Omar, at the cia844. 
instigation of some wicked christians, caused 
Theodoriis the pontitl' to be seized and put 
to death, in the eighteenth year of his pontificate. 
At the same time Melick caiisccl sixteen Ar- 
menian chiefs residing in Cilicia t<j he murdered. 
The vengeance of (iud shortly alter overtook 



tlie ruffian, and he perished by the hand of 
the chief of Egypt. 
^^Hlfofa Carapiet the First ancceeded Theodorus as 
era 845. pontiff, and died two years after, when David 
the Fourth was elected. He also died after a 
pontificate of four years. 
Haican Carapiet the Second then became pontiff, 
during whose time and for some time previous 
many were made martyrs in Armenia. About 
this period a violent strife arose between the 
Armenian monks and the sect of the Unithors, 
of whom we gave some account in one of 
the preceding chapters. One of the former, 
Sarkies, endeavoured to make peace between 
the two parties, but finding his efforts unavailing 
he retired to the convent of Sukhara in the 
province of Kajberunies. Another monk, Jo- 
hannes of Orotn, at first defended the Uni- 
thors, but having found that the latter had 
rebaptized and reordained some of his and 
Sarkies's disciples, he separated himself from 
the sect. By the violent character of the 
preachers amongst the Unithors they lost many 
of their followers, and at Ieng:th roused the 
nobles to active exertion against them. The 
latter procured them to be excommunicated, 
which not reducing their violence, the Unithors 
were betrayed to foreign powers. 
Haican Iii this year, after the death of Johannes Orot- 

era 837. 


nensis, his disciple Gregoriiis Tathevensis, who 
was at first a defender of the Unithors, greatly 
distinouished himself against them both bv 
preaching and writing, lie had many scholars 
who afterward became eminent men, among 
Avhom was Thomas of Mezob, the historian. On 
the death of the monk Sarkies, which happened 
a few years after his retirino- to the convent of 
Sukhara, Gregorius Khilathensis com})leted tlie 
compilation of the daily readmgs of the church, 
which had been left unfinished bv the former. 
Gregorius was subsequently martyred by the 
JNIedes. Contemporary with him was Arackiel, 
bishop of Seunies, the author of the poems called 
" the book of Adam." A few othcM' monks 
flourished with him, the authors of various 
pieces of literature in ])rose and verse. Ca- 
rapiet the Second died after a pontificate of 
seven years. The pontifical chair was then Haicu/"'* 
filled by Jacob, a monk who possessed much '''' ^^^' 
influence with the infidel chief of Cilicia. After 
he had been in the office of j)ontiff two years, 
he was poisoned by the inhabitants of Sis, 
on account of which dreadful tumults for a 
short time prevailed in that city. 

A monk named Grey:orv was then elected '\- '^ •■<"• 
pontiff. A conspiracy shortly after was dis- ^r** 86o. 
covered against iiim, and the members of it 
punished by the chief of" Cilicia. Gregory, 


lIISTOin Ol" A|{.M J,M A, 

however, could not j)lease the citizens of Sis, 
and after a pontilieate of seven years tliey all 
rose in a body, seized and coniincd him in a 
fortress where he shortly after died. 
A. n 1118. Paul the Second, from Ararat, and bishop of 

lliiiian _ ' 

era 807. Jerusalem, havinij^ come to Sis for the purpose 
of restorini;- harmony to the church, succeeded 
Gregory, and in a great measure trancpullizcd the 
people. During these last poniiticates Armenia 
was terribly agitated by the d itierent chiefs among 
whom it was divided. The principal of these 
were the Sultan of Egypt, lussuf, who governed 
the Sasuns; Emir Ezghin, the chief of V^aspura- 
kan, who resided in Ostan ; .Miran Shah, one of 
the sons of Tamerlane who ruled in Tabriez ; 
Shahruh, the eldest brother of the latter, who 
governed at Khorasan. The chiefs were con- 
tinually waging war with each other in Armenia, 
and destroyed a number of cities in the course 
of their encounters with each other. lussuf 
proved the nuxst j)owerful of all these, having 
captured Bagdad, which he placed under his 
son Scandar. lussuf some short time after 
took up his residence in Valarshakert, and in 
an expedition he made to Taics took the city 
of Akhulzikha, where his troops committed 
the most dreadful cruelties. 
A. D. 1420. On his death, his son Shah Mahmud as- 

eribC'j. sumed his })ower, and opposed Siiahruh 


the king of Khorasan who had come against 
him to Armenia. In a battle fou£:ht between 
them in Bagrevand Mahmud was conquered. 

On the departure of Shahruh from Armenia^ 
he appointed Jahanshah, another son of lussuf^ 
to act as his viceroy. On this event war broke 
out between Jahanshah and his brother Scandar 
of Bagdad, and the country was dreadfully- 
harassed by their hostilities against each other. 
Scandajr was at length killed by his own son 
Shahubath. Owing to these continual wars 
a famine broke out in Armenia, so severe that, 
it is said, many ate human flesh, and a 
vast number went to other countries. Just 
about this period tlie pontiff Paul died, after 
holding that office twelve years. 

He was succeeded by Constantine the Fifth, a. d. 1430. 
from the city of Vahkah. During his pontificate «'»879. 
flourished Mackertich, surnamed Naghash, a 
native of Balesh, but a resident of Amid. He 
was a man of extraordinary genius, and enriched 
the language by some elegant literary pro- 
ductions. A meeting was about this period 
held at Florence, where the Greeks and Ar- 
menians became united with the Latins in their 
religious observances. The Greeks, however, 
did not long preserve this union. 

During this age of troubles and misery, one ad. 1435, 
chief of the Armenian nation proved a kind crraa*. 



protector to those of his unfortunate countrymen 
who came to him. This was l^ilgincy the son 
of Sumbat the ribelian, who governed the 
upper pait of Seunies. and a ])ortion of Capan. 
He was the father-in-law of Alexan, or Alexan- 
der, ising of the Georgians, and had under his 
dominion more than G,0()0 Armenian families, 
whom he governed with paternal kindness. 
Durmg the contest between Scundar and his 
brother, Bilginey received all the fugitives 
that came from those parts which the hostile 
brothers had devastated, maintaining at the 
same time an artiul alliance with the elder. 
^■'^hIkmu 'riie king of Georgia observing the popularity 
•r«ai7. ^j^^^. i3,igincy enjoyed, began to fear that his 
kingdom would be deserted by the Armenians 
who composed a large part of the population of 
his country, and that they would place them* 
selves under the government of his father-in-law. 
He therefore, instigated by his chiefs, sought 
to murder the innocent object of his jealousy. 
He found means, by promises of large rewards, 
to seduce an Armenian named Anmadin, who 
was the most intimate friend of Bilginey, to 
undertake to assassinate him. The traitor 
having chosen his opportunity, caused Bilginey 
to swallow poison. The latter, almost imme- 
diately after, discovered it, and took various 
antidotes, but all proving ineffectual, he died 


A. D. 1438, H. E. 8b7. This sad event threw 
the whole of the Armenians into the greatest 
sorrow. They, however, avenged his death on 
•the assassin, by cutting oft" his hands and feet. 
The king of Georgia was also punished for 
hjs iniquity, for in the course of the following 
year, ulcers broke out on his body of such 
a virulent nature that they baffled all attempts 
at cure, and he continued pining and wasting 
away until his death. This monarch was a 
tributary of Jahinshah the prince of Tabriez, 
but about this time he revolted. Upon this, 
Jahinsliah came against him with an immense 
army, and devastated the whole of Georgia, 
carrying numbers into captivity, and massacring 
all the chiefs who fell into his hands. 

He besieo^ed and captured the city of Sham- ^.P '*3*- 
shudey in which were 20,000 Armenians. Here *^'''* ^^8. 
his troops committed the most horrid cruelties. 
Just before they entered the city they beheaded 
1.064 of tluir captives, and raising a mound 
with their heads near the principal gate, they 
butchered on it sixty ecclesiastics and grandees. 
On their taking possession of the city, they 
tortured .'>,000 of the people to death. Some 
had their skulls fractured and crushed, others 
were fpiartered alive. Some afterwards through 
weakness being induced to renounce Christianity, 
were, together with those who remained firm, in- 



discriminately slaughtered. After this 9,400 of 
the citizens were dragged into slavery. They 
acted in a similar manner with other cities of 
Georcria which fell into their hands. On the 
return of Jahinshah to Tabiez, he appointed 
his son Hasan All governor of the country of 
Armenia. This prince took up his residence 
in Nakhjuan and appointed governors to preside 
over the different provinces. These latter were 
called Begs or Beys, one of whom was named 
lagliub, who resided in Erevan. 


The poutijicate of Gregory Musabeg ; and the 
transfer of the pontifical chair to Etchmiatchin, 
where Kirakus of Khor Virap was pontiff. 

A. D. 1439. The pontifical chair of Sis was daily declining, 
era 888. lew bcmg about it to support its splendour. 
Constantine after being seated in it nine years 
died, and was succeeded by a monk of the 
name of Joseph, who died in the course of 
a year afterwards. He was such an indolent, 
useless character, that his name is generally 
omitted in the list of Armenian pontiffs, although 
he was regularly elected to that office. 

A. D. 1440. Gregory the Ninth", surnamed Musabeg, then 
era 889. became pontiff, and on the day of his election 


consecrated four bishops, without the customary 
ceremony, there being at that time too few- 
prelates in Sis to admit of its being per- 
formed. On this irrecrularitv becoming;- known, 
four bishops of Cilicia preferred a complaint 
against the pontiff to all the Armenian clergy, 
acquainting them with the miserable state in 
which the pontifical chair of Sis existed. Upon 
this a correspondence took place amongst the 
clergy, who determined to elect a new pontiff, 
or the same Gregory again, and remove the 
seat of the spiritual governor of the Armenians to 
Etchmiatchin ; especially as it was said that the 
hand of the Blessed Illuminator, had recently 
been brought to that place. They then wrote 
with the greatest respect to Gregory to remove 
his chair to Etchmiatchin. Gregory refused, 
upon which a meeting of the clergy was held 
in the church of Etchmiatcliin, comprising more 
that 700 bishops, abbots, hermits, priests, and 
monks, amongst whom was bishop Azaria, pon- 
tiff of the Aluans. Zechariah, bishop of JIavuz 
Tharah was appointed to preside. As there 
were many of the distinguished clergy unable 
to attend this assembly, through the unsettled 
state of the country, they wrote to say they 
would accept as pontiff any uj)on wiiom the 
choice of the meeting should fall. Tlic clergy 
of the pontihcate of Akhthamar also wrote 


to tli.e same effect, and moreover promisinji^ 
to unite with the rest in clue obedience to 
the future pontiff of Etchmiatchin. 
A. D. 1441. After some debate the meetini^ with unanimous 


era 890. conscut clcctcd the monk Kirakus, from the 
villa^ie of Kharabast, in the province of Kaj- 
berunies, to be tlieir spiritual head. Kirakus, 
on account of his havino: resided thirty-two 
years in the convent of Khor Virap was surnamed 
Vn-apensis. lie was a humble character, pru- 
dent in counsel, sober in words, ri<j;id in the 
practice of seif-mortification, and deeply read 
in the holy scriptures. He was elected to th^ 
pontifical chair of Etchmiatchin A. D. 1441, 
H. E. 890, with authority over the whole of the 
Armenian church. All this was done with the 
permission and under the protection of laghub 
chief of Erevan. 
A.D. 1441. Kirakus, on assuming his office wrote a letter 
era 89o" ofbcnediction to all who had been heretofore ex- 
communicated by the pontiffs of Sis, particularly 
the see of Akhthamar, wherein he exonerated 
them from the anathema. He then began to repair 
the pontifical palace, ornamenting it in the same 
manner as the former ones in Sis. He built se- 
veral convents and churches, and repaired the ca- 
thedrals of Etchmiatchin, Hiripsina, and Gayana. 
A. D.H43. Two years after these events, a bishop named 
er^'S Marcus, having come from Georgia, formed a 


party hostile to Kirakus, arraigning the legality 
of his election. *' This pontificate,"' said Marcus, 
"is null, for its present possessor without 
due authority, has released the see of Akh- 
thamar from the anathema pronounced against 
it. Beside," added he, "Kirakus ought first 
to have received consecration as a bishop from 
the hand of a pontiff, before he was elevated 
to the pontificate!" In the mean time the 
enemies of Kirakus continued to increase, until 
at length about thirty of the clergy, consisting 
of bishops and monks, set out for Etchmiatchin, 
with Zechariah bishop of Havuz Tharah at 
their head, to depose the pontiff from his chair. 
When Kirakus heard of their approach he was 
struck with dread, and retiring secretly, took 
shelter in the house of a lay christian. His 
enemies soon found him out, and seizing him 
carried him to laghub, the Bey of Erevan. 
Here they accused him, saying, "we have 
discovered that he is not a christian, nor 
has he ever been baptized. If you wish that 
he should rem.iin our pontiff, it is necessary 
that he be baptized and elected anew!" 
The chi(.f replied, addressing liimself to Ze- 
chariah, "did not you yourself elect him pontiff 
of your nation? What is the matter now, 
that after once ordaining him, you wish to 
do It again?" Zechariah then said, '< far be 


it from me. It was not I that ordained him, 
but his party!" 

At this moment a monk named Carapiet, 
together with a spirited youth who accom- 
panied Kirakus, exclaimed with a loud voice, 
*' they speak falsely and unjustly!" Upon this, 
one of the monks of the opposite party gave 
the youth a violent blow on the mouth. The 
chief incensed at this outrage, drove the whole, 
accused and accusers, from his presence. Ze- 
chariah the bishop, then sending all the clergy 
to Etchmiatchin, returned to the chief, and 
by promises and entreaties obtained his per- 
mission to elect anothei" pontiff in the room 
of Kirakus. He then hastened to Etchmi- 
atchin, where having shewn a written order of 
the chief, they forthwith elected Gregory, bishop 
of Macu, pontiff, and then retired to their res- 
pective places. The pontiff Kirakus, after having 
remained some time in a place of concealment, 
took up his residence in a convent, where he 
died. His pontificate is reckoned to have lasted 
two years. Just before his death, the monk 
Thomas Mezobensis died, who gives an account 
of the above events. 

In the course of the late discord, the monks 
of Akhthamar, who had ever hitherto obeyed 
the pontiff of Etchmiatchin, renounced all sub- 
jection to him. It was expected that when 


Kirakus was elected pontiff, the pontificate of 
Sis would be quickly joined to that of Etch- 
raiatchin; but in consequence of the late dis- 
orders all hope of that was abandoned. On 
the death of the pontiff of Sis, a monk named 
Carapiet having applied to the chief of Cili- 
cia, to whom he promised to pay annually the 
sum of 300 deniers, was by his order placed in 
the pontifical chair of that city. Other indivi- 
duals continued to succeed him in that dignity 
to this day. The 300 deniers were always 
paid; constituting, as the records state, that 
tribute which is called * Keshish Aghchecy,' 
or Priest-money. 


The period between the pontificates of Gregory the 
Tenth, a?id Sarkics the Second. 

Gregory theTenth, of Macu, having succeed- a. p. 1443. 
ed Kirakus 111 the pontificate of Etchmiatchin, era 892. 
proceeded with the repairs and improvements 
commenced by his predecessor. In the eleventh a. n. 1453. 

. . Ilaican 

year of his spiritual sway Constantinople was crayo2. 
taken from the Greeks by Sultan Mahomed 
Fatluh,whoafewyearsafterbrought thither from 
Prussia, bishop Joakim the prelate of the city, 


with a few distinguished Armenian families, six in 
number, according- to some. lie also brought four 
Armenian families from Galatia, and some from 
the regions of Garaman, which he established in 
Samathia. Many more Armenians were brought 
by this monnrch from various parts, and settled 
by him in Constantinople. Mahomed Fathih 
gave bishop Joakim letters patent, authorising 
him to assume the spiritual jurisdiction of all tlie 
Armenians situated in Greece and Asia Minor, 
and styling him " Bat rig" or Patriarch : Hence 
sprung that patriarchate of Constantinople, 
which continues to this day. 
A.D. 1455. Thepontiff Gregory being extremely molested 
era 904. by the infidel chiefs on account of tributes which 
they demanded from Etchmiatchin, and being 
unequal to the duties of the pontificate, appointed 
a monk named Aristakes as his colleague, giving 
into his charge the temporal affairs of his church 
with the title of his deputy, and ordaining him 
his successor. Aristakes was also called by 
the order of Gregorv, vicar of the holy chair 
and bishop of Etchmiatchin. This grew into a 
custom, and was the cause of much confusion of 
names and dates of events, as till this time 
the pontiff only was known by the appellation 
of vicar. After this, however, on the appoint- 
ment of deputies, they, as vicars, were allowed 
pontifical honours, and like the pontiff, signed 


briefs and issued orders. Some seeking the 
alliance of the infidels, would rise ai{ainst the 
pontiffs, and not unfrequently expel them irom 
their chairs, which they would usurp them- 
selves, as will hereafter appear. Aristakes some a. d. \u,o. 


years alter his appointment as vicar, rose era'joy. 
against the pontiff Gregory, and attempted to 
seat himself in the pontifical chair, in the 
eighteenth year of the latter's pontificate. In 
the mean time a certain monk named Sarkies, 
attached to the church of Etchmiatchin. having 
purloined the hand of the lilummator, carried 
it to Tabriez, where Jahinshah the brother of 
Scandar resided, expecting on this account to 
obtain by his order the pontificate of Armenia. 

Zechariah the pontiff of Akhtliamar having a r). ufii. 
heard of the encroachments of Aristakes, and *^'^ ^i"- 
the flight of Sarkies to Tabriez, hastened thither 
with valu .ble presents, and giving them to 
Jahinshah rc(juested from him the government 
of Etchmiatchin, and the general pontificate of 
Armeina. Precisely at the same moment Sar- 
kies entered the j)rescnce ot that prince and 
made the same recpiest. Jahinshah pleased 
with the manners of Zechariah, ordered that 
he should ])e pontiff first, but that Sarkies 
in the event of surviving should succeed him. 
He then took the holy hand from the hitter, 
and giving it to Zechariah, sent him with great 


lionour to Etchmiatchin to take possession of 
the pontificate, and placed him under the par- 
ticular protection of his son, Hasan Ali, then 
residing at Nakhjuan, as head of the other chiefs. 
Zechariah on his arrival at Etchmiatchin 
expelled Gregory and Aristakes, and took pos- 
session of the pontifical authority, exercising 
at the same time a controul over the see of 
Akhthamar. A few days after he appointed 
Sarkies his deputy, under the title of vicar, 
in the same manner as Gregory had done 
A. D. 1462. with Aristakes. A year after these events, 
erAvn. Gregory and Aristakes being reconciled with 
each other, collected a considerable sum of 
money from the Armenians attached to their 
party, and, accompanied by a few nobles, went 
to Nakhjuan, where they preferred an accusation 
against Zechariah to Hasan Ali. They offered 
also to pay this chief without delay the annual 
tribute of the pontificate, if he would restore 
them to their former situations. Hasan Ali 
consented, and as a first measure to pave the 
way to their restoration, sent to Zechariah de- 
manding from him an immense sum of money. 
** If," said he, " my demand be not instantly 
complied with, thou shalt not remain in thy 
dignity!" Zechariah knowing there was no 
eluding the rapacity of the chief, sought to obtain 
time by means of frivolous excuses, and sending 


back the messengers who had come on the 
part of Hasan, with some trifling presents, he 
seized the holy hand of the Blessed Illuminator, 
and all the valuable ornaments of the church 
of Etchmiatchin, with which he fled to his 
see of Akhthamar. Here, in the church of the 
holy cross, he deposited the holy hand, A. D. 
1462, H. E. 911. His pontificate is reckoned to 
have lasted one year. 

Gregory and Aristakes then returned to a.d. i462. 

_-, " Haican 

ttchmiatchm, where they took possession of era 911. 
their former authority. The former dying a 
short time afterward, the latter succeeded him 
under the title of Aristakes the Second. He 
died after a pontificate of four years. He was 
succeeded by Sarkies the Second, who had been 
vicar under Zechariah. This pontiflT appointed a. d. ues. 
the monk Johannes as his vicar, consecratino- era'uls. 
him at the same time bishop of Etchmiatchin. 
Sarkies who had been the first to remove the 
holy hand of the Illuminator from Etchmiatchin 
now sought to get it back. By the assistance 
of bishop Vertannes he again got possession of 
it, when he placed it in its former place, A. D. 
1477, H. E. 92G. After remaining in the pon- 
tificate twenty-four years he died. About this 
time flourished the monk Kirakus of Ezunka, 
surnamed Arevclzie. He was a pious and 
learned man, and the author of many valuable 


literary works. He wrote the commentary of 
the cents of Evagr. His works being compiled, 
were joined to those of other monks, and formed 
the book entitled Oskepliorik (mine of gold). 
Contemporary with Kirakus, was Amier Dol- 
vatl), a skilful physician who wrote a medical 
book, entitled " Ankidaz Anpet," which signifies 
" useless to the ignorant/' 

C H A P T E R V. 

The i^eriod hdicccu the pontificates of Arlstahes the 
Third, and Arachiel. 

A. D. 1490. Ox the death of Sarkies the pontifical chair 
eraTaiT. of Etchiniatchin was filled by Aristakes the 
Third, who held it for eight vears when he died. 
His successor was his vicar Thaddeus the 
First, who died alter a pontificate of five years. 
Elishey then became pontiff, and held that office 
twelve years, when he died, and was succeeded 
by Zechariah the Third, who dying five years 
after, gave place to Sarkies the Third. This 
pontifi" held the chair sixteen years, when he 
died. Gregory the Eleventh was appointed in 
the room of Sarkies, and enjoyed the pontificate 
five vears, and then died. 

A. D. 1541. Stephen the Fifth, from the city of Salmast, in 
^'iyo" the province of Corchais, was elected pontiff in 



the room of Gregory. He was generally called 
a native of Constantinople, in consequence of his 
having been brought up there. During his 
pontificate war broke out between the Turks 
and Persians, and each alternately invading 
Armenia, couimittcd dreadful devastations there. 
Many of the Armenians were martyred by these 
people, as they in turn predominated in the 
country of Armenia. Ste .hen the pontiff being 
exceedingly annoyed by this war, took a vicar, 
in the person of Michael of Sebastia, a wise and 
faithful man, to whom he confided the duties 
of the pontificate, and then proceeded to Con- 
stantinople. On Stephen's arrival at that city he 
met witli a kind and honourable reception from 
Astwazatur, the patriarch of the Armenians. 

Shortly after this, Stephon went to Rome 
on a pilgrimage to the shrines of St. Peter 
and St. Paul. Here he was greatly honoured by 
the pope, for whom the Armenian pontiff had 
a particular regard. He then visited the em- 
peror Charles the Fifth, in Germany, and 
[)assing throui^h Poland and Russia, returned 
to Armeiii;.. On his proceeding to Etclimiatchin 
he was honourably received i)y his vicar Michael, 
who restored to him the office he had filled 
by deputy. Stephen shortly after died, having 
been in the pontificate fifteen years. , ^ ,,,^ 

Michael ofSebaslia, Stephen's vicar, succeeded "'7";, 


him as pontiff, and on his election consecrated the 
monk Pai sick bishop and vicar of Etchmiatchin. 
The country about Ararat was at this time sadly 
infested by plunderers, which induced Michael 
to go and reside for a short time at Sebastia. 
From hence he dispatched an individual named 
Abgar, a wise and ingenious man to Rome, 
together with a priest named Alexander; and 
furnished them with a letter of love and ve- 
neration to the pope, for the purpose of settling 
some rehgious points. He also sent at the same 
time to his holiness a copy of the treaty of 
union made in the days of the Illuminator, 
also a general list of convents, churches, relics 
of saints, and the places where they are kept 
in Armenia. Michael, the year after, returned 
to Etchmiatchin. 
A. D. 1564. On the arrival of Abgar at Rome he met with 


era 1013. a vcry kind reception from the pope, and on their 
proceeding to hold a conference respecting the 
object of the former's mission, his holiness was 
so pleased with the ingenuity and knowledge 
displayed by the Armenian, that he requested 
him to write, with his own hand, a simple and 
brief account the religious creed and traditions 
of his country. Abgar accordingly did so, aided 
by the priest Alexander. In this little production 
nothing was inserted that had not an existence in 
fact, and his holiness could at one glance .see 


the whole structure of the Armenian church. 
*' If," said Abgar at the conclusion, ** there be any 
irregularity or disagreement in our ceremonies, 
or any essential deficiency in our church 
forms, all will be rectified when the nation 
is freed from the tyranny of foreigners!" 
This small work was translated into Latin 
by one Mackertich and then presented by 
Abgar to the pope. We do not j^erceive in the 
records any remarks made by the pope on 
this occasion; we are aware, however, that 
from that period the pontiff of Rome shewed 
a more than ordinary interest in the welfare 
of the Armenian nation. On the elevation 
of Gregory the Thirteenth, who renewed the 
Roman calendar, to the papal chair, he read 
the production of Abgar, and perceiving the 
tyranny which prevailed in Armenia, wished 
to afford them assistance. This he could not 
effect by contesting with their enemies, but 
he proposed to erect at tlie expense of the 
Romish church, a large university in Ar- 
menia. On this subject he published a 
Bull, and in it bestowed great praises on the 
Armenians. These kind intentions of pope 
Gregory wore, however, never fulfilled, for 
he died six months after writing the brief 
for the commencement of the work. His suc- 
cessor, Sextus the Fifth, built in room of the 

VOL. II. z 


university, a hospital for the Armenians, dedi- 
cating it to St. Mary the Egyptian. 

About forty years after, in the days of pope 
Urbanus the Eightli, one Paul, a native of 
Bononia, who was consecrated bishop of Nakh- 
juan, having visited India and America, collected 
a large sum of money for the erection of a literary 
seminary in Armenia. He died in Spain, and 
on his death bed bequeathed the whole of 
what he possessed for the establishment of an 
Armenian seminary at Rome. This, however, 
was never performed; but instead of it, some 
Armenian youths were admitted into the public 
college, called at Rome the Propaganda, where 
after due instruction they were ordained priests 
and sent to different parts as missionaries. 
Let us now revert to the proceedings of the 

A.D. 1569. On the return of Ab^ar to Armenia the pontiff 

ciaiuis. Michael died, after presiding over the church 

twenty-two years. He was quickly followed 

to the grave by his vicar Ter Parsick. Gregory 

A.D. lofiD. the Twelfth, after Michael, sat in the pontifical 

Haican ' 

Biaiois. chair four years, and then died. He was suc- 
ceeded by Stephen the Sixth, who only enjoyed 
his dignity two years, dying at the end of 
that period. Thaddeus the Second then became 
pontiff, and appointed the monk Arackiel his 
Haica'n vicar. In the days of these pontiffs Shah Damas 

era 1024. 


the First, king or sophi of Persia, terribly haras- 
sed the Armenians, invading, plundering and 
destroying their country with the most pitiless 
rage. Some idea may be formed of the ravages 
he committed in Armenia, when the records 
state that the Sophi, by direction of his mi- 
nisters, issued orders not to exact tribute from 
it for fifteen years, as the country exhibited 
the aspect of a solitary waste. Before the 
expiration of a third part of this time, hordes of 
plunderers from the regions of Caucasus de- 
vastated Armenia, and massacred hundreds of 
the inhabitants. The result of this succession a. d. 1579. 


of destructive invasions was a sore famine whicli ii^i 10-8. 
overspread the land. .Johannes of Zar wrote 
a circumstantial account of these horrible 
events. The monk Lucas of Kegh, enjoyed 
a high character at this period for extraordinary 
learning and genius. He wrote on some subjects 
connected with the calendar. The i)ontiff' a.d. i:,8i. 


Thaddcu.^ tiic Second died after a pontihcate of cm 10x3. 
nine years. lie was succeeded by his vicar 
Arackiel, a |)rudent and worthy character. 

The Turks having conquered the whole of a.o. iss.i 
Armenia as far asTabriez, increased the tributes <•'•' )032. 
of the country to such an intolerable degree, that 
all ranks of f)eople were reduced to the greatest 
poverty. The ))ontificate of Ktchmiatchin was 
also taxed to an enormous amount, which su 

z 2 


much distressed Arackiel, that, after holding his 
dignity two years he relinquished it, and conse- 
crating the monk David his successor, retired to 
a convent where he remained until nis death. 
Harassed and persecuted by the exactions of 
their tyrants, multitudes ofthe Armenians quitted 
the land of their birth and went into voluntary 
exile. Those who were from Arzakli, Uti, 
Shamakhey and Ganzak took refuge in Persia, 
and were allotted habitations by the king Shah 
Abas, in the city of Ispahan. 


The 'pontificates of David the Fifth, MclcJiizcdek^ 

and Sropiou. 

A. D. 1586. David the Fifth,. from the borders of Etch- 


era 1035. miatcliin succeeded Arackiel in the pontificate, 
lie was much molested by the Turkish governors, 
who annually forced him, as the head of the 
nation, to pay them immense treasures. David 
complied with their extorsive demands as 
long as he could, collecting from his impo- 
verished countrymen all that they could spare. 
Atlength, however, this source was exhausted, 
and being unable to obtain money by any 
other means, he was (jbliged to leave Etch- 
miatchin and roam a wretched fugitive for some 


time in search of sustenance and safety. David 
perceiving that by his abandoning the pontifical 
chair the tributes were annually increasing", 
determined to appoint a colleague, as some 
of his predecessors had done, to take from him 
part of the responsibility attached to his high 
office. For this purpose, in the seventh year 
of his pontificate, he returned to Etchmiatchin, 
and collectini:^ a few bishops consecrated bi- 
shop Melchizedek pontiff. Melchizedek from ad. 1593. 
the convent of Aghj, in Garney, thus elected erttiu4i. 
pontiff, or co-pontiff with David, soon became 
subject to the load of tributes found so irksome 
by his colleague. Melchizedek could scarcely 
collect sufficient money to supply himself with 
necessaries, and the idea of paying the enormous 
tribute by the customary means was chimerical. 
The governors, however, persisted in their ex- 
orbitant demands, and the two colleagues were 
obliged to borrow money at high interest to 
satisfy thcni, \mtil at last the debts of the 
church of Etchmiatchin amounted to 60,000 
deniers. Hereupon the creditors demanded 
payment, and at the same time the governors 
sent for tributes, which obliged the two pontiffs 
to flee and conceal themselves. They were 
unable to remain in one spot more than two 
or three days, as their creditors and the col- 
lectors were continually hunting them. 



A. n. i.iint. Melcliizcdek at Iciuj^th finding that nothing 
ciai'oVH* ^vas trained by conceahnent, set out for Constan- 
tinople, indnlj;in«^- a hope of being able to collect 
money there. The people of this city received 
him with kmdness, and kept him with them 
for some months, urging him to abdicate his 
chair, and promising to appoint him patriarch 
of the Armenians. This actually occurred, for 
on the abdication of their patriarch Tiratur, 
Melchizedek succeeded him in that place. 
Melchizedek did not enjoy his dignity long, 
for the fickle people deposed him at the ex- 
piration of a year after his election. He was 
succeeded by Johannes the Third, who after- 
wards gave place to Gregory of Cesarea. 

Melchizedek then returned to Etchmiatchin, 
where he was betrayed into the hands of his 
creditors. He, however, succeeded in escaping 
from them, and joining his colleague David, 
both remained concealed, perplexed in mind 

A.I). if'Oo. and sorrowful in heart. In this year a dreadful 
eraio4'j. famine, accompanied by an extensive mortality 
afflicted Armenia, and covered the f^ice of that 
unfortunate country with horror and despair. 
On the cessation of these evils, another not less 
dreadful appeared, a numerous banditti, called 
the Jelalies, overspread almost all Ani. These 
marauders committed terrible devastations in 
Armenia. The debts of the pontificate still 


continued to increase, and the pontiffs began 
to lose hope of ever liquidating them. 

At this period the bishop of Amid, Srapion, a.d. 1G02. 
a ])upil of Lucas of Kegh, became famous for eraioji. 
the extent and variety of his knowled^-e. He 
had inherited from his father property to an 
immense value. The two pontiffs in tlieir 
exigencies wrote to the bishop, offering him 
the pontiticate if he would clear off its incum- 
brances. Srapion grieved at the intelligence 
of their distresses, went to Julpha to meet 
them, to consider oi' the best means to re- 
lease them. Here the pontiff with a number 
of the clergy held a meeting, in the course of 
which Srapion in a speech slightly censured 
the measures which had been pursued by those 
wiio had sat in the pontifical chair. On hearing 
this, Manuel bishop of Havuz Tharah, rose and 
m a violent speech set the whole assembly in 
a tumult. This conduct baffled the object of 
the meeting, and the members dispersed without 
coming to anv decisive determination. The 
two pontirts retired to the convent of Stathev, 
or Tathev, in the province of Sisakan. 

Srapi»)n remained at Julpha, where by his a n 1603. 


preaching he became so ])opular that \\\v. in- tra 1(1,^2. 
lial)itants of tliat j)lace earned iiiin to J">tch- 
iniutchin, where a meeting of the clergy and 
iaity being convened, he was elevated to the 


pontificate under the title of Gregory the Thir- 
teenth. When David and Melchizedek observed 
this they were plunged into despair, for the 
debts which had been hitherto incurred by 
the church of Etchmiatchin remained on their 
shoulders, by a decree of the assembly which 
appointed Srapion, while another usurped the 
government of it. The two ex-pontifFs seeing 
no means of escape from the demands made 
upon them, determined to apply for money 
to their countrymen residing at Ispahan. Iq 
prosecution of this design Melchizedek pro- 
ceeded to that city accompanied by two bishops. 
He was most honourably received by the Ar- 
menians in Ispahan, and in the course of a 
few days after his arrival there, presented to 
the king Shah Abas, to whom he gave a me- 
morial setting forth the lamentable condition 
of Armenia. The king attentively read the 
memorial and several times held conferences 
with Melchizedek, to whom he shewed the 
greatest respect, concerning the affairs which 
had brought him to Persia. 




The invasion of Armenia by Shah Abas. 
While Melchizedek was in Ispahan the chief a. p.ieoa. 

^ Haican 

of Salamast havnig rebelled against the Turks, era 1052. 
sent an ambassador to Shah Abas to incite 
him to invade Armenia. A few chiefs from the 
Medes having joined this embassy, greatly- 
contributed by their representations to decide 
the monarch on embracing the proposal of the 
chief of Salamast. Hereupon' Shah Abas ga- 
thered an immense army, with which he set 
out accompanied by Melchizedek for the con- 
quest of Armenia. When the creditors of the 
church of Etchmiatchin, who were Turks, heard 
of the approach of the Persians, they seized 
Srapion the pontiff and insisted on his paying 
them, as they felt convinced that on the arrival 
of Shah Abas in Armenia they could not 
hope for success in suing for their debts. 
Srapion in this emergency besought them to 
accept of a partial payment, and by a little 
address giving much to the obdurate and less 
to the moderate, he effected his release, and 
shortly after fled to Julpha. 


A. a ifi04. Shah Abas in the mean time arrived at Nakh- 
era 1053. juan, which he captured, and thence marched 
into the province of Erevan, where having taken 
most of the Armenian inhabitants captive, he 
laid siege to the capital of the same name. 
Here a number of Armenian and Georgian 
prisoners were killed in the several attacks 
made on the city, for Shah Abas had ordered 
them to advance to each assault in front of 
his troops, where they fell by the arrows and 
other missiles discharoed bv their own coun- 
trymen. The king of Persia perceiving the 
gallantry with which the citizens had repulsed 
all his assaults, raised the siege and proceeded 
against other cities and provinces of Armenia 

A.D. ifior,. under the Turks. Having conquered almost 

Haican i i i • i 

era 1054. the wholc of the country, and placed in the 
several towns and cities Persian governors, 
he returned to the siege of Erevan, which 
after a blockade of nine months surrendered. 
Shah Abas then issued a decree to be pro- 
claimed in all places, that henceforward the 
Armenians were to consider themselves under 
the dominion of the Persians. He then caused 
the ex-pontiff David and Melchizedek to be 
brought into his presence to whom he delivered 
the following discourse. " It has been a practice 
with our kings from time immemorial, on their 
conquering a country to deem theirs all that 



it contains, I have conquered Armenia from 
the Turks, and acting on the policy of my 
predecessors, I shall apply the revenues of the 
kingdom to defray the expenses incurred by 
me in my expedition, and also sue for the debts 
which may be due to the former possessors 
of the country. I am aware that you have 
borrowed money to an immense sum from the 
Turks, which I now direct to be forthwith paid 
to me. Do not be afraid of future molestation 
from them, for on the money being delivered 
to me I will give you an acquittance in full for 
all they may have lent you!" 

On hearing this the two colleagues were 
struck with stupefaction. To be obliged to pay 
their debts to him to whom they had applied 
for exoneration! The king moreover, insisted 
upon their paying him a sum infinitely more 
than what they had actually borrowed from 
the Turks. Shah Abas proving resolute in his 
demands the unfortunate David and Melchizedek 
were obliged to borrow at a most enormous 
interest. Having obtained as much as they 
really owed their creditors they brought it to 
the king, who after some little discussion re- 
ceived it as the total amount of their debts. 
Shah Abas then stretched out lus raj)acious 
hands toward the puntifi" Srapion, whom he 
caused to be seized at Julpha and placed in 


confinement, demanding as the price of his 
release an immense sum of money. Whatever 
Srapion possessed was extorted from him, yet 
tlie ministers of the king's inordinate avarice 
were not content, but demanded more from 
him. On his not being able to comply with 
their demands he was put to the rack, and 
daily carried on the high road, where he was hung 
by the heels and cruelly bastinadoed. At length 
the wretched pontift' procured bail for his going 
in search of money to give his tormentors, 
and after much trouble procured by loans a 
sum sufficient to obtain his release. He then 
retired to Van and afterwards to Amid, his an- 
cient see, where worn out by the tortures he 
had suffered he died, after being in the pon- 
tificate three years. 


The cruelties practised by the Persians in expa- 
triatins: the Armenians. 

A.D. 1605. The Turks, after their expulsion from Armenia 


era 1054. by Shah Abas, collected a large force com- 
manded by a great general named Jighaloghlu 
Sinan Pacha, with a determination to attempt 
the reconquest of that country. On the Pacha's 


setting out on this expedition, Shah Abas 
became alarmed at the report of the magnitude 
of the Turkish army, and resolved to seize 
all the Armenians with their property and 
transport them to Persia, in order that on the 
arrival of the Turks, they should find neither 
food nor money in the country. In execution 
of this resolve, the Persians were dispersed 
in parties all over Armenia, where they seized 
the inhabitants and drove them like herds of 
cattle to a vast plain in the province of Ararat; 
whence, when all were collected, they were 
to be marched into Persia. They then des- 
troyed all the cities, towns, villages, and in short 
every place which could afford shelter to a 
human being in the country, together with 
all the stores of corn, wine, oil, hay, and every 
other article which could supply sustenance to 
man or beast, not only that the Turks might 
be baffled in their enterprize, but that the 
Armenians might not be tempted hencefor- 
ward to return to the land of their birth. They 
also plundered Etchmiatchin, and having dis- 
covered the pontiff David and Melchizedek, with 
some other bishops and priests concealed there, 
seized and placed them indiscriminately amongst 
the crowd of captive wretches on the plains 
of Ararat. The whole were placed under the 
guard of Emir Keune Khun, or according 


to some Amirgiina Khan, whose son some years 
afterwards, on going to Constantinople, was ap- 
pointed a residence on the Bosphorus (or straits 
of Constantinople) by Sultan Murat, which place 
is still called by his name Emirkun Oghlu, 
vulgarly Emirken Oghlu. 

Previous to the commencement of the seizure 
of the Armenians by the Persians, many of the 
former on the report of the Sultan's intention 
reaching them, fled to other countries, others, 
not a few in number, gathering their property 
and a good store of provisions, took refuge 
on the summits of mountains and in caves in 
the vallies. Among the latter were Manuel 
bishop of Havuz Tharah, and Astvazatur bishop 
of Ghelard, who accompanied by their relations, 
both clergy and laity, took refuge in a large 
cavern in the valley of Gelard, surrounded 
by stupendous masses of rock. Hither they 
were })ursued by Emir Khan with a body of 
troops. On his arrival in the valley he stood 
opposite the mouth of the cavern which was 
at a great height on the rocks, and called out to 
the Armenians to come out, and promised 
them safety if they would surrender. But the 
bishops and their followers confiding in the 
strength and security of their place of refuge, 
derided and threw stones at the Persians. 
Upon which the latter began trying to ascend. 


standing upon each others shoulders. One 
of the Persians soldiers having in this manner 
reached the entrance of the cavern, called 
out to Manuel the bishop, who, not under- 
standing the language he used, gave him no 
reply. Upon which the soldier entered sword 
in hand, and seizing the bishop drago:ed him 
outside, where he cut off his head and then 
threw it down to the Emir below. The 
whole of the troops then ascended, and en- 
tering the cavern drew out the whole of the 
Armenians, part of whom they put to death; 
the remainder they drove to the general ren- 
dezvous. The Emir having obtained information 
that many had concealed themselves in caves 
resembling fortresses in the valley of Coradar, 
marched thither with his troops, and after pass- 
ing many of these hiding places which he 
deemed from their natural structure impreg- 
nable, halted near a large cavern called la- 
khushkhan, situated in a lofty place, and under 
the shelter of a sharp and craggy rock. Here 
were assembled about 1,000 men, women and 
children, the former vigilantly guarding all the 
passes to their hiding place. The Emir and his 
people first fired a few guns over the cavern 
to endeavour to frighten its inmates. This 
producing no effect, 200 of the Persians with 
much difficulty succeeded in reaching the top 


of the rock, in the middle of which on the 
other side was the mouth of the cave. They 
then with the most imminent danger at every 
step they took of being precipitated below and 
dashed to pieces on the points of the rocks 
that jutted out in a most frightful manner at 
its base, began to descend. They at length 
arrived at a place a little down the rock, whence 
it was not possible to proceed further on foot. 
They therefore let four of their comrades down 
the steep by ropes, until they reached the mouth 
of the cave, into which they entered sword 
in hand. The Armenians offered no resistance, 
and other Persian soldiers descending in the 
same manner as the first four adventurous 
men, they were all taken. The captors first 
separating the males from the females, massacred 
a great number of the former. The latter per- 
ceiving by the gestures of the brutal soldiers, 
that they were destined to be violated, to save 
themselves from a fate so dreadfully revolting 
to their feelings, rushed to the mouth of the 
cavern and threw themselves on the rocks below, 
where they were dashed to pieces. Many 
of the females who feared their courage was 
not equal to a death so dreadful, yet regarding 
with greater terror and horror the prospect 
of pollution, blindfolded themselves with their 
handkerchiefs, and in this state plunged off 


the precipice. Some of these heroic women, 
however, met not the sudden death they sought, 
for in their descent a few were caught by 
their hair, which winding round the crags of 
the rock caused them to linger for many 
days. The Persians having gathered the re- 
mainder drove them to the plains of Ararat, 
which were covered with the captive Armenians, 
guarded on all sides by troops to prevent their 


The miseries endured by the Armenians on their 
crossing the river Araj: and proceeding to 

Shah Abas at this period resided at Ervan- a. d. leos. 
dakert, when news came to him that the Turks era' 1054. 
had arrived at Cars. He then sent orders to 
Emirken, to move with the Armenians toward 
the river A rax, where he would join them. On 
the king's arrival at this river he found all there 
arrived before him, and forthwith directed the 
people to commence crossing it. Boats and 
rafts were immediately constructed, the Ar- 
menians v/ere compelled to embark, and on their 
making some resistance, the Persians in order to 
strike terror into them cut off the ears and noses 

VOL. II. a a 


of several. Two distinguished Armenians, one 
named Johanjan the brother of the deceased 
pontiff Arackiel, the other one of the chiefs 
of Garnev, were beheaded on this occasion. 
At the sight of these acts of cruelty all has- 
tened to get on the rafts and enter the boats, 
mothers se[)arated from their children, husbands 
from their wives, all connection of kindred was 
disregarded, and they were huddled indiscri- 
minately on board of the weak and fragile vessels 
prepared to transport them to the other side 
of the river. The multitude of Armenians and 
Persians w^as, however, so great, that although 
the vessels continued incessantly going and 
returning, all was unequal to the impatience 
of the king, who sitting on the banks, poured 
torrents of abuse on his soldiers for not being 
quicker in hastening the embarkation of the 
captives. The Persian troops irritated by this 
language vented their rage on the innocent 
Armenians, throwing hundreds into the river, 
telling them, ** those that can swim, may pro- 
ceed to the other side, those that cannot let 
them drown!" Among these unfortunate victims 
of tyranny and brutal rage, were children of 
both sexes, sick and maimed, pregnant women, 
and others with infants sucking at their breasts, 
who unable from their sex and condition to 
swim, were cruelly abandoned to a watery 


grave, although they continued to cry piteously 
for help and mercy to the last moment of 
sustaining themselves on the surface of the water. 
Many expert swimmers on their way over 
were caught by the feet by some of the drown- 
ing wretches who filled the river, and both 
sunk. Some succeeded in getting over by holding 
on the tails of bullocks and horses; and others 
saved themselves by resolutely clinging to the 
gunwales of the boats from which they had 
been thrown. During this scene of death and 
terror, many of the soldiers treacherously offered 
the husbands and fathers of such women as 
struck their fancy, to take them over in safety. 
It may be conceived what was the fate of those 
poor creatures who were credulously confided 
to their care, on their reaching the opposite 
side of the river. Many of the Persian troops, 
bold in the gratification of their villainous lust, 
in the confusion, forcibly seized and bore off 
the most beautiful of the Armenian women, 
after killing their husbands, fathers, or brothers 
who attempted to protect them. At the taking 
of the city of Julpha, similar acts of lustful 
atrocity were committed. 

When the whole of the army and captives 
had crossed the river, the Shah directed their 
route along the most unfrequented paths, over 
mountains and through vallies, fearful that the 



Turks might overtake and rescue the Armenians. 
It has been mentioned before, that the two 
pontirts David and Melchizedek had been taken 
at Etchmiatchin. The latter shortly after made 
his escape to Erevan, the former was amongst 
his captive countrymen. Shah Abas on the 
arrival of all in Persia, directed that the Ar- 
menian nobles and better class of citizens should 
have habitations in Ispahan: the remainder 
■were dispersed in the towns and villages of 
the surrounding provinces. He also ordered 
that they should be in no degree molested, but 
treated in every respect like his Persian subjects. 
The Armenians brought into Persia by Shah 
Abas were in number 12,000 families. Shortly 
after a tliousand families more arrived at two 
different periods. The whole of those whom 
he permitted to dwell in Ispahan were divided 
into two parts, each inhabiting a different dis- 
trict. Over these he appointed two Persian 
superintendents, under whom were two Armenian 
guardians under the title of Melicks. The 
two latter were named Joseph and Murat. He 
likewise appointed superintendents and guar- 
dians over those residing in the provinces, and 
in order to induce the Armenians to remain 
under his government quietly and contentedly, 
he treated them with the greatest kindness, 
taxing them less than even his own nation. 


This conduct of the monarch produced the 
effect desired, and the expatriated Armenians 
began to construct houses and enter into th« 
intercourse and enjoyments of life. Some short 
time after this Shah Abas sent troops again 
to the districts of Tabriez, Artavil, Erevan 
and Ganzak, to collect all the Armenians that 
might have returned thither. On their arrival 
in those provmces they captured 10,000 families, 
with which they returned to Persia. These 
captives were settled by the king in Gaurapat 
and Vahrapat, two very unhealthy places, 
where in the course of time they all perished. 

Shah Abas allotted to the inhabitants of the 
city of Julpha which he had taken, a spot 
exactly opposite Ispahan, on the other side 
of the river Zendeh Roud that flows by that 
city, where they built a splendid town calling 
it New Julpha. Here were many churches 
erected, with convents for the religious of both 

The Turks on their arrival in Armenia were 
a-stonished at the events which had occurred. 
They marched to the regions of Van and Tabriez 
where they were encountered and overthrown 
several times by the Persians. The last battle 
fought between them ended in the rout and 
flight of the Turks, leaving every article of 
their property in the hands of the tictors. 

aa 3 


A. D 1606. Sinan Pacha, their crcneral, shortly after fell sick 
eraio55. and died ill the City of Amid. On the departure 
of the Turks and Persians from Armenia, those 
of the inhabitants who had concealed themselves 
from the latter came out of their habitations, 
but at this period multitudes of banditti made 
incursions into that country, destroying all that 
remained of its buildings. As the recent events 
had put an entire stop to agriculture a sore 
famine broke out about this period, and lasting 
for two years, compelled the banditti to quit 

A. D. 1610. While Armenia was thus ruined and almost 
er"io5y! annihilated, Sarkies bishop of Saghmosavank, 
a man of extraordinary wisdom and piety, and 
called by his countrymen the sovereign lord, 
greatly contributed to sooth the distracted minds 
of the Armenians, both by his preaching and 
writing. This truly good man having associated 
with himself Ter Kirakus of Trabezond, who 
equalled him in the desire he felt of ameliorating 
the condition of the times, began to repair 
the different convents of the nation which had 
not been completely destroyed, and established 
excellent rules of conduct for the monks by 
whom they were inhabited. They repaired 
a number of convents in Seunies, where they 
obtained a number of scholars. The two monks 
Paul of Mock and Moses of Seunies were 



among these, and many of them at their own 
expense built convents and schools. 

While these repairs of the convents were going a. d. ifiii . 

■ n ■ ^ 1. r Haicnn 

forward, two Latm friars came to the country ot eraio60. 
Ararat, where they met Melchizedek the pontiff, 
by whom, after presenting him gifts which they 
had broui,^lit for the purpose, they were furnished 
with an order to visit all the convents in Ar- 
menia. The two friars accordingly made a 
tour, in the course of which, they discovered 
and took possession of various holy relics, parti- 
cularly the head of the apostle St. Andrew. 
Having gone to Etchmiatchin they took from 
the church of that place the relics of St. 
Hiripsiiiiah, and making otf with them, were 
taken by the ecclesiastics of that place, who 
recovered the precious body, but not entire, 
the Latin friars havinsr succeeded in concealinsf 
four parts of it. One of these afterwards fell 
again into the hands of the Armenians, and is 
now in the Armenian church at Venice. The 
second was taken to India, and kept in the 
convent of Latin friars at Goa. The third 
was laid under the foundations of a church, 
building at this period by the monk Paul in the 
village of Vardaglukh, near Nakhjuan, and de- 
dicated to St. Tliripsimah. The fourth was first 
kept at Jul|)ha, hut A. I). 1755 brought to 
Bagdad, where it fell into the possession of 


one Paul, surnamed Kara Ivaz Oghlu, a pearl 
merchant, who carried it to Constantinople, and 
when advanced in years, presented it to the 
church of the Holy Illuminator in Ghalada, 
where it now lies. The two pilfering monks 
havinp^ proceeded to Oelarcunies were there 
killed by the Persians. 


The evils endured by the poiitiffs Melchizedek 

and Isaac, 

A. D. 1611. During the miseries which the expatriated 
eraroeo! Armenians suffered in their march to Persia, 
the pontiff Melchizedek was residing concealed 
in Erevan. He durst not return to Etch- 
miatchin, which was then in a dreadful state 
of desolation, some individuals there being 
his personal enemies, particularly bishop Mar- 
tirus, who had at a former period been driven 
by him into banishment. Martirus about this 
period went to Ispahan, and joining the pontiff 
David, then living in new Julpha, described 
to him and the other Armenians with him 
the miserable state to which Etchmiatchin 
was reduced, accusing Melchizedek of a total 
disregard of the welfare of the pontificate. 
The inhabitants of New Julpha displeased 



at this news, entreated David to go to Etch- 
miatchin and exercise there the office of pontiff, 
promising to assist him with whatever he might 
require. David having consented, set out for 
that place accompanied by Martirus. When 
Melchizedek heard of this, he immediately 
proceeded to Etchmiatchin and took possession 
of the pontificate. On the arrival of David 
an unfortunate dispute arose between him and 
Melchizedek, but the latter had formed a party 
too powerful for the other to contend with. 
Upon this David in the greatest affliction spoke 
to his colleague in these terms, " did you not 
on my consecrating you pontiff, promise to obey 
me in all things? Now, instead of performing 
that promise so solemnly given, you have sup- 
planted me in my old age; I beseech you 
to afford me provision, or at least the common 
necessaries of life." Melchizedek hereupon 
replied, "you see very well that the pontificate 
is so impoverished that I cannot procure 
enough to support myself and my people. IIow 
then can I assist or support you?" He then 
advised David to return to Ispahan. 

David seeing it useless to strive with his rival, ^-^ *^'^' 
prepared to return to Persia. Just at this period "' '"^'• 
Shah Abas arrived on an expedition to the fron- 
tiers of Georgia, which wlien David knew, he 
forthwith repaired to him. On his presenting 


himself the king enquired kindly respecting the 
object of his visit. David then replied, " I have 
enemies and am much molested, but thy friend- 
ship soothes the evils to which I am subject!" 
The Sh:ih then enquired who annoyed him, 
upon which David laid before him an account 
of the conduct of Melchizedek. Shah Abas upon 
this became exceedingly angry witli Melchi- 
zedek, recollecting at the same timo, that he 
had formerly withdrawn himself when the rest 
of his countrymen were marched to Persia. He 
forthwith wrote to Thamaz Gliuley Beg, gover- 
nor of Erevan, the son of Emirken, of whom 
we formerly gave some account, directing him 
to seize and punish Melchizedek. Nay, so 
ofreat was the aniifer of the Persian monarch, 
that he expressly ordered that the culprit 
should have a part of his flesh cut from his 
body, and then be compelled to eat it, after 
which he was to be sent in fetters to the 
king. Thamaz Ghuley on receipt of the Shah's 
order seized Melchizedek. and punishing him 
in the manner directed, sent him in fetters to 
the Persian camp. 
A. D. 1614. Emirken, who was then with the Shah, know- 
era "S ing that Melchizedek with whom he was on terms 
of friendship, would be put to death on his arrival, 
found an opportunity when Shah Abas was pass- 
ing through the camp to obtain his pardon by the 



following means. Taking his three little sons 
into the presence of the Shah, he put a sword 
upon their necks, thereby wishing to convince the 
monarch that he would rather sacrifice his sons 
than see his friend Melchizedek perish by the 
king's anger. Tliis representation had the desired 
effect, for the king was pleased to grant the 
life of Melchizedek for the sake of Emirken 
and his little sons. Melchizedek on his arrival 
was dispatched to Ispahan, where being released 
from his fetters, he assumed the pontifical office 
over the Armenians in Persia. David was then 
sent by Shah Abas to Etchmiatchin, and told 
to resume his duties as pontiff without fear 
of molestation, recommending him at the same 
time to the protection of Emirken. 

But the latter was no friend of David's, and a.d. leie. 


sought to expel him from Etchmiatchin and place erai065. 
Melchizedek in his room. Shah Abas shortly 
after this arrived in the province of Garney, 
and David going to him, acquainted him with 
the troubles which he suffered through Emirken. 
The Shah highly exasperated, vented his rage 
on Melchizedek, whom he caused to be brought 
to him from Persia in fetters. He then set 
out for Nakhjuan accom[)anied by the two 
pontiffs; one enjoying his favour, but in a state 
of anxiety, the other in chains trembbng for his 
future fate. David at lengtli, perceiving his 

364 HisToav of akmf.nia. 

absence from Persia would be productive of 
some evil to himself, presented a petition to 
the Shah for leave to depart, and having ob- 
tained it proceeded to Ispahan, leaving Mel- 

A. D. 1617. chizedek in chains in the Persian camp. From 
era IQ66. Nakhjuan Shah Abas proceeded to Agulis, where 
he murdered a priest named Andrew, and 
fined the two monks Moses and Paul 300 
thumans. He then called Melchizedek into his 
presence, and said to him in an angry manner, 
" I spare your life on account of Emirken. Yet 
if you wish to be free, pay the sum of 300 
thumans, and go where you please, recollecting 
that you are deprived of the pontificate!" He 

A. D. 1618. then ordered him to be taken away. Melchizedek 

Haican « . . r 

erai067. who had no means of raising the price ot 
his liberty, sunk into a state of despair. He 
thrice presented a petition to the Shah wherein 
he said, " I am consuming away with the 
weight of my affliction. I intreat you to 
give me rest from my trouble. Order me, 
I beseech you, either to be put to death or 
released!" The Shah replied, through his ser- 
vants, " I will neither kill nor release you : unless 
you pay the 300 thumans you shall remain 
in fetters as long as you live!" Melchizedek 
then again petitioned the Shah, offering to pay 
annually 100 thumans from the see of Etch- 
miatchin, if he would release him and place 



Wm again in the pontificate. Shah Abas re- 
leased him on this condition, and sent him 
to Etchmiatchin with a royal mandate for his 
immediate restoration to the office of pontiff. 

On Melchizedek's attempting to collect the Haican 
stipulated sum for that year, he found he could ^^ ^^^^' 
procure nothing, and on the expiration of the 
twelve months from his release, Shah Abas sent 
four distinguished Persians of his household to 
receive the 100 thumans. On their arrival at 
Etchmiatchin they demanded the money from the 
pontiff, and on his not being able to pay it, they 
distressed him extremely. They also required 
him to lurnish themselves and retinue vv^ith daily 
provision, for such was the order of the Shah. 
The expenses of supporting them were exces- 
sively heavy, a thuniaii (or five gold deniers) 
per diem not sufficing for the purpose. 

On the approach of the foUowinor vear Mel- a p. 1020. 
chizedek went to Erevan, and sending for the "* ^°''^- 
monk Moses, who was then in great repute with 
the people, he consecrated him bishop, and 
giving him power to bless the holy unction, 
sent him to the church of Etchmiatchin to 
}>€rforni that ceremony, in the hope that he 
might be able to collect a good sura from the 
Armenian congregation assembled there on 
that occasion. But hardly enough was col- 
lected to support himself and his people. Mel- 


chizedek then took the four collectors with 
their tollovvers, and roainin^^ about the country- 
endeavoured to raise money by scour^in^^ the 
people. fT^ivinc^ holv orders to unworthy charac- 
ters and many other corrupt means. All, how- 
ever, was meHectual. and he found that he could 
not possibly i'ultil the terms of the tribute. He 
then petitioned Shah Abas to lessen his de- 
mands, bur the latter was iiuxorable, replyinq^ 
anijfnly, '■ I cannot think of reducinp^ the tri- 
A. D ifi22. butes a sin'^le diachm." In the mean time 


era 1071. the tributes accumulated, and Melchizcdek at 
length raised some money from foreigners at high 
interest, which, however, proved barely sutH- 
cient to defray the enormous daily expenditure 
required for supporting the collectors and their 
retinue. He then became doubly embarras.sed 
from the tributes and debts he had incurred. 
A. D. ifi.'i. Melchizcdek after beimr six years thus tor- ' 

traio;;i. mented, consecrated his nephew Isaac pontiff, 
on the condition that the latter should take 
upon himself the burthen of the tributes. He 
then retired from the pontificate, engaging to 
liquidate the debts he had incurred with the 
foreiijjners. When the election of Isaac to the 
pontificate was confirmed by the Shah, the col- 
lectors left Melchizcdek, and came upon his 
nephew, whom they treated with the same seve- 
rity as the other. Melchizcdek was shortly after 



arrested by his creditors, and to obtain his 
release, mortg-ajjed all the church furniture of 
Etchmiatchin to other foreioners, from whom 
he also obtained large loans, with which he 
paid those who had arrested him. Knowing 
that he would never be able to liquidate his 
new debts, he fled to Constantinople, where 
none of the clergy or Christian people would 
hold any intercourse with hmi. He therefore 
proceeded to the city of Leopolis, in the country 
of Bolonia, where resided about 1,000 Armenian 
families. Here he was received with much 
honour. He resided with those people for one 
year, having much against their wishes given 
holv orders to one Nicholas Thorosoviz, which 
circumstance gave rise to much trouble and 
persecution for many years afterwards amongst 
the inhabitants. 

Melchizedek afterwards took up his residence 
in the city of Cameniz, and there died, having 
been in the pontificate up to Isaac's consecra- 
tion thirty-one years. During the troubles 
that visited Armenia in his spiritual sway of the 
church of that country, he wrote twice to the 
pope signifving his obedience to the Romish 
church. David wrote also to the same effect. 
Isaac the Fourth, the new pontift", was so dread- 
fully harassed by the collectors about the tri- H""-"" 

... er*1073. 

bates, that despairmg of ever being able to 

A.n. 1624. 


raise the money tliey required, he sought his 
personal safety by flight. Tliis was difficult 
to etteet, as lie was at all times surrounded by 
the collectors and their followers. After en- 
during the greatest misery for four years, m 
travelling about the country witli his tormentors, 
collecting money, he at last came to the city 
of Erevan. Two or three days after his arrival, 
he requested the collectors to permit him to 
go to Etchmiatchin, and bring thence all the 
gold and silver church ornaments, to deliver 
to them in payment of the tribute. 
A. D. 1629. They granted his request, and he forthwith 
era iI'tT. Set out on hoiscback for Etchmiatchin, but after 
performing half the journey he changed his 
clothes and turned his horse toward Nakhjuan, 
He passed this place with the greatest speed, 
and crossing the river Arax took refuge in Van, 
then under the government of the Turks. This 
occurred in the fifth year of his pontificate. 


T/ie pontificate of Moses the Third. 
A D. ifi29. Moses the Third, an eminently virtuous cha- 


era 1078. ractcr, on the flight of Isaac, was appointed 
by Shah Abas to the charge of the church 
of Etchmiatchin, and soon alter by the general 


consent of the Armenians elected pontiff. Just 
after this event, Shah Abas, the destroyer of the 
country of Armenia died, and was succeeded 
on the throne of Persia by his grandson Shah 
Sefey. On his accession the Armenians applied 
to him to confirm by letters patent their pontiff 
Moses in his dignity. Moses's countrymen 
residing in Persia also invited him to come 
to Ispahan, in the hope that the king would 
exonerate him from the future payment of tri- 
bute, the debt of which then amounted to 1,000 
thumans. On the pontiff's arrival at that city, 
the Armenians presented a petition to Shah 
Sefey, accompanying it with suitable presents 
amounting to 1,000 thumans, wherein they 
prayed for a release from tribute for the church 
of Etchmiatchin. This the monarch granted 
by a letter patent, and then forward the pon- 
tificate was relieved from that terrible burthen 
which proved tlie destruction of the two pre- 
ceding incumbents. Moses returned to Etch- 
miatchin about eight months afterward, and 
recommenced the repairs of the pontifical church 
which he had begun at the time of ins being 
appointed guardian of it by Shah Abas. 

In the mean time, news of the recent events a. n. i^io. 


having reached tlie pontiff Isaac at Van, lie began "» '07'j. 
to make interest with the jjowerful in that 
quarter to resume his pontifical office amongst 
VOL. 11. b b 


the Armenians residing- there. Many endea- 
voured to thwart his design, but Isaac sent 
a monk named Paul to Constantinople, to 
entreat the patriarch Zechariali to assist liim 
in tlie accomplishment of his object. The pa- 
triarch secretly prejudiced against Moses, here- 
upon applied to Sultan Murat the Fourth for 
letters ))atent to constitute Isaac pontiff of the 
Armenians, under the dominion of the Porte, 
which were immediatelv Grranted. Zechariah 
then sent them to Isaac, directing him forthwith 
to take up his residenre in St. Carapiet, in 
the province of Taron, and commence his duties 
as pontiff. The Turkish Viceroy being at this 
time in the city of Amid, Isaac went to him 
to inform him of his having received the royal 
authority for fixing a pontificate in Armenia, 
for he knew well that until he had obtained 
his consent to exercise his office the letters 
patent availed nothing. When the Armenians 
of Amid, among whom was Ruhijan the Viceroy's 
chamberlain, heard of this, they all endeavoured, 
clergy and laity, to persuade Isaac to relinquish 
his design, promising him many things if he 
would desist from his intentions of forcing 
himself upon them as pontiff. All, however, 
proved fruitless, and Isaac drew up a petition 
and presented it to the Viceroy, wherein lie 
promised to give him 10,000 deniers if he would 


ratify his appointment. The Viceroy was pleased 
at the offer, but gave the pontiff no decisive 
answer. In the course of a few days, he re- 
ceived another petition from the party adverse to 
Isaac, wherein they prayed him to refuse the 
latter his patronage. " How," said the Viceroy 
in answer to this, " can I refuse to grant him 
my sanction for the assumption of his authority 
when he has offered to add 10,000 deniers 
to the royal treasury!" Ruhijan then advanced 
from the body of the petitioners and addressing 
the Viceroy said, "if you wish to sell our 
distressed nation, let me have it, and I will 
give you 20,000 deniers!" The Viceroy felt 
much joy at this, but concealing it, dismissed 
them and appointed a time when both they and 
Isaac should come to him. On both parties 
presenting themselves, the Viceroy thus ad- 
dressed the pontiff, " have you actually received 
letters patent from the Sultan?" The latter 
replied in the affirmative. Upon which the 
Viceroy rejoined, " how dared you, without 
informing me, apply for such letters patent. 
You are an ambitious man, and I believe would 
seek to rule also over me!" He then called 
executioners, and ordered the unfortunate Isaac 
and the monk Paul who was with him, to 
be tied by the feet and scourged till they should 
either die, or embrace Tslamism. These orders 



were instantly obeyed, and the executiottCT* 
at every blow asked the sufferers if they would 
renounce Christianity. The partizans of Moses, 
struck with horror at this spectacle, implored 
mercy from the Viceroy, who after much en- 
treaty, permitted the culprits to be released, 
upon which their friends took them to their 
houses. Shortly after this, Isaac went to Georgia 
and thence to Etchmiatchin, where he remained 
in humility and repentance until his death. 
A.D. 1631. From that period the pontiiF Moses remained 
•raioso. in quiet possession of his office. He finished 
the repairs of the pontifical church, which 
he improved and ornamented far more than 
it had ever been before. He also enacted 
many useful regulations for the better govern- 
ment of the monks attached to his see, and 
renewed the old customs and stated hours 
for the performance of divine service. All the 
sacred utensils which his predecessors had 
pledged to foreigners were redeemed by him, 
and restored to their original places. He at 
the same time lived in a state of the most 
rigid monastic mortification, entirely devoted 
to the service of that God from whom he 
anticipated a reward. He established a large 
school in the convent of Johanavank, for the 
instruction of children in religious knowledge. 
He wrote three times to the pope of Rome, 


signifying his obedience to his church. This 
brought upon him the enmity of Gregory of 
Cesarea, the patriarch of Constantinople, who, 
however, did not succeed in doing him any 
injury, being shortly after deposed from the 
patriarchate on account of his violent cha- 
racter. Moses disregarded all worldly praise 
or censure, and firm in the path of rectitude 
continued to govern his church with credit 
to himself and advantage to its members. This 
pious and truly amiable pontiff died after pre- 
siding over the church of Etehmiatchin three 
years and eight months. 

His character may be summed up in few words, 
and when we say that he was the brightest 
ornament of the pontificate since the destruction 
of Armenian royalty, we only give him his 
just due, and at the same time bestow upon 
him no ordinary praise. On his death bed 
he recommended his scholar Philip, whom he 
had two years before consecrated a bishop, 
to succeed him in the pontificate. 




The pontificate of Philip and the tumults in the 
church of Constantinople. 

AD. 1633. From respect to the memory of the late 
em 1082. most excellent incumbent, the nation was un- 
animous in elevating Philip, from the village of 
Erinkan, in Aghbak Minor, to the pontificate. 
Philip was a pious and peaceful man, and one 
who more than once proved himself to be re- 
garded with peculiar favour by the Almighty, 
by the performance of miracles. Immediately 
after he assumed his office, he visited all the 
convents and churches in his see, where he 
exhorted all to a strict regard to the precepts 
of Christianity, and condemned with severity 
every instance of depravity that fell under his 
notice. He continued the repairs of those 
religious and other buildings which his prede- 
cessor had left unfinished. Shortly after this 
war broke out again between the Turks and 
Persians, and Armenia was doomed once more 
to be the scene of their contentions. The 
Turks took possession of Erevan, and the Per- 
sians made a hostile march to Etchmiatchin, 
which was again by the wantonness of the 


st)ldiery reduced almost to utter ruin. With 
the exception of the church and the priest's 
apartments, which were constructed in the form 
of a cupola, every building that lay there was 
destroyed. On the cessation of these ravages 
the pontiff took courage, and again began to 
repair and rebuild. Some time after this he 
visited Ispahan, where he remained more than a 
year. He requested and obtained from the 
inhabitants of new Julpha the holy hand of 
the Illuminator, which had been taken by Shah 
Abas from Armenia twenty-three years before, 
and placed in the church of that place. On the 
pontiff's return he deposited the relic in its 
original place at Etchmiatchin. During his 
stay with his Armenian brethren in Persia 
he built a large school at Julpha for the in- 
struction of youth, placing it under the su- 
permtendence of Simon, a monk and a native 
of the same place. After having taught a 
considerable time in this school Simon went 
to Eudocia (Thokhat) where he died. His 
fellow scholar was the monk Voskan, who 
printed the bible at Amsterdam. Let us now 
cast a glance at the events that took place 
at the patriarchate of Constantinople. 

At this period the Armenian patriarch in a. n. i64i. 
Constantinople was the monk David Arevelzie. eraioao. 
Il-e was superseded some short time after his 


elevation on account of the dissatisfaction his 
conduct gave his constituents, by Kirakus of 
Erevan, in whose time Clemens Galanus 
flourished in Constantinople. On the death of 
Kirakus, Cachatur of Sebastia was elected 
patriarch, but he did not long enjoy his elevated 
dignity, being deposed, and replaced by the 
monk David, who in his turn not giving sa- 
tisfaction was removed from his office, but 
quickly after reinstated. Four years after this 
event Thomas, a monk from Aleppo, having 
made great promises to the Sultan, caused 
David once more to be deprived of his office 
and exiled to Cyprus. Thomas, however, on 
succeeding him, found he was unable to acquit 
himself of the promises he had made the Turkish 
sovereign, and therefore to avoid disagreable 
consequences fled to Rome. On this, David 
was again recalled and restored to the pa- 
A.D h;46. On account of the bad management of the 


era 1095. funds of the church at Constantmople, conse- 
quent upon the quick succession of patriarchs, 
debts were incurred to the amount of 40.000 
deniers, which, when known to the Armenians, 
produced much confusion and dispute amongst 
them. Quarrels also broke out amongst the 
Armenians resident in Constantinople and fo- 
reigners, neither party losing an opportunity 


of insulting and injuring the other. The Ar- 
menian nobles in that capital wrote on these 
subjects to the pontiff Philip, applying- to hira 
for advice. He replied in terms of the most 
affectionate kindness, exhorting them to remain 
in peace and christian love with their fellow- 
creatures. The commotion, however, still con- 
tinued to increase, until at length David was 
ejected from the patriarchate. On this event, 
they wished to nominate another individual 
to the patriarchal throne, but such was the 
violence and disunion amongst them that they 
could not agree in electing any one, and the see 
was held by some of the laity for eleven months, 
at the end of which period the nobles again 
placed David m his office. The party against 
the patriarch was, however, too inveterate ta 
permit him to enjoy his dignity in peace, and 
after four months of violent disputes he was 
again expelled. The victorious party then held 
the throne for three months, at the end of which 
they caused Eleazar of Anthap, a monk, to be 
elected patriarch. 

Philip the pontiff hearing of these disturbances a. n. icr.i . 
among his brethren at Constantinople, deter- caTloo. 
mined to visit that city. Having regulated 
the government of the church of Etchmiatchin, 
he set out from thence with a larg^e retinue 
of bishops and monks. On his arrival in Carin 


he was met by messengers from the Armenian 
nobles in Constantinople, who on hearing of his 
intention to visit them had applied to the 
Turkish government for an order for his safety 
to be respected in his journey. This order was 
delivered by the messengers to Philip, on 
which he continued his journey, and quitting 
Carin proceeded to Jerusalem where he re- 
mained four months. Here he met Ter Nierses 
the pontiff of Sis, with whom he held several 
conferences on the best means for reforming 
the relaxed manners of their countrymen, both 
of the clergy and laity, as well as to remove 
the enmity that existed between the churches 
of Sis and Etchmiatchin. In prosecution of 
their laudable object the two pontiffs sent for 
the clergy from the surrounding provinces, and 
held a meeting in the city, at which was present 
Astwazatur the patriarch of Jerusalem. Here, 
after some debate, thirteen canons were enacted, 
of which the first declared that henceforward 
all enmity should cease between the churches 
of Sis and Etchmiatchin, and that the pontiff 
of each, reganling the other with brotherly 
love, should issue orders and ordain priests in his 
own province only. The remainder of the 
canons laid down regulations for the better 
preservation of purity of morals amongst the 
Armenian clergy and laity. Shortly after the 



dissolution of this meeting, Pliilip paved the 
church of St. Jacob in Jerusalem with stones 
of various colours, producing a most brilliant 
effect. He also heightened the principal pulpit 
of the great temple. 

He then continued his iourney to Constant!- a. d.i652. 

■' '' Haican 

nople, and on his arrival there, by his preachmg era iioi. 
entirely extinguished the violent flames of discord 
which had threatened to destroy the whole Ar- 
menian community. All assumed a new ap- 
pearance after his arrival, and suspicion and 
enmity gave place to confidence and love. He 
also procured the election of Johannes of Mughin 
to the patriarchate, after expelling Eleazar; and 
then soliciting donations from all according to 
their power, he collected 40,000 deniers, with 
which he paid the debts of the patriarchal church. 

Shortly after this, Philip returned to Etch- ^ j, 1553. 
miatchin, and there began to build a magnifi- ^^IW^^. 
cent steeple, the expenses of building which 
were to be defrayed by one Antony Chelepey, 
a rich inhabitant of Prusa. He did not live, 
however, to finish this work, for on the fourth 
Sunday of Lent, while he was preaching on the 
text, " there was a certain rich man who had 
a steward, &c." On his arriving, in elucidation 
of his subject, at that passage, " thou mayest 
be no longer steward," he folt a presentiment 
that he should shortly die. Having finished 


his discourse, and given the usual benediction to 
the congregation, he retired to his apartment, 
where he communicated to those about him 
the presentiment which had taken possession of 
his mind. Some hours aftc^r he became indis- 
posed and took to his bed, whence he never 
A. D. less, rose more. Eight days after he breathed his 
eraiioi. last, at the age of sixty-three years, having held 
the pontificate twenty-two years. His remains 
were interred in the church of St. Hiripsimah at 
the north side of the altar. Like his late prede- 
cessors, Philip professed obedience to the pope 
of Rome, in a letter he wrote to Innocent the 
Tenth. This pontitf was distinguished for ardent 
zeal in forwarding the spiritual welfare of his 
countrymen, and on hearing of dissensions 
among the Armenians he was ever eager to 
fly to the scene of disorder, which he inva- 
riably turned into a state of peace and love. 
It appeared, indeed, as if he possessed some 
talisman, or secret power, by which, as was 
exhibited in the effect of his presence at Con- 
stantinople, he could charm the unruly and 
tumultuous passions of men into a sweet calm 
of affection and confidence. In the year of his 
death the convent of Varag was plundered 
by two Begs named Chomar and Suliman. 
During his pontificate many Armenians were 
martyred on account of their faith. 



The pontificate of Jacob the Fourth, and the 
patriarchate of Thomas. 

Ox the death of Philip, the pontifical chair {^;P^^^^^* 
was filled by Jacob from new Julpha, who era no*, 
proved himself by his virtuous and wise conduct 
worthy the choice of the nation. He was a 
man of extensive knowledge and singularly 
majestic person, afi'able to all, and zealous in 
performance of the duties of his high office. 
By prudent measures he increased the value 
of the church lands, and became a public 
benefactor by bringing a rivulet of water to 
Etchmiatchin, the inhabitants of which, until 
that period, had suffered great privations in 
consequence of a scarcity of that necessary 
article. He completed the building of the 
steeple begun by his predecessor, and gave 
encouragement to the arts, by patronizing two 
ingenious clergymen, one, Mathew, a deacoii 
of Zor, the other, a monk named Voskan, by 
whose means he caused several improvements ia 
printing to spring up amongst the Armenians. 
Lucas of Vanand, however, carried the improve- 
ment of the art of printing to the greatest state 
of perfection. 


Shortly after the succession of Jacob to the 
pontificate, some of the Armenian nobles, pre- 
judiced against Johannes of Mughin the pa- 
triarch, sought to deprive him of his office. They 
had attempted to do this before, but as Philip 
had been the means of the elevation of Johannes, 
under his protection the latter was safe. To 
this party against Johannes, Eleazar, who had 
been formerly patriarch lent his aid, hoping, and 
being flattered by the nobles in the hope that he 
might again obtain that dignity. The monk 
Martirus of Ghrim also lent his assistance to 
the party. Johannes was at length driven from 
the patriarchate, but Eleazar was disappointed 
in his ambitious hopes, for the combined nobles 
held the see under the title of guardians; the 
church being thus without a head became the 
seat of the direst confusion, until at length a 
petition was presented by several Armenians to 
AD. 1657. the Vizier Kiopreulew Mahomed Pacha, who 
era 1106. was at that time at Adrianople, praying him 
to interpose his authority to tranquillize the 
patriarchate, which was almost torn in pieces 
by the various factions which contended for 
the direction of it. The Vizier referred them 
to his secretary Defterdar Aga, who resided 
at Constantinople. This officer then sent for 
several of those who composed the guardianship," 
and demanded why they did net appoint a 


patriarch. They made frivolous excuses, upon 
which they were sent to prison, and not released 
until they had paid a fine of 10,000 deniers 
for their factious spirit. The predominant 
party, however, determined on keeping the 
patriarchal throne vacant, and to obtain the 
support of the Turkish governor to their plans, 
offered to pay to it 40,000 piasters more than 
the annual tribute, which then amounted to 
100,000 piasters. The Turkish government, 
ever alive to its own interest, in defiance 
of all justice, accepted the offer, and the annual 
tribute paid from the patriarchate was then 
swelled to the enormous sum of 140,000 pias- 
ters, which has been continued to be given up 
to this day. 

When Thomas the monk, who was a can- 
didate for the patriarchate, heard of this ar- 
rangement, by the advice of his friends he went 
to the secretary, and offered instead ot" 140,000 
piasters to give 400,000, if by the authority of 
the governor he were appointed patriarch. From 
him he proceeded to the Vizier at Adrianople, 
to whom after making valuable presents he 
made the same offer, and thereupon was fur- 
nished with letters patent to take possession 
of the patriarchate. He then assumed the 
office of patriarch, and caused the patriarch 
of Jerusalem, in ail documents where he had 


occasion to mention his name, to be written 
as dependent on him. From Adrianople he 
dispatched a proclamation to Constantinople 
to be read in all churches, wherein he intimated 
to all that he had been appointed patriarch by 
royal authority, and had nominated the monk 
Nicholas ofThulkuran his deputy in the latter 
city, assisted by the monk David of Aleppo 
and the priest Astwazater of Van, surnamed 
Thulthul, or the Lisper. On the arrival of 
the proclamation at Constantinople, all the se^- 
cular guardians of the patriarchate, amounting 
to twenty-fQut individuals, with their party, as 
well clergy as laity, held a meeting at which 
they determined to resist Thomas. As a first 
measure of their opposition they drove from the 
churches the three persons whom he had named 
in his proclamation as his assistants, and then 
deputed eight of their body to the Vizier at 
Adrianople to appeal against his appointment. 
On the arrival of the deputies at this city they 
endeavoured to make interest with the chiefs of 
the Turks to support their intended appeal, but 
the latter distinctly told them that the appoint- 
ment of Thomas by the Vizier was irrevocable, 
and they would only subject themselves to 
mortifications in prosecuting their mission. The 
deputies persisting, the Vizier was informed 
of their design, and in a great rage ordered 


them to be seized and bastinadoed. The news 
of this reaching the deputies in a timely hour, 
they made their escape and returned precipi- 
tately to their colleagues at Constantinople, 
to whom they imparted an account of the fai- 
lure of their mission. Shortly after this the 
Vizier sent Sinan Pacha to Constantinople 
as his deputy, and Thomas accompanied him. 
On their arrival the latter was put in possession 
of the patriarchate by the governor, and, pro- 
tected by a troop of Turkish horse, he took up 
his residence in the church of St. George. 
The vizier's deputy also furnished him with 
a detachment of guards from the Bostangi, 
for which he promised ta pay twenty bags 
of silver. In the mean time the guardians 
had not relinquished all hope of defeating 
Thomas, and a few days after the arrival of Sinan 
Pacha at Constantinople, they went to him, 
and entreated him to intercede with the Vizier 
in their behalf, promising him as a reward 
for his trouble a large sum of money. Thomas, 
however, ever watchful of the motions of his 
enemies, as soon as he perceived their machina- 
tions hastened to the Vizier at Adrianople, from 
whom he obtained a letter to Sinan Pacha 
forbidding the latter to listen to the party 
adverse to the patriarch, but to support him 
ia his throne with all his power. Thomas then 

VOL. II. c c 


returned to Constantinople, delivered theVizier's 
letter to Sinan Pacha, and haughtily took pos- 
session of the patriarchate. 
A. n ififi8. The guardians sadly mortified at the defeat of 
era uo?. all their projects, now endeavoured to stir up 
the whole of the Armenian people against 
Thomas, and going with a mob to Sinan Pacha 
accused the patriarch of being a Frank and a 
spy on the Turkish government. This was 
sworn to by several suborned for the purpose, 
and alarming the Pacha, he caused Thomas 
and Melton his deacon to be immediately ar- 
rested and put in the common criminal prison. 
Thus victorious, the patriarch's enemies issued 
an anathema against him, and procured a de- 
claration from the six churches of the see, that 
the Armenians would not accept Thomas as 
their spiritual head, and would resist him at the 
peril of their lives and properties. This paper 
was signed and sealed by Astwazatur the pa- 
triarch of Jerusalem, who had just arrived 
at Constantinople ; and the guardians forthwith 
went to Sinan Pacha and shewing it to him, 
declared that Thomas ought to be put to death. 
The Pacha, however, afraid of incurring the 
Vizier's anger, ventured not openly to murder the 
unfortunate patriarch, but to gratify his enemies 
he caused him to swallow poison, administered 
to him in a bowl of coffee, on the twenty-ninth 


day of his imprisonment. When the poison 
began to operate, the wretched Thomas perceived 
that his enemies had at length succeeded in 
destroying him, and without that consolation 
which springs from the recollection of a vir- 
tuous life, he met the approach of death with 
horror and dismay. In the agony of his soul 
he howled hideously, bitterly bewailing the 
factious spirit that had brought him to this 
miserable end, and at length became so out- 
rageous that the whole prison was shaken with 
the horrible cries he raised. An executioner 
was then sent to him, who soon put him out 
of all his pain both of body and mind. His 
enemies, on his death, indulged in the most 
indecent triumph. Having procured his body 
they spit upon it, trampled it under their feet, 
and .shewed many other signs of inveterate 
hatred of the deceased patriarch. By bribing 
the jailer, they effected that his body should be 
denied the rites of christian burial and thrown 
into the sea. The deacon Melton still remained 
in prison, and the guardians prevented his release, 
fearful that he would inform the Vizier of what 
had occurred. They also obtained a certificate 
from the criminal judge attested by several 
of the jailers that Thomas had died a natural 
death. As the guardians had been at consi- 
derable expense in pursuing the destruction of 

CO 2 


the patriarch, they demanded reimbursement 
from the six churches, at which many were- 
exasperated and became their enemies. Some 
short time after this, the Vizier returned to 
Constantinople, on which the priest Astwazatur 
surnamed Thulthul, with a few clergy men, called 
after him Thulthulians, from the church of St. 
Sarkies, went to the Vizier and informed him 
that twenty-four ambitious individuals having- 
leagued together, in defiance of the protection 
of his highness, had killed the patriarch Thomas, 
and now demanded from the Armenian churches 
the sums they had expended in effecting that 
black act. The Vizier, surprised at this infor- 
mation, strictly examined their proofs in sup- 
port of it, upon which being highly incensed, he 
ordered them to leave him, telling them that he 
would punish the guilty. He forthwith ordered 
Melton to be released. In the mean time eight 
of the twenty-four murderers, among whom 
was Ruhijan, ignorant of the accusation pre- 
ferred against them, went to the Vizier at a 
place in the city called Chekmechey. After 
th^y had presented their gifts and offered their 
respects, mention was made of the death of 
Thomas, upon which they framed a very plaus- 
ible tale, thinking to conceal their guilt. The 
Vizier still more irritated at their duplicity, 
ordered theto to be seized and put ia tli« 

HirrORY OT AHMfcNIA. 389 

criminal prison. They, however, escaped the 
fate they so richly merited, for, possessing 
powerful influence" with the Turkish nobility, 
they obtained their release on paying a fine 
of fifty bags of money. On their enlargement 
they assembled the heads of all the churches 
of the patriarchate, with the exception of that 
of St. Sarkies, which belonged to their enernie* 
the Thulthulians, and endeavoured to procure 
indemnity for the fine they had paid, as also 
for their other expenses. Considerable tumult 
arose on this, but the guilty guardians were 
at length paid a portion of their demands. 


The troubles of the Armenians on account of the 
convent of St. Jacob at Jerusalem. 

Some time before the occurrence of the events ^- ^- ^^5*- 


detailed in the last chapter, the Greeks forcibly er*ii04. 
took from the Armenians residmg at Jerusalem 
the convent of Father Abraham, which had in 
former times belonged to the Ethiopians. Ast- 
wazatur, the patriarch of Jerusalem, for the 
purpose of recovering it went to Constantinople, 
and applied fur assistance, in the furtherance Qi 

c c 3 


hi8 object, to the Armenian nobles in that city. 
They treated him with neglect, and he at length 
applied to the monk Eleazar of Anthap, pro- 
mising, if he would aid him to procure what 
he sought, to make him his deputy, and 
constitute him his successor in the patriarchate. 
Eleazar agreeing to this, both of them went 
to Ruhijan of Van, from whom, after a little 
trouble, they received an order for the restora- 
tion, of the convent and of the temple dedicated 
to the birth of our Saviour. 
A. D. 1656. Astwazatur then appointed Eleazar his de- 
traiios. puty, and sent him with the order of Ruhijan 
to Jerusalem. On Eleazar's arrival in that city 
he obtained the restoration of the places which 
had been the object of the patriarch's pursuit, 
and took up his residence in the convent of 
St. Jacob. In the course of examining the 
accounts and records of this convent, which at' 
that time was very poor, he found a scrap of 
paper on which was a curious memorandum 
written by Gregory of Mock, alluding to a vast 
number of yellow and white candles in the 
stores of the place. Surprised at the quantity, 
Eleazar went to the place where they were said 
to be deposited, and to his infinite surprise 
and pleasure discovered two large vessels, one 
containing 100,000 gold deniers, the other 
100,000 silver deniers! He immediately emptied 


the vessels of their precious contents, and filled 
them with white and yellow candles; the money 
he concealed. 
The Greeks exasperated at being obliged to a. d. i656 


give up the conventof Father Abraham, appealed era 1105. 
to the Vizier, and making him valuable presents 
obtained orders from him to take possession 
of it again. The patriarch Astwazatur, ex- 
tremely grieved at this result of all his pains, 
returned to Jerusalem to consult with Eleazar, 
after appointing Ruhijan his agent at Con- 
stantinople. The Greeks in the mean time 
exulting at the success of their application to 
the Vizier, went a step farther, and begged 
that the convent of St. Jacob might be given 
them. This was also granted, and orders issued 
for them to be put in possession of it. As the 
Greeks entertained a violent dislike to Eleazar 
they accused him of certain crimes, and obtained 
an order to seize him wherever he might be found 
and send him as a criminal to Constantinople. 
When the Vizier's officers with the fores:oins: 
orders reached Jerusalem, Eleazar went to the 
governor Hasan Pacha, whose father Hosain Pa- 
cha of the city of Gaza, and many of the Turkish 
chiefs residing there, were his particular friends, 
and by his interposition for a while kept off the 
execution of the directions for the arrest 
of his person and the seizure of the convent 


of St. Jacob. Eleazar then repaired toTheyaf 
Oghlu the great governor of Damascus, and 
begged assistance from him, but the latter, who 
had received favours from the Greeks, instantly 
seized and confined him in prison. He procured 
his release shortly afterwards by presenting 
Theyar with a few bags of silver, and he pro- 
mised to give him more, if he would exert 
himself in favour of the Armenians. The go- 
vernor of Damascus on this gave him some 
hopes of his assistance, but ordered him im- 
mediately to bring him the keys of the convent 
of St. Jacob, which was accordingly done, 
and seals placed on the doors. Then, by the 
importunities of Eleazar, and more through the 
promises of large sums of money which the 
latter made him, the governor wrote to the 
Vizier, and proved the monk guiltless of the 
charges made against him by the Greeks. He 
also stated that it would be a very unjust thing 
to give the convent of St. Jacob to the Greeks, 
as it had always been in the possession of the 
Armenians. The Vizier, however, replied, ** what 
I have given, I never can think of taking again 1" 
Notwithstanding all this, Theyar Oghlu sent 
Eleazar to Jerusalem, and permitted the Ar- 
menians to resume possession of St. Jacob's, 
although in a secret manner. The Vizier was 
nevertheless soon informed of this, and becoming 


angry with Eleazar sought to take his head. 
Theyar Oghlu, however, protected him and 
kept him near his person. In the mean time 
the monk Martirus of Ghrim, at the persuasion 
of his friends, went to Constantinople, in the 
hope that with the influence of Thathar Khan, 
by whom he was beloved, he should be able 
to persuade the Vizier to permit the Armenians 
to remain in quiet possession of St. Jacob's. 
For this purpose he presented a petition to 
the Vizier, but the latter was inexorable. While 
these things were going forward, the Greeks 
applied to Theyar Oghlu for his interest in their 
cause, and by gratifying his avarice with a 
large sum of money, obtained from him the 
keys of St. Jacob's. They then triumphantly 
went to Jerusalem in the days of Pentecost, and 
drove the Armenians from the city, plundering 
their churches and dwelling houses of all they 
contained, and compelling them to take up 
their residence in the district of Boshie. Their 
animosity was so great that they would not 
even suffer the Armenians to enter the city 
by the great gate, but opened two others which 
were exclusively applied for their use. This 
persecution lasted for two years, at the ex- 
piration of which the affair of the patriarch 
Thomas occurred, which we have before 



A. D.ifir.8. Eleazar still continued to live under the nro- 
era J 107. tcction of Thcyar Oghlu, who about this lime, 
with some other chiefs, had rebelled from the 
Grand Signior. Theyar Oghlu had throughout 
promised Eleazar that he would restore St. 
Jacobs to the Armenians, but the monk at 
this period began to despair of ever seeing 
the hopes of it realized, and determined to 
withdraw secretly from that chief. While 
he was in this situation, his enemies the Thul- 
thulians represented to the Vizier that he was 
leagued with the enemies of the governor, and 
at that time living in the camp of the rebels, 
which much increased that monarch's rage 
against him. Eleazar several times through 
his Armenian friends at Constantinople, endea- 
voured in petitions to the Vizier to prove his 
innocence of all crimes against the state, but 
the latter continually irritated by the Thul- 
thulians paid no regard to his representations, 
and continued his endeavours to get him into 

A. D. 1659. his power, designing to punish him. On the 
era 1108. defeat and dispersion of the rebels by the Turks, 
Eleazar having obtained his liberty came towards 
Constantinople, and in a garden belonging to 
a foreign chief in the suburbs, he lay concealed 
three months, during the whole of which time 
he was supported and attended upon by the 
monk Martirus of Ghrim, who continued making 


influence with the Turkish nobility, both for 
his pardon, and to recover possession of St. 
Jacob's. The Thulthulians having discovered 
the retreat of Eleazar, informed the Vizier of 
it, who immediately caused him to be seized 
and brought before him. On his appearing, 
the Vizier addressed him thus, **0h! you are 
the deputy of the patriarch of Jerusalem! Tell 
me what has been done to you by Theyar 
Oghlu!" Eleazar replied, "My lord, he took 
from me every thing I possessed, and having 
given our convent of St. Jacob to others, 
treacherously detained me with him!" The 
Vizier rejoined, " Did you give the convent to 
him voluntarily, or did he wrest it from you?" 
Eleazar here fell into a dilemma, for he durst 
not say that it was given by the Vizier's order, as 
a knowledge of his resistance would have proved 
his disobedience. He, however, succeeded in 
extricating himself by saying, ** My lord, he 
was the chief of the land ; how could I resist 
him!" The Vizier then exclaimed in a rage, 
** May you and your land sink to the centre!" 
Eleazar observing the anger of the prince, hum- 
bly addressing him, said, ** Glorious prince, vent 
thy rage on me, and do not curse my nation. 
Do justice as beseems you, for the honour of 
the king and your own glory!" The Vizier, 
who suspected his sincerity, hereupon ordered 



him to the guard-room of the Janizaries and t6 
be laid in the stocks. Night was setting in and 
it was in the middle of winter, when Eleazar 
was removed from the presence of the Vizier, 
and taken to the guard-room. Hither the 
soldiers never permitted an Armenian to come, 
but on this occasion one of Eleazar's friends 
named Jeremiah Chelepey Kiomurchianz bribing 
the guards, obtained entrance to him. The 
unfortunate culprit was sitting on the ground 
near the fire when his friend entered, and 
the fear of death was so powerful on him 
that the very fetters on his limbs shook with 
the violence of- his agitation. On perceiving 
Jeremiah, he burst into a flood of tears, be- 
wailing aloud his hard fate. The former 
wept also, but endeavoured to encourage and 
console him. Eleazar remained iu this con- 
finement thirty-four days. During this time 
his friends were incessant in their applications 
to different Turkish grandees, praying them 
to intercede for him with the Vizier, and also 
to try to obtain from the latter the restoration 
of St. Jacob's. The Vizier, tormented with 
these applications, made over the quarrels of 
the Greeks and Armenians to another officer 
inferior to him, called Vizier Kiahiasih. He 
being already gained to favour the Greeks, 
rejected all the prayers and petitions of the 



Armenians. The friends of Eleazar together 
with the monk Martirus, then went to the 
place where he was confined, and on their 
expressing their sorrow at not being able to 
procure his liberation, he exclaimed, " think not 
of me, but bewail the loss of St. Jacob's ! En- 
deavour to get that restored, rather than seek 
my safety, for I am determined never to quit 
this until it be returned to our hands!" On 
their leaving him, he wrote to Martirus that if 
any one should attend to his safety rather than to 
the recovery of St. Jacob's he should be excom- 
municated. The friends of Eleazar, however, did 
not take notice of his enthusiasm, but continuing 
their applications, at last procured his release 
without fine, and then carried him to Galatia. 
The Thulthulians being thus disappointed in 
their persecution of Eleazar, began to spread 
many evil reports of his friends, but they met 
with no encoHragement out of their own con- 
gregation, the members of the otherfive churches 
rebuking them for their inveterate rancour. 
In this year, with the consent of Sultan Ma- 
homed the Fourth, the Vizier Kiopreulew Ma- 
homed Pacha appointed his son Ahmet governor 
of Carin. Shortly before the departure of Ahmet 
from Prusa, where he was with his father, the 
Sultan arrived at that place, and a great en- 
tertainment was given in his honour. Imme- 

398 HISTORY or Armenia, 

diately after this, Ahmet receiving great honours 
from the Sultan and Vizier, set out to take 
possession of his government. The monk Eleazar 
considering this would be a favourable time to 
try to obtain the restoration of St. Jacob's, went 
to the Vizier Kiahiasih, whom, after presenting 
a large sum, he begged to intercede with the 
Grand Vizier, that for the sake of the honours 
conferred on his son, he would make the Ar- 
menians happy by restoring tliem the convent 
which had been the cause of so much con- 
tention between them and the Greeks. The 
Grand Vizier was at length prevailed upon to 
lend a favourable ear to their entreaties, and 
acquainting the Sultan with the nature of their 
suit, he obtained a royal order for the resto- 
ration of the convent of St. Jacob to the Ar- 
menians. This occurred near the time of 
Khachveraz, the ceremony of raising the cross, 
A.D. 1659, H.E. 1108. Eleazar having received 
the orders of the Sultan and Vizier returned 
rejoicing to Jerusalem, and received St. Jacob's 
from the hands of the Greeks. 



The patriarchates of Martinis, Lazar, Johannes 

and Sarkies. 

From the period of the murder of the pa- J|;J^^i^^^- 
triarch Thomas, up to this time, the guardians eraiioa. 
of whom we before spoke, held possession of the 
church at Constantinople. Many were the con- 
tentions and disorders occasioned by this novel 
species of spiritual government, until disaffec- 
tion taking possession of the minds of all, clergy 
and laity, an application was made to the 
Vizier to relieve them from the tyranny of the 
guardians. At the request of all, this prince 
appointed the monk Martirus of Ghrim, patri- 
arch, withouthishavingbeen consecrated bishop, 
and the latter succeeded in diminishing the 
heavy annual tribute of the patriarchate, which 
had been raised by the last incumbent Thomas 
to the enormous sum of 400,000 deniers. It now 
fell to 140,000. In the patent authorizing Mar- 
tirus to hold the office of patriarch, the govern- 
ment of the churchesat Jerusalem was specified. 
The late f^uurdians, on their giving place to 
Martirus, laid claim to the remainder of the 
debts which they had incurred, amounting to 


14,000 deniers, with interest. This created 
much disturbance, which lasted five months, 
when the patriarch having held a meeting 
on the subject, decided that the debts and 
interest should be paid by the six churches 
of the see, each 6,000 deniers. Three of 
the churches immediately paid the specified 
sums, but those of St. Nicholas, St. Sarkies, 
and Archangel joining together, sent a letter 
of complaint by the hands of one Murat to the 
Sultan Mahomed at Adrianople, wherein they 
prayed him to relieve the Armenians front 
the payment of the fine imposed on the mur- 
derers of Thomas. The Sultan in answer di- 
rected that those only who were the cause 
of his death should pay the fine. A letter 
to this effect being brought by the royal courier 
to Constantinople, accompanied by Murat, Mar- 
tirus was informed of it, but took no notice. 
On the Sunday following, Murat, with the party 
to which he was attached, accompanied also- 
by the royal courier, a clerk, and a few 
troops, proceeded to the church of the Arch- 
angels, where Martirus the patriarch was per- 
forming divine service. At the commencement 
of the sacrifice of the altar, when the first 
words, '* salute ye each other" were uttered, 
Murat desired all the congregatiou to remain 
fteated to hear the order of the kiAf . Tk» 


clerk then standing at the southern door of 
the church, holding a paper in his hand, 
exclaimed, " This is the order of the king. 
Hearken, all!" He was proceeding to read, 
when Martinis called out from the choir, '* It is 
not lawful to read in this place any orders 
of the government!" All the congregation then 
rose, and went into the patriarchal palace to 
hear the orders read there. The royal courier 
and clerk, however, enraged at the interruption 
they had experienced, caused Martirus, with six 
of the principal Armenians, to be seized by 
the troops and conveyed to the Vizier's deputy, 
who put them in the criminal prison as opposers 
of the king's orders. They were afterwards 
fined 14,000 deniers and then released. The 
Armenian nobles observing the confusion, con- 
tention, and mischief that these debts had occa- 
sioned, unitedtheir contributions and paid them. 
About this period arrived in Constantinople an 
individual named Lazar, a native of Sebastia, 
and bishop of Tivrik. 

He had been formerly on terms of the a. d. lefio. 
most mtimate friend«^hip with the patriarch era 1109. 
Martinis, but at this time, through the re- 
presentations of the Thiilthulians, was his 
determined enemy. Martirus having occasion to 
go to Prusa, his enemy Lazar, assisted by his 
congregation of Tivrik, taking advantage of his 

VOL. ir. d d 


absence, endeavoured to seize upon the patriarchal 
throne. His principal supporter in his ambitious 
designs was Ibrahim, a distinguished officer of 
the Turkish government at Tivrik. By his 
means he dispensed bribes to the amount of 
twenty bags of money to the different Turkish 
influential officers, and at length obtained th© 
object of his desire, being appointed to su- 
persede Martirus in the patriarchate. The latter 
subsequently went to Etchmiatchin, and was 
consecrated by the pontiff Jacob, bishop of 
Ghrim, but on his proceeding to take possession 
of his diocese the people treated him with neglect, 
regarding him as a stranger and an interloper. 
A. D. 166.^. About this period a nuncio, named Johannes 
era 1112. Arevelzie, surnamed Thewthewnchie or snuff- 
monger, in consequence of the severe re- 
prehensions he uttered against snuff-takers, 
was sent from Etchmiatchin to Constantinople. 
After having received the presents usually given 
to nuncios he began to make use of the money 
in intriguing for the patriarchate, visiting and 
making gifts to those whose influence would 
be of service. Having obtained the counte- 
nance of the priest Astwazatur Thulthul, he 
went to the Vizier, and making him immense 
presents, obtained his permission to take pos- 
session of the patriarchate. He then assumed 
the office of patriarch, and on experiencing some 


opposition from Lazar, by the assistance of 
the Thulthulians he obtained an order from 
government to seize and confine him, which 
was immediately done. Jacob the pontiff liaving- 
heard of these events, dispatched another nun- 
cio, Minas bishop oi' Galatia, to Constantinople, 
to protest against the elevation of Johannes 
to the patriarchate. Minas, however, shortly 
after his arrival, permitted himself to be se- 
duced from his duty, and joined the party 
of Johannes. The Armenian laity in the city, 
on becoming aware of the defection of Minas, 
refused to acknowledge him as the pontiff's nun- 
cio, and consequently withheld the customary 

On this, Minas appealed to the Thulthulians, 
and by their means obtained a written order 
from the deputy Vizier, directing the Armenian 
community in the city to give him the usual 
donations as nuncio, and threatening them, 
in case of refusal, with the vengeance 
of the Turkish government. This still more 
exasperated the Armenians, but not choosing 
to incur the wrath of the deputy Vizier, they 
mads a collection for Minas. This, which 
did not, however, amount to more than one 
bag of money, was expended by him and 
the Thulthulians in procuring the protection of 
the Turkisti ofhcers of government. Johannes 

d d'2 


the patriarch, now finding that the hearts of 
all his church were estranged from him, and 
that they furnished him with the greatest re- 
luctance, with money for the wants of himself 
and adherents, began to raise funds by the 
most unjustifiable means. He laid heavy fines 
on his priests for the most trifiing offences, 
and endeavoured by every low expedient to 
detect faults amongst the laity in their modes 
of living, to give him an opportunity of extorting 
money from them. About this period the monk 
Sarkies of Thekirtagh, a disciple Cf Astwazatur 
the patriarch of Jerusalem, was sent to 
Ghrim as nuncio, to collect money for the 
assistance of his master's church. From some 
unaccountable causes Sarkies on his return to 
Jerusalem was unable to produce the amount 
of the sums he had collected at Ghrim. To 
extricate himself from this state of embarrass- 
ment, he borrowed from usurers ten bags of 
money at very exorbitant interest, and by 
that means accounted to his church for the 
money he had received. 

Shortly after, being pressed for payment by his 
creditors, he went to Constantinopleexpectingto 
find friends there who would assist him to dis- 
charge his debts. In this hope he was disappointed, 
and his creditors becoming angry at the delay, 
arrested and confined him in the same prison 


where lay Lazar, the ejected patriarch. Here 
they received mutual solace from the society 
of each other, and joined their interests to 
endeavour to release themselves from their 
disagreeable abode. 

Lazar, by the exertions of his friends, lirst ad. i6fi4. 
obtained his enlargement, but Sarkies remained era 1113. 
in prison a whole year, at the expiration of 
which, he succeeded in raising a large sum of 
money from foreign usurers, at a still higher 
interest than what he had agreed to pay before, 
thus addmg load upon load. He then paid 
off his old debts, and forthwith set out, ac- 
companied by his new creditors, to Adrianople, 
where the deputy Vizier then resided. Having 
presented this officer with gifts of immense 
value, he obtained an order from him to assume 
the patriarchal dignity. He then returned to 
Constantinople, and deposed Johannes Thew- 
thewnchie from tlie patriarchal chair, seating 
himself in his place. All the adherents of the 
former patriarch were banished, together with 
him, and the church began to wear a more 
tranquil aspect. Yet Sarkies was dreadfully 
tormented in mind respecting the debts he had 
contracted, and sought by every means to ease 
himself of the burden of them. In the mean a.o. i665. 


time .Johannes the last patriarch was devising ciaiiu- 
means to reestablish himself m his lost dignity. 



At the instigation of the Thulthulians he went 
to Belurghat where the Grand Vizier then lived, 
and throwing himself on his protection, be- 
sought luin to restore him to the patriarchate. 
The Armenians at Belurghat did all they could 
to frustrate his designs, but Johannes still 
continued his solicitations. The Vizier some 
short time after this returned to Adrianople, 
and was accompanied thither by Johannes. 
When Sarkies heard of the arrival of his rival 
with the Vizier at Adrianople, he immediately 
proceeded to that city, in order to baffle the 
other's intrigues. 

Here much contention took place, which 
ended in the reappointment of Johannes, who 
had with the assistance of his old adherents 
the Thulthulians, gained the Vizier's favour by 
a large bribe, and obtaining from this officer 
a new letter patent, he returned in triumph 
to Constantinople, to the infinite sorrow of 
Sarkies and the majority of the Armenian 




The attempt of the monk Ekazar of Arithap to 
establish a pvntijicate in Jerusalein. 

On the arrival of the monk Eleazar of Anthap 
at Jerusalem, and his observing the state of 
the spiritual affairs of the Armenians in that 
quarter, he formed a design of establishing 
himself there as an independent pontiff. With 
this view he built a church, giving it the name 
of Etchmiatchin, and succeeded in persuading 
the monk Catchatur, pontiff of Sis, to assist 
him in his ambitious designs, promising him 
that he would at no future period interfere 
with the government of the church of Sis. 
Having thus procured support, Eleazar pro- a.d. if^rs. 


ceeded to Constantinople, and obtaining an inter- frnlii2. 
view witii the viceroy Kioprewlew Oghlu Ahmet 
Pacha, who was at that time preparing to take 
the field against the Hungarians, besought his 
patronage, at the same tmie presenting him 
with valuable gifts. From the notorious cu- 
pidity of the Ottoman ministers, the result of 
this interview may be easily guessed. Eleazar 
was nominated to the see of Jerusalem, and 


it was declared in the letter patent given 
him at the time, that he was to hold it as 
an independent pontiff. Having succeeded thus 
far, Eleazar went to Aleppo, without letting 
any one know the cause or result of his visit 
to Constantinople. When at length the Ar- 
menians in this latter city heard of what had 
been done by Eleazar, they were much cha- 
grined, and immediately dispatched Jere- 
miah Chelepey to Aleppo, to endeavour to 
prevail upon hun to relinquish his ill 
acquired dignity. Eleazar, however, was deaf 
to every thing except the suggestions of his 
ambition, and Chelepey finding his remon- 
strances were vainly expressed, wrote to Con- 
stantinople to be recalled. 
A. 0.1(564. Whilst Eleazar and Chelepey M^ere engaged 
.;ra Ti 1 !" in prosccutiou of their several objects, Catcha- 
tur the pontiti' of Sis arrived at Aleppo, being 
invited thither by Eleazar, and on his being 
shewn the letter patent which contained the 
nomination of the latter to the see of Jeru- 
salem, he solemnly consecrated him pontiff, 
expediting immediately afterwards letters to 
all the Armenians situated under the Tur- 
kish government, informing them of what 
had taken place. Eleazar then proceeded to 
Jerusalem and assumed the pontifical office. 
Some short time after this, Astwazatur, the 


ejected patriarch, found means to induce Emir- 
hach Pacha, the governor of Jerusalem, to 
espouse his cause, and assisted by the power 
of the latter he drove the new pontiff out of 
the city. Eleazar then proceeded to Damascus, 
and from thence to Aleppo, Antioch, and into 
Eo"vpt, endeavouring to ingratiate himself with 
the Turkish chiefs, that he might be reinstated 
in his dionitv. 

On the consecration of Eleazar becoming 
known to the Armenians at Constantinople, 
it produced a strong feeling there, from which 
arose several very disagreeable contentions. 
These, however, subsided on the interposition 
of Jacob the pontiff, who exhorted them to 
desist from all dissensions, which would only 
tend to the destruction of the church of their 
Blessed Illuminator. 

Just at this period the monk Martirus, who 
resided in Ghrim, set out for Constantinople 
to protest against the elevation of Eleazar. 
Wherever he came he laid the heaviest ac- 
cusations against the latter, and hearing that 
he was at Aleppo, wrote him a letter full 
of reproaches for his criminal ambition. This 
letter he dispatched from Eudocia, and then 
set forward to Etchmiatchin, where he found 
the monk Johannes of Mughn, who had once 
held the patriarchate, but had lost it principally 


through the intrigues of Martirus. Here, how- 
ever, they met as friends, the former freely 
foroivinsf the latter for the ill that had been 
done him. Both of them viewing Eleazar with 
tiie same enmity, they went together to the 
pontiti' Jacob's palace, and used every argu- 
ment they could devise to induce the latter 
to accompany them to Constantinople, for the 
purpose of endeavouring to annul the late 
elevation of Eleazar to the see of Jerusalem. 
Jacob, persuaded to adopt their views, con- 
sented to visit Constantinople, but advised 
them to go first, and he would shortly after 

On the arrival of Martirus at Constantinople, 
instead of ingratiating himself with the Turkish 
grandees, he joined the party of the Thulthulians, 
which together with another factious association 
called Jahukians, immediately accused Eleazar 
of malpractices, and contended that he had. 
no authority to administer any of the church 
sacraments. Lazar of Sebastia, a former pa- 
triarch, lately released from prison, joined the 
enemies of Eleazar, in the hope of obtaining 
the vacant chair if the latter were deposed. 

Before any determination had been made 
respecting Eleazar, a letter arrived from Ast- 
wazatur, the proper patriarch of Jerusalem, 
to Martirus, in which the latter was entreated 


to do his utmost to confirm him in his see, 
for which purpose he had sent him 20,000 
deniers. This soon produced a decision, and 
the money having been properly applied, Ast- 
vvazatur was reconfirmed in his patriarchate 
by special letters obtained from the Turkish 
government. Martirus, however, did not neglect 
his own interest in this transaction, but procured 
himselt to be mentioned in the letters patent, 
and nominated as the successor of Astwazatur 
at the death of the latter. In the mean time 
the pontiff Jacob had dispatched letters to 
all the Armenians residing under the Turkish 
government, exhorting them to do their utmost 
to prevent the restoration of Eleazar. The 
people following his advice, in all parts solicited 
the governors of the cities wherein they resided 
to refuse assistance to Eleazar, and in some 
places they actually obtained warrants for his 
apprehension, in the event of his being dis- 

These things reaching the ears of Elea- a.d. i665. 


zar, he disguised himself as a merchant, eraiiu. 
and arriving at Joppa joined an Egyptian 
caravan about to leave that place, in which 
■were a number of Armenian pilgrims, one of 
whom was Jeremiah Chelepey. With these 
he travelled to the city of Hama near Aleppo, 
where he narrowly escaped bemg taken by 


his enemies. Some information had been con- 
veyed to the latter of his being there, and 
they obtained an order from the authorities 
of the place for his apprehension. Fortunately 
however, for Eleazar, he received some inti- 
mation of his dang^er, and precipitately leav- 
iu^^ the caravan by night fled to Antioch, 
w^hence he shortly after proceeded to the city 
of Peylan. Here he remained some time, until 
hearing that his friend Abro Chelepey, an Ar- 
menian of great consideration amongst his own 
countrymen, and of powerful interest with the 
Vizier, was at Adrianople, he wrote to him, 
and received an invitation to repair immediately 
to that city. This he lost no time in doing, 
and on his arrival he was joined by many 
of his friends from different quarters, from 
Constantinople, Thekirtagh, Sec. consisting 
of both laity and clersfy. A council was 
held in the house of Abro, respecting the 
measures it would be most proper to adopt in 
order to reinstate Eleazar in his patriarchate, 
Abro, a man of the greatest shrewdness and 
caution, advised their not immediately pro- 
ceeding to oppose Martirus and his adherents. 
*' Let them," says he, ** exhaust their coffers 
in bribes to continue them in their ill acquired 
power, and then will we, by a very little present, 
induce the Vizier to retract all he has promised 

I1I8T0KT 0¥ ARMENIA. 413 

them!" This was agreed to, and Abro being 
high in favour with the Vizier, and having access 
to him when he chose, lost no opportunity 
to influence him to his own designs. He first 
informed him of the arrival of Eleazar at 
Adrianople, and then mentioned the circum- 
stance of his being the person upon 
whom he had first conferred the patriarchal 
dignity, and lliat his enemies sought to ruin 
him. To these remarks the Vizier replied 
that he was perfectly aware of the whole of 
the circumstances of the case, and that things 
would soon resume their proper order. When 
Martuus heard of the arrival of Eleazar at 
i\drianople he hastened to that city accom- 
panied by a number of Thulthulians, Tivrikians 
and Jahukians, besides two individuals, Mirza 
and Kliosrove, sent as representatives of the 
poniitical church of Etchmiatchin, determined 
to crush his adversary at one blow. Witli all 
this formidable party lie proceeded to the 
Viziers place, and accused Eleazar of crimes 
worthy of death. Eleazar was summoned to 
defend himself, and the Turkish chief justice, 
Ghashesker, with several other officers, were 
called to assist the Vizier in the examination 
of the case. All being present, Martirus ap- 
proached the tribunal, and declared that Eleazar 
had fraudulently obtained 200 bags of silver 


from Astwazatur the patriarch of Jerusalem, 
which he had expended in thwarting the 
orders of the Vizier; and furthermore, that 
he had robbed the convent to which he be- 
longed of certain articles of plate. " These 
thmgs," said Martirus, "I know to be true, 
for I was residing with Astwazatur at the time 
of their occurrence!" The Vizier then asked 
Martirus what kind of money was in the ba^s 
which had been given to Eleazar by Astwazatur. 
Martirus replied that they were all silver 
deniers, bearing- the stamp of a lion. Upon 
this the Vizier exclaimed, "why! there are 
not so many pieces of this description of money 
in my treasury!"' Eleazar was then asked what 
he had to say in his defence. He replied 
that he defied his accusers to prove that he had 
misspent a single denier of all the money 
that had been entrusted to him by the patriarch 
of Jerusalem. He then brought forward wit- 
hesses to shew the manner in which the money 
had been laid out, who cleared him entirely 
from every kind of crime in the disposal of it. 
The Vizier on observing this became highly 
incensed against Martirus's party, and after 
severely rebuking them for their malevolence 
drove them from his presence. On their 
leaving the Vizier they began to abuse their 
leader for leading them into the belie that 


their appearing against Eleazar would be suffi- 
cient to crush him, and humiliated by the 
defeat of their hopes, returned to Constan- 


The ratijication of Eleazar s pojitificate in Jeru- 

0\ the departure of his enemies from Adri- a. n. icas. 
anople, Eleazar obtained from the Vizier the traiii4. 
confirmation of his pontificate in a new letter 
patent, and promised at the same time to pay 
the Turkish government the annual sum of 
1500 pieces of money. He then proceeded to 
Prusa bv the way of Thekirtagh. Notwith- 
standmg the apparent strength that Eleazar had 
gained by his late struggle with the Thulthulians, 
the latter were by no means inclined to leave 
him in peaceable enjoyment of their defeat. 

On learning that he had set out from Adria- 
nople to take possession of his pontificate, they 
went t(j the deputy Vizier in Constantinople, 
and chargiiiij: crimes of the greatest turpitude 
upon Eleazar, obtained, by means of a large 
bribe, an order for his immediate arrest. Fur- 
nished with this, a party of Thultliulians accora- 


panied by a body of Turkish troops, went to 
Prusa, and surrounding the house in which 
Eleazar resided they broke in and seized him. 
Before, however, they had time to make off 
with their prisoner, the governor of the city 
was apprized of what had happened, and assem- 
bling his guards marched and rescued him. 
Foiled in their enterprize the Thulthulians re- 
turned to Constantinople taking with them two 
of Eleazar's disciples, Onophrius and Sarkies, 
who had fallen into their hands at the capture 
of the pontiff's house, and who had not been 
rescued by some inadvertence, on the redemp- 
tion of their master by the governor's guards. 
Onophrius and Sarkies on their arrival at Con- 
stantinople w^ere much pressed by the Thul- 
thulians to join them in their machinations 
against Eleazar, and on their refusal they were 
taken before the deputy Vizier and charged 
with being participators in the crimes of which 
Eleazar had been accused. They furthermore 
added that Onophrius and Sarkies had become 
bound for a large sum of money borrowed of 
them, the Thulthulians, by Eleazar, and prayed 
that as the latter had withdrawn himself, the 
bondsmen should be forced to pay the debt. 
The deputy demanded witnesses to prove the 
truth of these assertions, and on their not 
being able to produce them, Onophrius and 


Sarkies were enlarged, and the accusers driven 
with Ignominy from his presence. In the mean 
time, Eleazar alarmed for the safety of his two 
disciples, determined to go to Constantinople, 
and brave the utmost malice of his enemies. 
Previously, however, to his arrival there, the 
young men had been set at liberty, so that 
he had only to device the best means of 
inorratiatino^ himself with the Armenian com- 
munity m that capital. For this purpose he 
wrote to the deputy vizier and clearing himself 
from the aspersions that had been thrown on 
him by the Thulthulians, he obtained free liberty 
to act as he chose during his stay at Con- 
stantinople. He then proceeded to the church 
of the Illuminator in the city, and every evening 
preached before a numerous assembly of Ar- 
menians, who flocked thither in crowds to hear 
him. The people were so much pleased with 
his manners that presents were offered by almost 
every individual. Johannes Thewthewnchie, 
the patriarch, displeased at these signs of popular 
favour, complained to the government against 
him, and Eleazar, to avoid persecution, left his 
residence in the church of the Illuminator, and 
took up his abode with Abro, of whom we have 
given some account, where he remained in 
safety five or six months. 

While these things were going forward, Jacob HJr„l'''"'" 

prA H 1 J. 

VOL. II. e e 


the pontiff, in j)rosecuting a journey to Con- 
stantinople, was met at Smyrna by a messenger 
from Astwazatur the patriarch of Jerusalem, and 
Martirus the monk, who besought him to hasten 
to Jerusalem to consult with them respecting 
the best means of keeping Eleazar from the 
pontificate. Jacob hereupon repaired to that 
city, where he received the first tidings of the 
success of Eleazar in his contest with the Thul- 
thulians before the Vizier. Martirus advised 
the pontiflf te suspend Eleazar from his eccle- 
siastical duties, "in which case," said he, "we 
can still prevent his taking possession of the see 
of Jerusalem!" Jacob having consented to this, 
Martirus drew out the necessary document, and 
having procured it to be signed by him, proceeded 
to Constantinople to acquaint the people with the 
pontifis act. On his arrival, Abro sent Je- 
remiah Chelepey to him, beseeching him to 
desist from what he was doing, and to join 
in peace with Eleazar, since their disagreement 
only tended to set one part of the Armenian 
community in arms against the other. Martirus 
declared that there could be no peace between 
them until the Turkish officers had decided 
upon the complaint which he was to lay against 
Eleazar. Chelepey hereupon exclaimed, 'what 
have the Turks to do with our church regu- 
lations! Why are they applied to in cases of 


disfHite respecting ecclesiastical affairs? How- 
blind are you, not to perceive that in giving 
them a part in our church discussious, we only 
furnish them with a pretext to plunder us 
of our property!" Martirus, however, would 
not desist, but forthwith laid the document 
disqualifying Eleazar from the performance of 
clerical duties before the Vizier. The latter 
then sending for Eleazar enquired into the par- 
ticulars of the affair as it then stood, and dis- 
cerning the operation of malice through the 
veil of religious zeal, he sharply reprimanded 
Martirus, and dismissed him, telling him at 
the same time that the appointment of Eleazar 
to the patriarchate of Jerusalem, coming from 
the Turkish government, was irrevocable. 
Martirus's partizans in the east, however, still 
incited him to continue in his endeavours to 
ruin Eleazar, offering him the patriarchate of 
Jerusalem in the room of Astwazatur, who 
they said, was now too old to perform the 
duties of his office. Martirus shortly after this 
again preferred charges against Eleazar to the 
same Vizier who had recently judged between 

Eleazar was consequently again called upon 
to defend himself His friend, of whom we 
have lately said so much, on this occasion 
solicited and obtained an interview with the 

ee 2 


Vizier, to whom he fully unfolded the malice 
of the enemies of Eleazar. The day before 
that on which the opposite parties were to 
meet before the Vizier, the Thulthulians were 
so much elated at the prospect they had of 
finally ruining Eleazar, that they publicly de- 
clared that nothing but his blood would satisfy 
them. The adherents of Eleazar replied by 
saymg, that if his life were sacrificed to their 
inveterate hostility, they would inter his body 
with the honours of a martyr, and afterwards 
canonize him. Happily the Vizier possessed too 
much discernment and probity to become the 
agent of a malicious band armed to destroy an 
innocent man. 

On Eleazar being arraigned before him, Mar- 
tirus failed in substantiating his accusations, 
and the Vizier was so highly incensed at the 
malice which he displayed, that he exclaimed, 
"I am surprised that there is such villainy 
in existence!" To counteract any other schemes 
that might be adopted to injure Eleazar, the 
Vizier ordered that he should be immediately 
decorated, before his accusers, with the badges 
of an Armenian pontiff", and publicly proclaimed 
patriarch of Jerusalem. This was done to the 
great confusion of the Thulthulians and other 
adherents of Martirus, who were derided by 
all who were then in the Vizier's court. 


Shortly after this event the appointment 
of Eleazar to the patriarchate was confirmed 
by the Grand Signior. and special letters patent 
were issued on the occasion. Eleazar then re- 
paired to Constantinople, where he went through 
the ceremony required of all on their elevation 
to the pontificate, and consecrated several bi- 
shops immediately afterward. From this city 
he dispatched circulars to all the Armenian 
nation, informing them of his having assumed 
the dignity of a pontiff. He also wrote to 
the clergy at Jerusalem directing them to pay 
every attention to Jacob the pontiff, should he 
have come to that city on a pilgrimage; but 
if any other affairs had brought him thither 
to expel him from the place immediately. On the 
arrival of this letter at Jerusalem the pontiff 
Jacob set out from that city on his way to 
Constantinople, but before he had finished his 
journey, Eleazar, who was informed of his 
approach, embarked with 250 pilgrims and 
proceeded to Palestine, where he took posses- 
sion of his appointment without the smallest 

e c 3 



The 'pontiff Jacob's visit to Cotistatitinople, afid 
disputes amongst the patriarchs. 

A. n 1^67. On the arrival of Jacob the pontiff at Con- 
era 1116. staiitiiiople, he was met by a deputation of 
the most considerable Armenians in the city, 
with every token of respect and honour due 
to the head of their church. Jacob had not 
been long there before his condescending man- 
ners and gentle behaviour won him a number 
of friends. Indeed, many of the adherents of 
Eleazar, captivated with Jacob's deportment, 
forsook the cause of the former and became 
zealous partizans of the pontiff. Jacob shortly 
after, by the advice of his new friends, and 
assisted by them with money, went to Ad- 
rianople and petitioned the Grand Signior to 
revoke the appointment of Eleazar. Thirty 
bags of money were distributed amongst the 
Turkish officers on this occasion, and produced 
such an alteration of their sentiments towards 
Eleazar that letters patent were immediately 
expedited confirming Jacob as pontiff of all 
the Armenians, and placing at his disposal the 
patriarchate of Jerusalem, which was imme- 



diately afterward conferred by him on Mart-rus. 
In the mean time, Eleazar, not dreaming of 
the dreadful reverse he was about to experience, 
was engaged in the improvement of the church 
property at Jerusalem. He consecrated oint- 
ment, and caused it to be gratuitously distributed 
to all those of his nation th^t were willing to 
receive it. The convent of Joppa was also 
put under repair, and many other things were 
undertaken calculated to improve the city. In a.d. u.(kS. 
the midst of these labours Eleazar was surprised "* i^'^- 
bv the arrival of Martirus, who under the au- 
thority of the Turkish monarch drove him from 
his church, and assumed the patriarchal au- 
thority. Eleazar took refuge at Remla, where 
he was kindly received by all the inhabitants. 
The clergy of St. Jacob's were not, however, 
satisfied with the change of their patriarch, 
much less with the harsh measures immediately 
after adopted by Martirus. As the old Ast- 
wazatur was still alive, these persons pre- 
sented a petition to the government for his 
restoration to his rights, which by means of 
well timed presents, always effectual in these 
cases with the Turkish men in power, was 
granted, and Martirus appointed his deputy. 

This was but a small humiliation compared a.d. i67o. 
to what Martirus suffered on the death ot Ast- •r«iii«j. 
wazatur. This event took place in the year 1G70, 


and no sooner was it publickly known than 
Eleazar hastened to Constantinople, and ob- 
tained from the Vizier fresh letters patent 
reappointing him to the vacant patriarchate of 
Jerusalem. Humbled and mortified at this 
sudden and unexpected success of his rival, 
Martirus quitted his post and refiaired to Con- 
stantinople, and Eleazar reentered the ])atriarchal 
palace without the least opposition. 

A. D. 1667. Whilst these changes were in operation, Jacob 
praiiifi. the pontiff was exerting himself in behalf of 
Sarkies of Thekirtagh, a deposed patriarch of 
Constantinople, to replace him in his former 
dignity. Jacob was the more ardent in this pur- 
suit, as the patriarch then in authority, Johannes 
Thewthewnchie, had acted in a manner highly 
reprehensible. By the pontiff s influence Thew- 
thewnchie was deposed, and Sarkies nominated 
his successor. Immediately after this had been 
effected, Jacob returned to Etchmiatchin. 

A. D. 1670. iij this year Sarkies patriarch of Constan- 

Haican *^ '■ 

era 1119. tinoplc died, and was succeeded in his office 
by the monk Stephen of Meghr, who was 
chosen by the unanimous consent of the Ar- 
menians residing in that city. Martirus the old 
adversary of Eleazar, made some attempts to 
be elected, but his unquiet disposition was 
so well known, that he found few to assist him 
in his design. Stephen was originally a mem- 


ber of the religious community of Etchmiatchin, 
and was well known in his time as a prudent 
and very learned man. Arackiel, one of our 
historians, makes honourable mention of his 
literary talents, stating him to be the author 
of a description of a great fire which happened 
in Constantinople during his patriarchate. He 
died after presiding over the affairs of the church 
in that city four years, during the whole of 
which time the Armenians residing there tasted 
the delights of peace and tranquillity, after 
the violent storms that had before shaken them. 
Stephen was succeeded by the monk Johannes 
of Amassia, surnamed Thopal or the lame. 

Johannes did not hold his dignity long, HaJ^^il^^^' 
for a priest named Andrew, a Thulthulian, "* ^'24. 
succeeded in supplanting him by means of false 
accusations and the judicious application of 
bribes in the proper quarters. Andrew it 
appears was not very popular, his congregation 
having given him the appellation of ladder 
of hell. 

In this year Gara Mustapha Pacha was ap- a. n. i676. 

• . 1 -IT- • 1 r tr- 1 Haican 

pointed Vizier in the room of Kioprewlew era 1125. 
Oghlu Ahmet Pacha, who was recently dead. 
On this event taking place, Martirus began 
to be more active in his enmity against Eleazar, 
and having accused the latter of various mal- 
practices, and of having built in Jerusalem many 


churches and other public edifices without ap- 
plying for leave to the governor, he so much 
prejudiced the new Vizier against the patriarch, 
that he obtained an order to proceed to that 
city and take upon himself the government of 
the Armenian church there. Martirus hereupon 
issued a circular to all the Armenian churches 
acquainting them with his appointment. His 
letter to Eleazar was in the highest degree 
haughty and arrogant. " Behold," said he, " I 
come armed with the power of the Grand 
Signior to level all your newly built churches 
at Jerusalem to the ground, and to supersede 
you in the office of patriarch!" His conduct 
at Constantinople was not less unbecoming; for 
immediately after his appointment he insisted 
that the Armenian community in that city 
should forthwith subscribe among themselves 
toward relieving him from the burthen of the 
debts of his newly obtained patriarchate. 

When Eleazar was informed of all that hap- 
pened respecting Martirus, he lost no time in 
endeavouring to ward off the danger which threa- 
tened him. Being on terms of friendship with 
the governors of Jerusalem and Damascus he 
solicited them, with some other Turkish officers 
well inclined towards him, to intercede with 
the Vizier in his behalf, and to endeavour to 
get the appointment of Martirus revoked. While 


his friends were engaged in forwarding his 
interests with the Vizier, the latter at the 
instigation of Martirus had sent men to Jeru- 
salem to demolish the churches which had 
been recently built there by him. Eleazar, 
however, by means of bribes prevented the 
execution of the Vizier's commands, so that 
scarcely any injury was sustained either by 
his church or congregation. Martirus on be- 
coming acquainted with the powerful influence 
his adversary's friends had with the Vizier, 
began to tremble for the existence of his dignity. 
He, however, was determined to profit by it 
as much as he could, and therefore taking 
up his residence in the church of the Mother 
of God, he began to preach and make collections 
of money from his congregations, under the 
title of patriarch of Jerusalem. Andrew the 
patriarch of Constantinople observing this, en- 
deavoured to prevent the assembling of the 
people to Martirus; but the latter by means 
of bribes soon overpowered him, and suc- 
ceeded in depriving him of the patriarchate. 
His successor was a creature of Martirus's, 
one Carapiet, or ashe iscommonly called Curpo, 
a priest and a native of Cesarea, who was 
totally unfit for the office, being a weak, imbecile 
character. Jeremiah Chelcpey wrote to Mart rus 
on this occasion, and ceubured him for having 


been the means of advancing^ Curpo, whom 
he designated as a useless person. This letter 
was afterward shewn to Curpo, and from that 
period both he and Martirus did all they could 
to injure the writer. 

A. n if.r;. Andrew, the ejected patriarch of Constantino- 
tra 1126. pie, about this time found means to conciliate the 
favour of the Vizier, from whom he obtained the 
appointmentof patriarch of Jerusalem, which had 
been some time before given to Martirus. He then 
went to the church of the Mother of God and ex- 
pelled Martirus. laughing him to scorn. Short, 
however, was his triumph, for the latter imme- 
diately after his downfall collected, by means of 
friends, an immense sum of money, and present- 
ing it to the Vizier he was restored to his office. 
He had not held it a year before another indi- 
vidual, one Johan surnamed Thopal, supplanted 
him by ministering to the insatiable avarice 

A. D. 1679. of the Vizier. In this year Curpo lost his 
era iii's" patriarchate by the intrigues of a person named 
Sarkies, a baker, who succeeded him, after 
passing through the requisite grades of deacon, 
priest, 8ic. On the pontiff Jacob's becoming 
acquainted with the rapid and extraordinary- 
changes that had taken place in the patriarchate 
of Constantinople and Jerusalem, regardless 
of the infirmities of his body from his very 
advanced age, he determined to visit the former 


city, to endeavour to produce tranquillity among 
those of his nation residing there. He accordingly 
left Etchmiatchin and arrived at Constantinople 
A. D. 1679, H. E. 1128. He had previously 
written to Eleazar to meet him at that city, 
but the latter, fearing for his personal safety 
declmed coming, alleging that his duties would 
not permit him to leave Jerusalem. 

The indefatigable JNlartirus obtained in this a d. i680. 

~ Haican 

year a reappointment to the patriarchate of era 1129. 
Jerusalem, and found means to cause his crea- 
ture Curpo to be reinstated in that of Con- 
stantinople. On this occasion Jeremiah Chelepey 
persuaded the pontiff Jacob to send Martirus 
to Jerusalem, and command him to be reconciled 
with Eleazar. Martirus was sent to that city, 
and on his arrival there met with a very kind 
reception from his old enemy. 

A few days after, some individuals presented 
themselves fur consecration as bishops to Ele- 
azar, whom they regarded as their sovereign 
pontiff, and were told by him that if they 
could obtain the recommendation of iMartirus, 
he would readily grant their desire. They then 
applied to the latter, who without hesitation 
solicited Eleazar on their behalf. They were 
accordingly consecrated, and a grand entertain- 
ment given on the occasion, at which all the 
Armenian community in Jerusalem were present. 


Here Eleazar took tlie opportunity in a speech 
which lie had framed for the purpose, to notice 
the inconsistent behaviour of his hitherto most 
implacable foe, Martirus, in refusing to ac- 
knowledge him a pontiff, and yet recommending 
people to him to be consecrated bishops! He 
also particularly addressed himself to Martirus, 
and bade him notice the danger he was in; 
observing that if he, Eleazar, had the malicious 
disposition of Martirus, the present would be an 
excellent opportunity to do him an injury. He 
desired him, however, not to fear, as he forgave 
him freely on account of the love he bore the 
pontiff Jacob, yet recommended him to beware 
acting as malevolently as he had done before. 
Martirus surprised and stupified by this unex- 
pected attack, remained silent. 
A. D. 1680. In this year died Jacob the pontiff, at the 

Haican r • t i • i i i i 

eraii2y. agc ot cighty-two ycars, having held the su- 
preme ecclesiastical dignity twenty-five years. 
He was buried at Pera, or as it is sometimes 
called Peyoghlu. The day before his decease 
Jacob caused his confession of faith to be 
written, in which he expressed the most perfect 
submission to the see of Rome. 

Eleazar, after the entertainment we before 
noticed, consented to accompany Martirus to 
Constantinople, but they had not made many 
days journey toward that city before they heard 



of Jacob's decease, which induced the former 
to return to Jerusalem, and to assume the 
supreme religious authority over all the Arme- 
nians situate in the Turkish dominions. This 
was henceforward exercised by him with a 
severity which was little expected from the hi- 
therto mild and tolerant spirit he had exhibited. 


The pontifcate ofEleazar u/Anthap in Etchmiatch in . 

The pontifical chair at Etchmiatchin remained ^J^-Jf^^- 
vacant two years, when the clergy of that era 112a. 
church, tired of living without a head, to which 
all w^ould consent to bend, determined to elect 
Eleazar their pontiff. For this purpose they 
went to the chief of Erevan, and presenting 
him with gifts of great value obtained his consent 
to their reception of Eleazar at Etchmiatchin. 
Messengers were then dispatched to Jerusalem 
to inform him of his election to the pontificate, 
and to invite him to take possession of it wit-liout 
delay. Eleazar then proceeded to Constantinople ad. 1682. 
and obtained letters patent constituting him eraiiai. 
head of the Armenian church. His first act 
after this was to consecrate the patriarch of that 
city Carapiet or Curpo, a bishop, and to confirm 
him in his office. He then setout for Etchmiatchin, 



and on his arrival adopted such measures for 
the government of the clergy of that church 
as gave satisfaction to all. He repaired the 
steeple of St. Gayana, and constructed several 
churches in the desert of Zoragel. 

A.DifiR.T Martirus of Ghrim, of whose quarrels with 
era 1132. Eleazar we have lately said so much, arrived 
in Constantinople a few days after the latter 
had left it. By means of large sums of money 
which he presented to the several confidential 
people about the Vizier, he obtained the ap- 
pointment of patriarch of Jerusalem. 

This turbulent character, however, could never 
rest in peace, for shortly after taking possession 
of his patriarchate he had a violent dispute 
with the Greek patriarch, which was brought 
before the governor at Adrianople. Here the 
litigants were obliged to raise money by every 
means ihey could devise, to satisfy the rapacity 
of those whose interest they sought, yet without 
succeedinij in obtainino' a decision. This dis- 
pute was not settled before the death of Martirus, 
which happened in Egypt, whither he had gone 
on a visitation. 

A. D. ifi84. In this year Eleazar sent a Nuncio to Con- 

era 1133. stautinoplc, charged with the office of makmg 

collections amongst the Armenians there for 

the benefit of the church of Etchmiatchin. 

This man name was Ephraim Gha- 


panzie, a monk and a native of Seunies, un his 
arrival, began to intrigue for the patriarchate, 
and employing the money he collected to 
further his designs, he succeeded in supplanting 
Curpo, who was driven from his church about 
a year after the former left Etchmiatchin. 
Ephraim's patriarchate was, however, a very a. f). 1686. 
brief one, for twenty months after he had taken "* ^'•^"*'- 
possession of it, he was displaced through the 
machinations of a priest named Thorose, who 
then became patriarch. A year after, Thorose 
was deposed, and a priest called Cachatur 
of Chil succeeded, who not long after was 
supplanted by Carapiet or Curpo. This 
man had been elected five times to the patri- 
archate, and the last time possessed it only 
a month. 

Secular substitutes then held the jrovernment ^ ^ '''^*' 
of the church of Constantinople ibr two years, «"»»i*i- 
when Matthew of Ccsarea, surnamed Sari, was 
appointed patriarch. Matthew quitted his office 
two years after, upon being appointed pontitf 
of Sis, although Astwazatur the riiiht pontiff 
was still alive. On the retirement of Matthew, 
Ephraim again obtained the patriarchate, and 
ke|)t possession of it three years. 

While the clergy were contending for the a n ics;. 

, . . . Iliiiciin 

dignities of the ciiurcii, the people were quar- cmius. 
relimg with each other upon the dificrent articles 

VOL. 11. ff 


of their faith, and it generally happened that 
those who knew least about them were the 
most violent. All this was occasioned by the 
writincrs of a monk called Sarkies of Eudocia, 
who some time afterward abjured Christianity, 
but returned to it before his death. 

News of these disturbances having reached 
Eleazar, he determined to send missionaries 
amongst the troubled Armenian inhabitants 
of Constantinople, to exhort them to union and 
A.D. 1691. brotherly love. While employed in this laud- 
Tuo! able design he suddenly fell sick, and died 
after a pontificate of nine years. Jeremiah 
Chelepey died four years after at the age of 
sixty years, leaving a number of valuable literary 
pieces behind him. 



The pontificate of Nahapiet, and the acts of the 
monk Ephraim. 

A.D. 1691. Ox the death of Eleazar, Nahapiet of Edessa 

craU4o! or Urha, a disciple of the former, was appointed 

to fill the pontifical chair. Nahapiet was a man of 

a meek disposition, and of the most exemplary 


\irtue. It is to him that we owe the erection of 
the beautiful church of Shoghakath, and many- 
improvements in the state of the church of Etch- 
rniatchin. He also did every thing he could to 
restore union among his countrymen, giving them 
an excellent example in himself of every christian 
virtue. Having: heard that many things dis- ad. i695. 

° . Haican 

paraging to the Armenian faith had been men- «r»ii44. 
tioned by interested malignant persons to Pope 
Innocent the Twelfth, who then sat in the papal 
chair, Nahapiet wrote to him, and professing 
the utmost submission to the head of the Roman 
Catholic church, entreated that nothing against 
the Armenian persuasion might be believed, ex- 
cept it were founded on incontrovertible proofs. 
Shortly after, Nahapiet was expelled the pon- a. d. i695. 

. Haican 

tificate, and banished from Etchmiatchm, by era 1144. 
the intrigues of Stephen bishop of Julpha. 
This individual, by means of large bribes, in- 
fluenced the chiefs residing about Etchmiatchin 
to depose Naliapiet and elect him in his room, 
without consulting the four churches as it had 
been formerly enacted. His jx)ntificate was of 
very short duration, for he displayed sucli an in- 
tolerant dis|)osition, that at the end of ten months 
from the deposition of Naliapiet, he was seized 
by the clergy and placed in confinement, where 
he died. Ho is not reckoned in the list of 
|)ontiffs, as he was acknowledged only by the 



church of Etchmiatchin. After his expulsion 
IVahapiet was restored to his former office and 
A.D. ifi97. In this year Pope Innocent the Twelfth replied 
era ii4(.. to the letter of Nahapiet, respecting the slanders 
promulgated against the Armenians at Rome, 
assuring him of his high consideration, and 
exhorting him not to pay attention to what 
might be related to him discreditable to the 
Roman Catholic faith. This letter was brought 
to Etchmiatchin by tiie monk Catchatur of 
Carin, who had also received for the Armenian 
pontiff' a chair of state, with some other presents. 
On receiving these marks of the Pope's regard 
Nahapiet wrote to Rome, expressing the most 
perfect submission to the papal power. 
A- ^^^_^^^^^ Ephraim the patriarch of Constantinople, on 
era 1147 bccoming acquainted with the correspondence 
that had taken place between the Pope and 
Nahapiet, was inflamed with anger against the 
latter, deeming the independence of the Ar- 
menian church destroyed by his submission. 
Ephraim was shortly after deposed and ba- 
nished, and the patriarchate given to Melchizedek 
surnamed Suphi. Eight months after his induc- 
tion, Melchizedek obtained the recal of Ephraim, 
and appointed him bishop of Adrianople. The 
Armenians of Constantinople being disaffected 
to the jurisdiction of Melchizedek, rose in a 


body against him, and obtained his deposition 
in the fifteenth month of his patriarchate. A 
monlc called Mukhithar, a native of the coun- 
try of Kurdistan, was then elected patriarch, 
and by the mildness of his disposition succeeded 
in tranquillizing the unquiet spirit that had 
for a long time before disturbed the Armenian 
community in Constantinople. 

Shortly after this event a monk of Sebastia a o. i?oo. 
named Mukhithar, a godly character, and sur- er« 1149. 
named for his piety Abba (father) came to 
Constantinople, and obtained the patriarch's per- 
mission to preach in the church of the Holy 
Illuminator. His memoirs, which are still extant, 
bear ample testimony to the purity of his life, 
and the great good which the Armenians de- 
rived from his labours. The deposed patriarch 
Melchizedek, unpopular as he was, succeeded 
by the distribution of large bribes, in procuring 
his restoration and the expulsion of the patri- 
arch Mukhithar. 

About this period some priests residing at 
Adrianople having publicly commended the 
measures that had been pursued by Nahapict 
since his elevation to the pontifical chair, Ephraini 
the bishop, a sworn enemy of the pontitf, was 
so incensed ai;ainst them that he degraded them 
from their priestly office, and sent them to 
Melchizedek, with a request tlmt lie would ex- 



communicate them. Melchizedok accordinc^ly 
pronounced an anathema ap^ainst them, but was 
induced by tlicir ati'cctin^ representations to 
revoke it shortly after, and to promise that he 
would intercede for them with Ephraim. As 
the patriarch had intentions of visiting Adri- 
anople, he desired the priests beforementioned 
to return to that city and await his arrival. 
These unfortunate men accordinp,ly returned, 
but no sooner did Ephraim discover that they 
were in the city, than he caused them to be 
seized and brought before the Vizier, to whom he 
stated that the culprits were engaged in a trea- 
sonable intercourse with the Franks and other 
enemies of the state. The Vizier implicitly re- 
lying on the truth of this statement, ordered the 
priests, at the suggestion of Ephraim, to be taken 
to the gallies at Constantinople and chained 
to the oar. Not long after this display of vio- 
lence Meichizedek arrived, and on his becoming 
acquainted with its circumstance he remon- 
strated in the strongest language wnth Ephraim 
ns to the impropriety of the act, and urged 
him bv everv emphatical persuasion to hasten 
and procure the release of the innocent objects 
of his vengeance. This only served to irritate 
Ephraim the more. Forming a conspiracy with 
the leading men of the Armenian community 
at Adrianople, he together with them, preferred 


charges of the basest description against the 
patriarch; and so well did he know the way 
to conciliate the Viziers favour, thatMelchizedek 
was degraded from the patriarchate and sent 
to join the priests at the gallies. Ephraim was 
then reappointed patriarch, but not choosing to 
expose himself to the indignation of the Ar- 
menians at Constantinople, he sent thither a 
deputy and remained himself at Adrianople. 

When news of the deposition of Melchizedek 
reached Constantinople, all the Armenians there 
were struck with consternation, and forming 
themselves into assemblies began to deliberate 
upon the plan they ought to adopt. Here again 
much contention took place, for many priests 
having arrived in the city from the country, 
created factions by the different views they took 
of the conduct of Ephraim and Melchizedek. 
Many peaceably disposed persons disgusted 
at the fury and intolerance which each party 
exhibited, discontinued going to the Armenian 
places of public worship, and embraced the 
Latin or Greek persuasion. 

In this state of religious tumult and vexation, 
the patriarch Ephraim instead of tranquillizing 
men's minds, sharpened their enmity against each 
other by the injudicious measures he adopted. 
Being a decided enemy to the Greeks and Latins, 
and consequently hostile to tlic articles of the 


council of Clmlccdon, he i.^siied directions to 
iiis (Icniitv nt ( 't'lisianiinople, as also to all 
ihc clcri:y liv;!i^ uiuK-r ihe TiMki>h jurisdiction, 
to seize and iiiipnson all whoin they suspected 
to l»e well inciineil lo that council. In order 
to c.iriy this into execution without delay or 
dcuiui-, Eplirai.n obtained orders of a similar 
11, lure to his own from the Grand Signior 
and the great Mufti. \vho is the head of the 
Mahometan religion in Turkey. Fanaticism, 
it is said, never gains so many proselytes as 
when under persecution. This was exemplified 
in the case of the Chalcedonians, as they were 
termed, for although many were tortured and 
hundreds fined, yet they increased so rapidly 
as to strike fear even into the bosom of Ephraim 
surrounded as he was by Turkish Janizaries. 
Numbers of the persecuted Armenians emi- 
grated from Turkey about this period and settled 
themselves in ditfcrent partsof Asia and Europe. 
Durinq: those troubles Matthew, surnamed Sari, 
the pontitf (-f Sis, was driven from ^is chair, 
which was seized by a monk named Peter a 
n.itive of Aleppo, who immediately after this 
act of usurpation visited Constantinople. 

Whilst the Armenians in the Turkish do- 
minions were thus divided bv the mischievous 
measures of their unworthy patriarch, Mukhi- 
thar of Sebastia, of whom we before spoke. 


was incessant in his labours to bring them to 
a Slate of peace and union. His praisevvorihy 
efforts were, unfortunately for the sake of hu- 
manity, unavailing, and he had the mortification 
to find that he had created enemies on all 
sides from the temperate behaviour which he 
evinced, embracing no particular party. Ephraim 
endeavoured by a false accusation against him 
to the Vizier to draw upon him the same 
fate as befel the late patriarch, but Mukhithar 
warned of his danger retired for a time from the 
scene of his labours to avoid th^ persecutioa 
aj:aiDst him. 


The acts nf the monk Avidkk. 

It wan in this year that Avietick bishop of \.d.i7oi. 

Ezunkali, a man of ^reat j.iety and learning, «*noa. 

distinguished himself as a public lecturer in 
Constantinople. By hisiuftuence with the Mufti, 
who was a native of Ezunkah, none of the 
emissaries of Ephraim ventured to molest him 
in his labours to restore union amon'j^st Ids 
countrymen in that city. He proved so suc- 
cessful in his laudable exertions, that all private 
peiseculiua of Doen oa account of difference 


of opinion in religious tenets ceased wherever 
he presented himself. 

After remaining in Constantinople some 
months, Avietick visited Adrianople, and per- 
ceiving the evils that were brought upon the 
Armenian church by the maladministration of 
Ephraim, he preferred a complaint against him 
to the Vizier, which being supported by his 
private friend the Mufti, the patriarch was 
degraded from his office, and the complainant 
Avietick elected in his room Ephraim took 
refuge in Etchmiatchin; his substitute at 
Constantinople shared his disgrace, being su- 
perseded by the monk Johannes of Amasia, 
a disciple of Avietick. The new patriarch, 
immediately after his elevation, wrote letters 
of love and peace to all the Armenian churches 
in Asia. Minas of Hamg, patriarch of Jerusalem, 
sent a congratulatory address to Avietick, and 
informed him that four monks of his diocese 
had fled from their convents. He thought it 
probable that they would visit Constantinople, 
and in that event, requested that they should be 
immediately placed in custody. The four in- 
dividuals alluded to actually went to Con- 
stantinople in company with a large body of 
pilgrims which they met on their road, and 
during their journey thither had inveighed so 
much against their prelate Minas that they 


made him an object of hatred to all who heard 
them. On their arrival at the city they were 
made acquainted with the changes that had 
recently taken place in the patriarchate, when 
they forthwith repaired to Adrianople, and 
accused Minas of various crimes committed in 
the patriarchate of Jerusalem. Avietick it 
appears was in secret an enemy of Minas, and 
finding an opportunity by means of these men 
to injure him, he brought the whole of them 
to the palace of the Grand Signior, to whom 
he complained of the bad disposition of the 
patriarch of Jerusalem. He was referred to the 
Vizier, when, assisted by the interest of his old 
friend the Mufti, he approached that officer and 
preferred the complaint he had just before 
made to the Grand Signior. The Vizier on 
hearing the testimony of the four fugitive monks 
before mentioned, decreed the degradation of 
Minas, and appointed Avietick for the zeal he 
had shewn in the discovery and conviction of 
the criminal, patriarch both of Constantinople 
and Jerusalem. Minas immediately after this 
decree was arrested and thrown into prison, 
together with the bishop of Prusa, who had 
also fallen into disgrace with the p;overnment. 
These two ])relatcR were released in the course 
of a few months afterward, but not until they 
had paid a very heavy fine. On these occur- 


rences taking place, Avietick removed Johannes 
of Amasia from Constantinople to Jerusalem, 
appointing- in his room Johannes of Smyrna. 
A. n 1702. Avietick not long after this began to evince 

HsicHri _ 

eruiiii. a disposition corrupted by prosperity. Havmg 
proceeded with great pomp to Constantinople, 
he arrested a number of the heads of the Arme- 
nian community there, accusing them of having 
apostatized and become Roman Catholics. His 
motive for acting thus had its origin in avarice, 
as was proved by the result; for all those whose 
persons had been seized were released on their 
paying a large tine. By this means the 
patriarch collected at the expense of justice and 
human it)' immense treasures, and being pro- 
tected by the friendship of the Mufti, all the 
acts of outrage he committed were attended with 
the most perfect impunity. The three priests 
who had been condemned to the gallies, as we 
have related, procured their release about this 
time by paying a large fine. These unfortunate 
men being closely allied with the virtuous 
Mukhitar of Sebastia, as soon as they were 
enlaro^ed, visited him in the convent whither he 
had fled on the persecution created by the late 
patriarch. This being perceived -by Avietick, 
his anger was inflamed against tiiem, and com- 
plaining of them to the Vizier, he obtained an 
order to seize them, with Mukhithar, and send 



the whole to the gallies. They had, however, 
received timely intimation of the patriarch's 
intentions, and all took refuge in the Latin 
Monastery of Cauuchin Friars at Pera. Avietick 
then endeavoured to conciliate Hyacinthus the 
abbot of this convent, to induce him to deliver 
up the objects of his enmity, promising him 
to do all in his power to effect a union between 
the Latin and Armenian churches. But as this 
could not be done without much expense, the 
patriarch demanded assistance in money from 
the abbot, as also the delivery of Mukhithar 
and the three Armenian priests, whose labours 
he stated to be absolutely indispensable for 
effecting this great work. Hyacinthus regarding 
the lanofuage of Avietick as sincere, did not 
hesitate a moment in accepting the conditions 
proposed, and immediately going to the French 
ambassador at the Turkish Court, he obtained 
from him a large sum of money, which he 
forthwith sent to tlie patriarch. The abbot 
then went to Mukhithar and the three priests, 
and acquainting them with what had taken 
place between him and Avietick, urged them 
strongly to go to the latter. At this moment 
the French interpreter arrived at the monastery 
with a letter from Avietick to Mukhithar, in 
which the latter was entreated with the most 
solemn aj»iura«ice of personal safttty to come out 


from his hiding place and join the patriarch. 
Mukhithar, however, well aware of the bad faith 
of Avietick, refused to quit the monastery at that 
time, and finding that a longer stay there would 
prove dangerous to him, took the earliest 
opportunity of escaping into Europe. His 
companions the three priests did not act so 
wisely, for confiding in the promises of the 
patriarch they gave themselves up to him to- 
gether with their families. They were then 
fettered and placed in a strongly guarded house 
for the purpose of being brought before the 
Vizier Daltapan Mustapha Pacha. 

The cruel intentions of the patriarch were, 

however, frustrated by the spirited conduct of 

the private friends of the prisoners, who having 

in vain solicited him to release them, proceeded 

to their prison by night, burst open the door 

and set them at liberty. In the afi'ray that 

attended this act, Avietick, who had attempted 

to defend the house, was assaulted and severely 

bruised by the friends of the prisoners. The 

latter lost no time in leaving the city, as they 

knew that the patriarch would complain to the 

Vizier at the dawn of day. 

Early in the morning, Avietick furious at the 
result of the night's contest, repaired to the 
Vizier's palace, where he recounted all that had 
taken place, and loudly demanded satisfaction 


for the personal injuries he had sustained from 
the friends of the three priests. 

The patriarch, however, was completely dis- 
appointed in the hopes he entertained of speedy- 
vengeance, when the Vizier after calmly hearing 
all he said, exclaimed in a transport of .rage, 
" and how dare you to state before me, the 
principal officer of justice belonging to the 
Turkish empire, that you keep prisons for 
criminals and shackles to torture them with! 
Who gave you the privilege of acting as an 
independent monarch?" Daltapan Mustapha 
Pacha then ordered him to be taken to the 
gaol where the felons were confined. Here he 
remained several days, until at the intercession 
of his friend the Mufti he was released on his 
paying nine bags of money. Avietick not at 
all deterred from his vindictive pursuits by this 
unexpected check, soon found means to con- 
ciliate the favour of the Vizier, through whom 
he obtained an order from the Turkish monarch 
to seize and send to the gallies the three priests, 
who had been the cause of his temporary dis- 
grace. Shortly after this he was directed to 
leave Adrianople and take up his residence in 
Constantinople, the better to watch over thd 
affairs of his church. 

Not long after this, several of the Armenian 
inhabitants of Constantinople proceeded to 


Adrianople and laid lieavy charges against 
Avieiick, winch had such an eft'tct upon the 
Vizier that he directed a courier to be imme- 
diately dispatched to the former city to bring 
the patriarch before his tribunal. On the arrival 
of the courier Avieticlc was struck with con- 
sternation, and in order lo prepare (or his defence 
bribed the messenger to remain a few days 
at Constantinople. This time was occupied 
in writing to his fiiend the Mufii, who advised 
him to come to Adrianople wiih.out delay, and 
to provide himself with certiticates from the Cadi 
of the capital to prove that he was behoved by his 
congregition, as also a testimony to that effect 
from the members of his church. Avietick then 
\vaited on the Cadi, but he refused to give him 
the required certificate unless he was directed to 
do so by the deputy Vizier. In order to obtain 
tliis officer's favour, he convened a meeting of 
tiie Armenian jiopulace in the church of the 
holv Mother ot God, and exhorted them to bear 
witness in his favour, before the deputy Vizier, 
declaring at the same time that those wl»o would 
refuse to do it, would infallibly forfeit the 
protection of the Blessed Illuminator. The fear 
of incurring this dreadlul penalty induced most 
of the congregation, headed by the bishop of 
Sis, named Michael Sari, to go to the palace 
of the deputy Vizier, and there to cry out 


that Avietick was their benefactor, and that he 
alone deserved to be their patriarch. This 
sudden assembling of a mob before the deputy 
Vizier's door, irritated him exceedingly, and in 
the first impulse of his anger he ordered Michael 
Sari and thirty of the most forward of the crowd 
to be seized and brought before him. On his 
becoming acquainted with the object of their 
visit he reproached the bishop and his thirty com- 
panions for coming in so unceremonious a man- 
ner, and directed all of them to be immediately 
bastinadoed, giving Sari thirty-one strokes and 
the others thirty each. The sight of this pu- 
nishment soon caused the mob to disperse; 
yet it had not a bad effect in Avietick's cause, 
as it apparently proved that he was worthy 
of the testimonials he sought. After Sari and 
his companions had received the punishment 
awarded them, they were released. Avietick 
having in this manner obtained the certi- 
ficates he required, proceeded to Adrianople, 
where, by the assistance of his friend the Mufti, 
he cleared himself from the charges that had 
been brought against him. During the absence 
of the patriarch from Constantinople liis sub- 
stitute Johannes of Smyrna acted in a very un- 
becoming manner, fining the Armenians without 
discrimination, declaring that they all had an ad. 1703. 
inclination to become Roman Catholics. This cr'a'iTU 

VOL. II. g g 



year much commotion arose in the capital of the 
empire, amongst the Turks, concerning the head 
of llieir religion, the Mufti, one party seeking to 
have him deposed, the other to su))port him in 
his office. Tliis obliged the Armenians to remain 
quiet, and the patriarch's substitute Johannes 
was induced by a fear of bringing the notice of 
the Turks upon himself, to desist from the acts of 
intolerance in which he had engaged. Shortly 
after this, Avietick returned to the capital, and 
becoming acquainted with the disturbances that 
had taken place, went on to Chrysopolis, ac- 
companied by Joseph bishop of Thekirtagh. No 
sooner did the party adverse to the Mufti hear of 
the patriarch's being at Chrysopolis, than they 
sent thither a party of soldiers by night, who 
surrounded the house in which he was, intending 
to take him prisoner in the morning. While 
things were in this condition, Avietick was ap- 
prized of his danger, but refused to flee, saying 
to those who urged him to do so, "how is it 
possible that I can relinquish the two patri- 
archates I possess! Know you not that I have 
cast lots with myself, and find that no harm 
will ultimately befal me!" 

In the morning Avietick was taken prisoner, 
fettered, brought to Constantinople, and thrown 
into the prison called the Seven Pyramids. The 
contest between the parties respecting the 


Mufti, ended in the destruction of the latter, 
who was murdered by his enemies, and 
Sultan Mustapha having shewn a partiality to 
him, was deposed from the throne. He was 
succeeded by Sultan Achmet the Third. 


The patriarchates of Galust and Nierses, and the 
several reappointments of Avietick. 

When public aftairs had reassumed an ap- hj^?;,!^*^^" 
pearance of order, after the late revolution in the ^'"^ ^'^2. 
state, the Sultan, on the representations of the 
principal Armenian inhabitants of Constanti- 
nople, directed that the monk Galust, surnanied 
Kayzakn (lightning), should be elevated to the 
patriarchate of that city, and that Minas should 
be restored to the patriarchate of Jerusalem. 

On tlie pleasure of the Sultan becoming 
known at Constantinople, a meeting of the 
Armenians was convened in the church of the 
Mother of God, where they were informed by 
the Vicar that the monk Galust was elected 
their patriarch. This information was re- 
ceived with difierent feelings by the assembly; 
many were ])leased, but the greater number 
being adherents of Avietick, loudly exclaimed 
against the injustice of superseding him. Not 


content with railing ag-ainst the appointment of 
Galust, they assaulted the innocent Vicar who 
announced it, and beat hiui in a most violent 
manner. On the news of this outrage reachinsr 
the Vizier, he ordered a search to be made for 
those who had so disgracefully disturbed the 
peace of the church, and having discovered 
fifteen of the ringleaders, sent them all to 
the gallies. As for A\ ietick, on whose account 
the disturbance took place, he directed him to 
be taken out of the prison of the Seven Pyramids 
and banished to the island of Avrath Atasih. 
To degrade him as much as possible in the 
eyes of the populace, the Vizier caused the 
expatriarch to be led to the ship, which was 
to conduct him to the place of his exile, with 
his hands bound behind his back and a halter 
round his neck. The friends of Avietick vainly 
endeavoured to procure his release, by pre- 
senting petitions to the Sultan and the Vizier, 
which the latter did not deign to look upon. 
Some time after this the Vizier lost his place, 
and was succeeded by Tamat Hasan Pacha, to 
whom the friends of Avietick again applied for 
his release, but without effect. Several of them 
becoming importunate, and in their attempts to 
serve the late patriarch caluminating Galust, 
they were sent by the Sultan to the gallies. 
Others, endeavouring to sow dissension amongst 



the Armenian inhabitants of Constantinople, 
were seized and brought before the Cadi, 
who sent them to the Vizier. Among.^^t these 
turbulent characters the monk Abraham par- 
ticularly distinguished himself by the violence 
of his disposition. The Vizier directed the 
whole of them to be bastinadoed, awarding 
Abraham 21 1 strokes, and the others a less num- 
ber. While receiving this punishment the Vizier 
warned them by the pain they then suffered 
to avoid for the future raising disturbances 
amongst their fellow citizens: '* many of you," 
said he, ** I perceive are clergymen, and as your 
duty is to study to keep your flocks in peace, 
doubly do you deserve the punishment you are 
now receiving, for having acted in a manner so 
contrary to your religious vows!" They were 
all shortly after released, and directed to be 
more peaceable in future. 

The adherents of Avietick having at length a d. i704. 
found that nothing was to be eltected m his era 1153. 
favour by violence, at the instigation of a monk 
named Nierses, a native oi Constantinople, de- 
termined to try the effect of bribes. For this 
purpose they collected a large sum of money 
and placed it at the disposal of Nierses, whom 
they thought to be a zealous partizan of the 
late patriarch. Nierses distributed it to the in- 
fluential officers about the Sultan and the Vizier, 



and in a short time obtained the deposition 
of Galust, after the latter had held the pa- 
triarchate with much credit to himself for the 
space of ten months. Galust was accused 
of being a traitor to the state, and condemned 
to the gallies. Nierses now shewed himself 
a master in the art of intrigue, for instead of 
procuring the release of Avietick, he solicited 
and obtained the patriarchate for himself. This 
treachery produced a dreadful disturbance 
amongst the Armenians ; the partizans of Avie- 
tick becoming furious at the cheat which had 
been put upon them, set no bounds to their vio- 
lence, but abused and insulted Nierses in every 
public place where he presented himself. 
A. D. 1705. The heads of the Armenian community fearing 

Haican . . 

era 1154. the Tcsult of the dreadful commotions which 
then prevailed amongst the people, determined 
to solicit the Vizier to recal Avietick from 
his place of exile, and place him again in the 
patriarchal chair, imagining that all dissensions 
would cease on his reappointment to his former 
dignity. They accordingly went to the Vizier, 
and having made known to him their desire, 
begged that he would not refuse them, as 
upon Avietick's return alone, they said, the 
peace of their church depended. The Vizier 
was disinclined to grant their request, saying 
that Avietick was so unquiet in his disposition 


that he could hope for no good results from 
his return; but overcome by their importunities 
he gave an order for his liberation and reap- 
pointment to the patriarchate. Avietick on his 
return fulfilled the prediction of the Vizier, for he 
dreadfully harassed his people; and renewing 
his old system of intrigue, he at length succeeded 
in obtaining again the patriarchate of Jerusalem; 
having by means of the vilest calumnies pro- 
cured the banishment of Minas to the island 
of Cyprus, where he died. After this he became 
more haughty and tyrannical than ever, fining 
every wealthy individual of his congregation, 
on the charge of an undue predilection 
for the Roman Catholic persuasion. His ar- 
rogance at length caused his downfall; for 
having presumed to levy a fine without cause 
upon an Armenian attached to the suite of 
the French ambassador, the latter complained 
of him to the government. At this juncture 
thirty of the most considerable amongst the 
Armenians preferred a complaint to the Vizier, 
charging Avietick with an abuse of power to 
an extraordinary extent. The Vizier upon 
these two complaints summoned the patriarch 
before iiim, and asking him iiow he durst presume 
to annoy the French ambassador by persecuting 
one of his suite, ordered him to be bastinadoed, 
then to be stripped of his patriarchal robes, 


and transported to the island of Tenedos. All 
this was done in a very summary way, and 
the unfortunate Avictick after remaining some 
time in Tenedos, went to Messina and thence 
to Marseilles in France. Shortly after he had 
taken up his residence in this last town, he 
assumed the habit of a Capuchin friar, and lived 
in a monastery of that order at Marseilles until 
his death; previous to which it is reported 
that he sincerely repented of being the cause 
of so many dissensions amongst his Armenian 

A. D. 1705. 


The pontificates of Alexander the First a7id Ast- 


Shortly after the banishment of Avietick 
i7|;4" the ])atriarch of Constantinople, Nahapiet the 
pontiff, died at Etchmiatchin, after presiding 
over the affairs of the Armenian church fourteen 
years. In consequence of the disturbed state 
of the people, the pontificate lay vacant for 
rather more than a year, when Alexander of 
Julpha was by general consent called to be 
A.D. 1707. head of the church. He was solemnly elected 
nse. pontiff at Etchmiatchin, and his first official 




act after this event was to address the Pope 
of Rome, in the name of the whole nation, 
to signify their entire obedience to his church. 
This circumstance is the more remarkable, as 
previous to his elevation to the pontifical dignity, 
Alexander had distinguished himself as a violent 
opposer of all concessions to the Pope; and 
had written a book expressly to prove the 
nullity of his power, and the absurdity of being 
bound by the council of Chalcedon. 

The patriarchal chair at Constantinople being 
vacant by the expulsion of Avietick, Matthew 
of Cesarea, surnamed Sari, was raised to it, 
principally through the influence of the French 
ambassador with the Porte. It appears, however, 
that the Armenians of that city were a very 
unstable body of men, for in rather more than 
a year after Avietick had quitted them, they 
had no fewer than five patriarchs. Matthew only 
remained in the chair two months, when he 
was deposed and the monk Martirus, surnamed 
Kylhanchie, placed in it. The latter held his 
dignity four months, when he was displaced, 
and a monk named Michael succeeded him. 
Michael in his turn, after ^^overning the church 
eight months, gave place to the monk Isaac, 
from the village of Ebuchekh, in the country 
of Akn. Shortly after this event Johannes ^•^- ''"'• 
of Smyrna, formerly the deputy of Avietick at '"nsfi. 



Constantinople, returned from Jerusalem, and 
having formed a party j)rincipally composed 
of the partizans of his master, he effected the 
deposition of Isaac and procured himself to be 
appointed in his room. Johannes was ill cal- 
culated to calm the disturbed passions of the 
people over whose spiritual affairs he was called 
to preside. A disciple of Avietick, he had 
imbibed from that monk a spirit of intolerance 
quite incompatible with the peculiar situation 
of the Armenian people, who having no distinct 
political position, were obliged to bend a little 
from the rigid observance of the tenets of their 
faith, if they would preserve their personal 
liberty. Immediately after his accession to the 
pontifical chair, he began in a violent manner 
to inveigh against the Roman Catholic per- 
suasion, and to remark personally on the conduct 
of those individuals of his congregation who, 
he suspected, were well inclined to that faith. 
The consequence of this injudicious commence- 
ment of his patriarchate, was the loss of a 
great part of his congregation, who to avoid 
insult, forbore going to the Armenian churches. 
Hence arose another cause of discord between 
the Roman Catholics and the Armenians, and 
they now began to regard each other with 
feelings of hatred and detestation. 

Many well disposed Armenians endeavoured. 


4 59 

but in vain, to banish all animosity between 
the two churches. The principal of these 
was Ter Comitas, one of the pastors of St. 
George's church, a younger brother of Jeremiah 
Chelepey, and son of Ter Martirus, a man 
of emment parts, but who, incurring the anger 
of the patriarch Johannes, was martyred by 
means of the latter, who could urge nothing 
more against him than that he openly professed 
a respect for the Roman Catholic persuasion. 
The example of this highly gifted and zealous 
christian was the cause of the apostacy of many 
from the Armenian church. 

Johannes at len£:th became so unpopular that a. d. i70S. 

^ t^ ' Haican 

complaints being continually carried to the Vi- era 1157. 
zier agamst him, that officer ordered him to 
be deposed and Isaac of Ebuchekh reinstated 
in the patriarchate. Issac for some time con- 
ducted his duties with the greatest credit to 
himself, and to the general satisfaction of the 
Armenian people, but after two or three years 
he began to tread in the path of his predecessor, 
persecuting with unrelenting vigour all whom 
he suspected to be well inclined to the Roman 
Catholic faith. So much was the Vizier annoyed 
by the incessant complaints of Isaac against the 
members of his church, that he at length ordered 
him never to appear before him with a com- 
plaint respecting the Roman Catholic religion. 


Isaac, however, had an extensivefield in which 
he could exercise his persecuting powers, in- 
dependent of ail others, for the inferior clergy 
of his church were absolutely dependent upon 
him for the offices they held. In the course 
of his persecutions he met a little resistance 
from the bishop of Thekirtagh, whom he deprived 
of his mitre. The bishop furious, immediately 
repaired to Constantmople, and formally made 
his grievance known to the Vizier, who upon 
findmg that Isaac had acted through caprice 
rather than judgment, ordered him to be de- 
graded from the patriarchate, and another 
elected in his place. 
A. D. 1714. So many changes in the office of patriarch 
«-aiifi3. in SO short a space of time, as had recently 
taken place, seemed to deprive the Armenian 
gentry of all hope of stability in their elections, 
and on the deposition of Isaac they appeared 
careless about exercising the right they had 
of appointing a successor. At this juncture 
a monk named Johannes, a native of Ganzak, 
a person of exemplary piety, presented himself 
as a candidate for the office of patriarch, and 
assembling a meeting of the Armenian gentry 
spoke with such eloquence and apparent zeal 
for the service of God that he was unanimously 
chosen to succeed Isaac. 

In the end, however, he proved little better 


than either of the three preceding patriarchs, 
for on his observing that those of the Armenians 
who favoured the Romish faith did not attend 
his churches, he began to issue excommu- 
nications against them ; this brought on a 
crisis ; and a number of the persecuted having 
assembled a meeting, ai^reed to elect a patriarch 
for themselves, and form an altogether new 
church. Their attempts at obtaining these ob- 
jects were, however, all fruitless; many perishing 
in the attempt by the hands of the executioner. 
In several towns dependent on the patriarchate 
of Constantinople similar attempts were made, 
all endinor jn the same manner as those at that 
city. News of these disagreeable things coming 
from time to time to the Pontiff Alexander, he 
was so grieved that he at length fell ill and died 
of n broken heart, in the eighth year of his 

Six months after the decease of Alexander, ad. 1715. 
the pontifical chair was filled by Astwazatur, er8ii64. 
a native of Hamadan or Ecbatana. Astwazatur 
considerably beautified the inside of the church 
of Etchmiatchin, by various paintiiiLjs on the 
walls, and decorating the altar with gilt orna- 



The payment of the debts of the see of Jerusalem 
Inf the cooperation of Johannes Colot and Gre- 
gory the inonli. 

Tkk convent of St. Jacob in Jerusalem was 
at this period in the greatest pecuniary embar- 
rassment ; its debts ainountin<j;' to the enormous 
sum of 800 bags of piasters. Tins was occa- 
sioned by the improvident conduct of the de- 
puties sent to Jerusalem while that patriarchate 
was possessed by the patriarch of Constanti- 
nople, who s([uandered away the treasure 
lying in the convent, and were obliged to borrow 
at high interest for its daily exigences. The 
creditors at length finding that little hope 
existed of their ever being paid, complained to 
the Turkish government, and obtained an order 
to seize the convent, and dispose of it and the 
lands with which it was endowed to the highest 
A. n. 1713. bidder. At the time news of this arrived at 

Haica.l 11 • 1 • 

eraii6J. Constantinople, there was m that city a monk 
named Johannes, a native of Balesh and of the 
monastery of St. Carapiet in Taron, who had 
lately arrived from Jerusalem, being deputed to 
apply for assistance toward liquidating the debts 



of St. Jacob's. This individual by the pathetic 
descriptions he gave of the distresses of the pa- 
triarchate of Jerusalem, so warmly interested the 
Armenian inhabitants of Constantinople in its 
behalf, that they sent him off to the former city, 
to endeavour to avert the evil with which St. 
Jacob's was threatened by the seizure of it by 
its creditors. On his arrival at Jerusalem 
Johannes compromised with the creditors of 
the convent, promising them to clear off its 
debts in four years by yearly instalments; he 
then returned to Constantinople, and shewing 
the people what he had done, strongly advised, 
as a preliminary measure of economizing, to 
appoint new patriarchs both of that city and of 
Jerusalem. The Armenians then offered to a. d. 1715. 

, , Haican 

elect him patriarch of Constantinople, but he eraiici. 
hesitated to accept it, fearing as he said to 
meet with the same fate as preceding patriarchs 
who had retained their dignity but for small 
portions of time, and then he should be worse 
than destitute, having the debts of St. Jacob's 
to liquidate. He was then assured that he 
should be kept firm in his dignity if he would 
undertake the government of their church. 
He at length consented, and Johannes of Gan- 
zak voluntarily relinquished his office. Johannes 
ot Balesh was forthwith consecrated patriarch 
of ConstauLiuojjlc, though he had cot passed 


through the intervening degree of bishop. The 
(lay after this ceremony was performed Gregory, 
abbot of the monastery of St. Carapiet, was 
appointed patriarch of Jerusalem. These two 
appointments were shortly after confirmed by 
letters patent from tiie Sultan. 
A. I). 1717. From this period thcse two worthy individuals 

H.«irari I -^ 

era 116';. Qctcd iu coHccrt towards reducinq: the debts of 
the church at Jerusalem, and their indefatigable 
exertions were at length crowned with the 
completion of their desires. Gregory was so 
zealous in this labour that he placed a heavy 
chani round his neck and vowed to wear it 
until the debts of St. Jacob's were liquidated, 
which he did for eight years. Hence he derived 
the name of Zingerli or the chain-bearer. It 
was customary with him on all festivals to 
stand in the porch of the church of the Holy 
Mother of God and exclaim, " Followers of 
Christ! Let pity touch your hearts! My man- 
sion is mortgaged, and I have not whereon to 
lay my head. My place is on the throne of 
St. Jacob ; but I am now surrounded by cre- 
ditors far from my home, and there is no one 
to deliver me from them. Help! Followers of 
Christ, Oh ! Help!" By this means he used to ob- 
tain large sums from the people who frequented 
that church, who were the more charitable from 
the extraordinary spectacle exhibited to them, 


in one of their most considerable clergymen living 
in all the rigours of the must painful captivity. 

While the tn'o patriarchs were thus engaged, HaC„^''^' 
a dreadful fire broke out in Constantinople, ^'^i'^^. 
commencing from that part of the city called 
Unghaban, and spreading as far as Chinar Tipi. 
It lasted thirty-four hours. Fifteen thousand 
people perished in the flames, and fifty thousand 
houses were destroyed. The church of the 
holy Mother of God was also burnt. This un- 
fortunate event plunged the two patriarchs into 
thedeepest distress ; foralmostall the money they 
had collected they were obliged to expend in 
rebuilding this church. They at length sur- 
mounted every obstacle, and the debts bemg 
paid, the patriarch Gregory proceeded to Je- 
rusalem where he zealously employed himself 
in improving the condition of his church. 

Johannes the patriarch of Constantinople, 
after the departure of Gregory, applied himself 
assiduously to promote the welfare of his people. 
The churches of St. Michael the Arcliangel 
in the city, and St. Gregory the Illiimmator, 
in CJhalada, being subsequently burnt to the 
ground, he rebuilt then with much taste and 
elegance. The former was finished A. D. 1730, 
and the latter A. 1). 1732. fic proved a 
generous patron of genius, and caused a school 
to be instituted in Skythar for the education 

VOL. II. h h 


of the children of the poor. Many valuable 
Latin works were translated by his order into 
A. n 1:20. Discord nt lenij^th reappeared amongst the 
ern u6'j. Armcniaus in Constantinople, causing the two 
parties of Romanists, and those who adhered 
stricllv to their own church, to persecute each 
other wiih the most implacable hatred. Johannes 
vainly eudea\oured to produce peace, offering to 
concede any thins: to the Roman Catholics if 
thev would only attend the Armenian church on 
the feast days. The Romanists, however, were 
immoveable in their resolution to absent them- 
selves entirely from the Armenian places of 
worship, upon which Johannes applied to the 
Turkish government for assistance to compel 
them to renounce their apostacy. This was pro- 
ductive of much bloodshed and expenditure of 
treasure on both sides. 


The exploits of David prince of the Seiuiies. 
A. D 1722. A BOLT this pcriod the powers who domineered 
errii"" over that part of Armenia called Arzakh, and the 
country of the Seunies, oppressed the original 
inhabitants in a most intolerable manner. Of all 
the Armenians who resided in these countries 
none felt so keenly the degradation and op- 


pression of his nation as David prince of the 
Seunies, a man of undaunted bravery and strong 
mental powers. Determined on makino; an effort 
to shake off the yoke which was then so galling, 
he secretly gathered troops, and attacking the 
oppressors, succeeded in expelling them from 
Arzakh and Seunies. He then built a fort 
in the village of Halizor in the country of 
the Seunies, and garrisoning it with a compe- 
tent number for its defence, confided it to one of 
his followers named Mukhithar, a man of courage 
and great military talent. From the time of 
his appearing in arms until he had driven the 
enemies out of his country, a j)eriod of four 
years elapsed, during which many severely con- 
tested battles were fought between them. 

In this year the enemies who had been a. n. 1726. 
expelled from Arzakh and Seunies, returned erHurs. 
thither in greater numbers than had been ever 
before seen, in consequence of which David 
was deserted by almost all his followers, 
being left 111 the fort of Halizor witii only 
Bcventeen men, one of whom was Mukhithar. 
Not at all daunted by this circumstance, lie 
prepared to contend with the enemy with as 
much resolution us he had shewn in the outset 
of his career Previously, however, to any battle 
taking place between the two parties, David 
was joined by a number of Armenians, wiio, 

h h 2 

4G8 HiSToav OF Armenia. 

like himself, detested living under the yoke 
of foreigners. His number in all amounted 
to 454 fighting men, among whom was Melick 
Pliarsadan a valiant chief, and Ter Avietick, who 
although a clergyman, had been obliged by 
the disturbed nature of the times to take up 
arms, in which it is said he excelled. The castle, 
besides these, held many of the wives and re- 
lations of the men, together with three bishops, 
thirteen priests, and about forty nuns. The 
number of the invaders amounted to 70,000 
men, many of whom were Armenians, who 
conceiving that resistance was fruitless had 
abandoned the cause of their country. These 
advanced and encamped near the river Hali- 
zor, intending to besiege the fortress in which 
David and his brave associates had placed them- 
selves. On the number of their enemies becoming 
known to the people within the fort, one hundred 
of them basely deserted to the enemy. This, 
however, did not much affect the remainder, 
who determmed to hold out while a man re- 
mained to defend the walls. The enemy crossed, 
surrounded the fort on all sides, and com- 
menced battering it with artillery. David, how- 
ever, defended it so well, that in the first six 
days the enemy lost 1,800 men, while there 
only fell eight of his party. The enemy per- 
ceivmg that it was not possible to make a 


breach in the walls, determined to attempt to 
scale them. For this purpose they prepared 
ladders of immense width, capable of holding 
several hundreds of men in a row, and assaulted 
the lort in three different places at once. They 
were bravely met by the besieged under the 
heroic David, and hundreds of them were 
precipitated from the walls, as they reached 
the top of the ladders. They were, however, 
so numerous, that as the foremost fell their 
places were immediately taken up by those 
who followed, and although thousands of them 
perished, yet their numbers appeared undimi- 
nished. David perceiving this, and fearful of 
the result, if they should continue to come 
on with the same resolution, directed Avietick 
and Mukhithar to take two hundred men and 
issue out of the fort and attack the besiegers 
in the rear. This order was immediately exe- 
cuted, and the enemy on finding themselves 
placed between two fires, quitted the assault 
and took to flight. David then with the re- 
mainder of his brave little garrison sallied out, 
and joining Avietick and Mukhithar went in 
pursuit of the fugitives. A horrible shiughtcr 
ensued, the enemy losing 13,000 men in their 
retreat, who were all killed by the pursuers. 
The whole of their camj) equipage, together 
with forty-eight standards, foil into the hands 
of the victors. 


Twenty-two thousand of the defeated army- 
took refuge in Mejihri. News of this beings 
brouglit to llalizor, David dispatched thither 
a small party, consisting of but sixty-six mea 
under the command of Avietick and Mukhithar, 
directing the leaders to act as circumstances 
should suggest On their approach to the 
city of Meghri, they disguised themselves, 
and entered it as if they were simple citi- 
zens. On looking around them, Avietick and 
Mukhithar discovered that the greatest disorder 
reigned amongst the remnant of the wing which 
had taken refuge here, and that it required 
only a little audacity to clear the city of the 
whole of them. Determined to signalize them- 
selves by a bold act, they assembled their 
men, and seeing them well provided with arms, 
directed them to rendezvous at a certain spot 
on the dawn of the next morning. The time 
being arrived, the two brave leaders at the head 
of their little band made a furious attack on the 
enemy, who being taken by surprize, and un- 
certain of the number of their assailants, by the 
dim light which prevailed at that early hour, 
made little resistance, most of them fleeing 
without striking a blow. All the fugitives aftef 
escaping without the walls of Meghri directed 
their course toward the river Arax. Mukhithar's 
party kept up the pursuit with the utmost 
ardour, killing the invaders of their land with 


the most unsptiiing revenge. There was a 
remarkably narrow defile leading to the river 
Arax, called Uzoum Pent, by which the 
wretched fugitives were obliged to pass. Hither 
the Armenians had gathered on the news of 
the expulsion and flight of the enemy from 
Meghri ; and as the latter entered the pass, they 
were cut down with all the eagerness of a foe 
smarting under the recollection of recent op- 
pression and bondage. Many of those who 
effected their way through the defile were 
drowned in the river: indeed this part of the 
enemy's army was almost annihilated. The 
spoil which the victors acquired after this affair 
was immense. Horses, camels, mules in great 
numbers, with a variety of all the weapons and 
ornaments as well of man as of beast, used 
in war, fell into their hands, and all was taken 
to David at Halizor. When the news of this 
brilliant affair was made known in the adjacent 
countries, a generiil rendezvous of the troops 
of the enemies of David and the Armenians 
was appointed to take place on a certain day, 
in the province of Golthen. Immense bodies of 
cavalry and infantry were hereupon marshalled, 
and the whole brought against the fortress of 
Halizor. In the mean time the y\rmenians 
residing in Seunies and Arzakh, struck with 
admiration at the skill and courage displayed 



by David in his late contest with the enemies 
of his country, flocked to Ilalizor to assist 
in its defence. Unfortunately dissensions broke 
out amongst the adherents of this valiant and 
truly disinterested chief, so that on the arrival 
of the enemy's army before the fort, the garrison 
was a scene of universal discord, and it was 
chimerical to attempt any enterprize with fol- 
lowers mutually jealous of each other's pre- 
tensions. David attempted to allay the ferment 
amongst his men, but all was fruitless. 

In this dilemma he determined to try a 
stratagem to annoy the enemy, so as to make 
them defer the erection of their batteries. 
Having selected sixty mares he caused them to 
be secretly conducted by night to the camp of 
the enemy and there let loose. In consequence, 
the stallions on which part of the cavalry were 
mounted broke from their picquets as soon a8 
the mares began to neigh, and running here and 
there in the dark made the besieging army 
believe that the garrison had made a sortie. 
All the camp was in a state of confusion, which 
being perceived by David, he with a select 
band made a furious attack upon it. The 
enemy in disorder, by reason of the darkness 
of the night knew not the extent of the force 
brought against them, and making little resi?- 
tsuice took to flight. A vast numbej was killed. 


and all their battering train and camp equipage 
fell into the hands of David and his party. 
Thus was a second army discomfited by the 
resolution and genius of one man; and if he 
had but half of the resources possessed by his 
enemies, he would have restored Armenia to 
her right place among the political states of Asia. 

The next year the enemies again took the ^2:Hn^^' 
field against David, assembling on the plains of eraii76. 
Marad in greater numbers than before. David's 
followers having also increased, he boldly came 
out of his fortress, and took up a position near 
that on which his enemies were encamped. 
When the latter observed the Armenians, they 
divided their army into three parts, intending 
to surround them; David seeing this movement 
formed his small army also into three divisions, 
commanding all, on the advance of the enemy 
to turn about and make a feint of flight, in order 
to make them believe that they were afraid 
to encounter them, by which means the adverse 
army would be lulled into a state of careless- 
ness. •' Then' said David, " we can return and 
attack them !" 

This was done, and the invaders imagining 
that the Armenians wished to avoid a battle, 
returned to their camp and gave themselves up 
to amusement. At tlie close of the day 
David returned with his army, ai\d attacknjg 


the enemy while they were feasting, obtained 
an easy victory. After a faint resistance they 
abandoned their camp and fled, pursued with 
great slaughter by the victorious Armenians. 
This was the last exploit which distinguished 
the life of the valiant David, who was thence- 
forward permitted to remain at ease in his 
A. D. 1728. fort of Halizor. He died six years after this 
eraii77. cvcnt at the age of fifty-four. After the death 
of David the garrison of Halizor appointed 
Mukhithar their governor, but they were not 
so devoted to him as they had been to their 
deceased chief. Ter Avietick also made some 
pretensions to the government of the fort, and 
being unsuccessful in his endeavours to obtain 
it, began to regard Mukhithar with a feeling 
of jealousy. Hence a spirit of insubordination 
shewed itself amongst the troops, and a faction 
was formed against the leader, which eventually 
led to the entire destruction of the little band. 
Whilst affairs were in this condition, the ene- 
my who had been expelled from Seunies and 
Arzakh again advanced and invested Halizor. 

Mukhithar, well aware of the disaffection of 
the garrison, despaired of being able to defend 
the fort, and taking the only measure which he 
thought would save their lives, he sent Ter 
Avietick with two other officers to the general 
of the besieging army to treat. The ' latter 



promised not to molest the garrison, provided 
that they gave up the fort; and retaining 
Avietick in his camp, he sent the two other 
officers back to Mukhilhar to acquaint him 
with his decision. The garrison on being made 
acquainted with the terms which had been 
offered, insisted that the governor should sur- 
render the fortress the next morning. Mukhithar, 
however, doubting the faith of the enemy, 
secretly stole out of Halizor that night and fled. 
On the dawn of the next morning the gates of 
the fort were opened to the besiegers, when 
forgetting the sacred laws of honour, they 
rushed in and put all the garrison to the sword. 
The wife and family of Mukhithar fell into 
their hands, and, together with all the other 
women and children found in the fortress were 
carried away by the treacherous invaders. They 
levelled the castle to the ground, and then left 
the country. Ter Avietick was liberated and 
permitted to take up his residence in the village 
of Halizor. Mukhithar on hearing the fate of the ad 1729. 
garrison of Halizor became furious, and collect- .ra ii7« 
ing a few troops besieged and took the great city 
of Ordwar, belonging to the enemy, massacring 
every soul he found in it. He also besieged 
and captured various fortified towns in Arzakh 
and Seunies, by which he became the terror 
of the enemies of his country. Superiority, 


however, in any human pursuit or profession, 
only serves to create private enemies. This 
was fatally experienced by the brave but un- 
fortunate Mukhithar, for whilst he was reposing 
in the castle of Khinzorezk, after a hard con- 
test with the enemies of his faith and his 
country, some miscreant treacherously assas- 
sinated him. The villain, who, (to the disgrace 
of the nation) was an Armenian, met with a due 
reward for the black deed he had committed. 
Conceiving that he would receive a large pecu- 
niary recompense for having destroyed the most 
terrible enemy whom the Mussulmans in that 
quarter had ever encountered, he proceeded to 
Tabriz with Mukhithar's head, and shewing it 
to the governor of the city, claimed a reward. 
The governor struck with horror at the atrocity 
of the act, ordered the assassin to be instantly 
beheaded. Mukhithar'sfollowers, on the death of 
their leader, dispersed. Many of the chiefs who 
had fought under David entered the service of 
the king of Persia, and several of them attained 
the rank of general. Some also joined the 
standard of another valiant Armenian chiefnamed 
Johannes, who had recently appeared in arms to 
relieve the Armenian inhabitants of Uti and Gugars 
from the oppression of the Mussulman governors. 
He was ultimately obliged to deliver up all the 
strong-holds he possessed, although in the outset. 


of his career he had been very successful. 
Johannes, on finding that his exertions to ame- 
liorate the condition of his countrymen were 
fruitless, went into voluntary exile, taking up 
his residence in the city of Astracan in Russia, 
■where he was much honoured by the go- 
vernor. Ter Avietick after residing a sliort 
time at Halizor, went with his family to Galatea, 
whence he proceeded alone to Rome. On his 
arrival at that city he applied to the Pope for 
absolution from the guilt with which he was 
stained, in having adopted a profession so op- 
posite to his sacred calling as that of arms, in 
which he had been so recently engaged. Having 
obtained this, he returned to Galatea and there 
died. In this year, whilst David prince of the ad. 1722. 
Seunies was at the height of his military sue- era 1171. 
cesses, the Afghans of Ghantahar having thrown 
off the Persian yoke, carried their arms even to 
the gates of Ispahan, ravaging the country and 
slaughtering the inhabitants with the most 
unrelenting barbarity. The Armenians of Ne>V 
Julpha suffered exceedingly from their incur- 
sions, being obliged more than once to ransom 
the town. 

About this period Thamaz Kouli Khan, or 
Nadir Shah, as he is generally called, began to 
distinguish himself by the fordc of his military 
genius. He was the terror of the cast, and the 


scourefe of tlie Armenians, whom he had early 
marked out as the objects of his hatred and 
abhorrence. He was assassinated in the midst 
of his camp, A. D. 1747, after havins^ destroyed 
almost all the ancient institutions which liad 
hitherto existed in Asia. Much contention 
arose amonsr his chiefs after his decease about 
the succession to his power, which ended in the 
accession of Kherim Khan to the Persian throne, 
A. D. 1760. 


The poutyicates of Carapiet the Third, of Abraham 
the Second, and Abraham the Third. 

A. D. 1725. The country about Mount Ararat was at this 

Haican "^ 

era 1174. t^^^g §0 muclv disturbed by the incursions of 
banditti, and the repeated quarrels among the 
different petty princes who held sovereignty 
over it, that the pontift" Astwazatur found it dan- 
gerous always to remain at Etchmiatchin, which 
was the usual seat of the pontificate. Hence he 
led a wandering life, never remaining many days 
in one place for fear of his personal safety. 
His end was very singular. In the course 
of his visitations he rested a few days in the 
small village of Oshakan. At this time there 



happened an eclipse of the moon; the pontiff 
with some priests went to the top of the house 
in which he lodged to view it to more advantage, 
and in the act of lookincj through a telescope 
his foot slipped and he fell over the railings 
which were at the edge of the house top to the 
ground, and was killed upon the spot. This 
occurred in the tenth year of his pontificate. 
His remains were removed to Etchmiatchin and 
interred in the chapel of St. Hiripsimah. 

Carapiet, a native of Uln or Zeythun, arch- „ .P'^J"^* 
bishop of Galatea, succeeded Astwazatur in the "* '*''*• 
pontificate. He was elected at Constantinople 
principally through the influence of the pa- 
triarch Johannes, whom he immediately after 
consecrated bishop. Before this Johannes had 
exercised the patriarchal office without having 
been a bishop, which was considered by many 
as an abomination. Carapiet some time after ^.^y^^' 
his election held a meeting of the clergy of "•^'7*- 
Constantinople, and enacted three canons for the 
observance of the patriarchate of Jerusalem ; 
he also wrote from this city to Pope Innocent 
the Thirteenth at Rome, signifyinghis obedience 
to the Roman Catholic church. Carapiet quietly 
possessed the pontificate for four years when he 
died at Etchmiatcliin. 

Abraham the Second, from the village of ^^Jl^^^- 
Khoshab in the country of Van, was then elected "•!''»• 


pontiff. He built two tabernacles in the great 
church of Etchmiatchin, and dedicated them to 
Saint Jacob and St. Gregory the Illuminator. 
He died after a pontificate of five years. A 
year before the death of Carapiet, Zurazatik or 
wrong Easter occurred, which created much 
disturbance amongst the Greeks and Armenians. 
In Constantinople party fury raged so high, that 
the Greeks and Armenians flew to arms, when 
a fight ensued which terminated in the loss of 
two men on each side. Shortly after this event 
a dreadful fire broke out in Constantinople 
which destroyed twelve Greek churches. Two 
years after, nearly the whole of Ghaladia was 
A. D. 1734. Abraham the Third, a native of the island of 


«raii83. Crctc, and bishop of Thekirtagh, succeeded to 
the pontificate on the death of the late pontiff. 
He was born of a Greek mother, and owed his 
elevation to mere accident. He had left his 
diocese to perform a pilgrimage to Etchmiatchin, 
and he so much conciliated the clergy during 
his residence there, that on the vacancy oc- 
curring by the death of Abraham the Second, he 
was unanimously chosen his successor. Some 
time after this he was summoned to attend 
Thamaz Kouli Khan on the plains of Mughan, 
who required him to bless his sword and gird it 
on him, in order to shew the absolute power he 


held over the Armenians. After this ceremony 
was performed, Abraham was permitted to return 
in peace to Etchmiatchin, after receiving some 
presents of considerable value. Much contention 
arose about this period between the two parties 
of Armenians in Constantinople: that which 
leaned toward the Roman Catholic church beini>- 
the less numerous and more unprotected, suf- 
fered much persecution from the other, whiclr 
was dreadfully intolerant. The Greeks in the 
same year renewed their old claim to the convent 
of St. Jacob's at Jerusalem, and very nearly 
obtamed a royal order for its restoration to them. 
Just before this was effected the Armenians 
applied to the French ambassador to intercede 
with the government for them, and by his in- 
fluence the Greeks were baffled in their object. 

The Pontiff, Abraham the Third, died in this a. n. 1737. 
year, having presided over the Armenian church ir«n86. 
three years. Some of the clergy of Etchmi- 
atchin on this event taking place, wished to 
elect Gregory the patriarch of Jerusalem as his 
successor, but others desired to appoint Lazar 
bishop of Smyrna, a native of Jahuk, who at 
that time was extremely beloved by the nation; 
warm disputes then arose about the succession, 
and another candidate started up in the person 
of the monk Peter, surnamed Kytheiir, the late 
pontiff's nuncio to the Armenians of Constaiiii- 
voL. II. i i 

4S2 II IS 10 KY OF A KM F.N I A. 

noplo. Lazar's partizans, however, were tlie 
most minierous, and ultimately proved success- 
ful in placing their favourite in the pontifical 


Tht acts of the poNtijf Lazar. 

AD. i-.u. Lazar immediately after his election left 
eraiisti. Smyrna nnd proceeded wnth great pomp to 
Carin, where he was received with much res- 
pect by Isaac the Armenian bishop of the city, 
who from a peculiar expression of his coun- 
tenance had received the appellation of" Ahakin" 
or " the Terrible." The governor of Carm was 
surprised at the splendour displayed by the pon- 
tiff, and being of a malicious disposition sought 
to annoy him during his stay there. Having 
observed a superb courser in the train of Lazar, 
he sent to request it of him as a present, which 
was refused. The governor hereupon summoned 
him before his tribunal, and demanded of him 
by what authority he had assumed the title and 
state of pontiff of the Armenian church. 

Now it happaned that Lazar had omitted ap- 
plying to the Sultan for letters patent to confirm 
him in his office, which was no sooner known to 


the governor of Carin than he ordered him to be 
thrown into prison, and wrote to the Vizier at 
Constantinople a most exaggerated account of 
the state and arrogance, as he termed it, which 
he had displayed since he left Smyrna. The 
Vizier on receiving the governor's report sent 
orders for Lazar to be immediately conveyed 
to Constantinople. Previously, however, to the 
receipt of these orders at Carin, Lazar perceiv- 
ing the jeopardy in which he was placed, 
endeavoured to conciliate the favour of the 
governor ; in order, if possible, to procure his 
release. For this purpose he presented him 
with the horse which he had at first requested, 
together with a beautiful diamond ring; and 
finding that the governor was extremely hostile 
to the Roman Catholic persuasion, he adopted 
such a line of conduct as almost convinced him 
that his prisoner was as great an enemy to it 
as himself. A monk named Anania, surnamed 
Kellechi, a creature of Lazar's, confirmed all 
that his niaster chose to say against the Roman 
Catholics,. so that the frovernor conceiving that 
a favourable opportunity oflTcred itself for en- 
richm'4 himself, made use of the pontiff's name 
for seizii)*,^ and fining ail the Armenians in the 
city who were suspected to be favourable to 
the relitrion be abhorred. Isaac Ahakin, the 
bishop, observing this persecution on foot, retired 


484 HisTOUY or aumenia. 

to Bascn. Lazar's intrigues, however, were 
doomed to suti'cr a mortifying result, for the 
governor suddenly fell sick and died. On this 
event taking place the magistrates of the city held 
a meeting, and imagining that the governor had 
received a visitation of the divine wrath, incon- 
sequence of his persecuting the Roman Catholics, 
they determined to punish the individual whom 
they suspected of having instigated him to it. This 
was the unfortunate Lazar, who was forthwith 
sent for, and informed that he was to be in- 
stantly led to execution. The culprit thunder- 
struck at this news, implored they would not 
put him to death without hearing him in his 
defence. Being permitted to speak, he very 
adroitly threw the whole of the blame with 
which he was charged upon the bishop Isaac 
Ahakin, and accompanying his assertions with 
presents of immense value to each of the 
magistrates, he obtained his enlargement with 
permission to go whither he chose. He im- 
mediately set out for Cars, followed by most 
of the suite with which he made his entry 
into Carin. He had not long departed before 
the orders of the Vizier arrived at the latter 
city, for his transmission to Constantinople. A 
courier was immediately dispatched to Cars 
to arrest him, but the pontiff having received 
intimation of his danger, fled into Persia. 

HISTORY OF akmj;nia. 4*^5 

The magistrates of Carin, however, determined 
to punish some one for the death of their 
late governor, sent a party of troops to Basen, 
and seized the bishop Isaac Aliakin. He was 
brought to the city in a most ignominious 
manner, his hands tied !)• hind his Ivack, and 
his lecfs bound below the bellv of the horse on 
which he was mounted. He was thrown into 
the common graol, where ten convicted felons 
were confined, who were to be executed on 
the arrival of a new governor at Carin. Some 
of the magistrates were for putting iiim to 
death without delay ; others wished him to 
be detained in prison until the arrival of the new 
governor, when he could be regularly tried. 

At this crisis the unfortunate Isaac, finding 
that his life only hung by a thread, ])resented 
petitions to the magistrates, and solemnly 
swore that he was innocent of the crimes 
alleged ag;iinst him. Having raised a large sum 
of money amounting to about 7,000 denicrs, 
he presented it to them, and j)romised if 
they would release him that he would pay 
them in a specified time as much more. 
After much deliberation the magistrates as- 
sented to these conditions, and Isaac was en- 
larged. The day after he had obtained his 
liberty, he called a meeting of the Armenian 
inhabitants of Carin. m his principal church, 

ii 3 


and after makins: known the ill offices he had 
received at the hands of Lazar, solemnly ex- 
communicated him ; at the same time prohibit- 
ing his name from being mentioned throughout 
the diocese. Notwithstanding all that had oc- 
curred, Lazar had some friends at Carin who 
endeavoured to mollify the bishop, but it was 
useless. Isaac, not content with what he had 
done, wrote to the Vizier at Constantinople 
a long list of charges against the pontiff. 
A. D. 1738. In the meantime Lazar had reached Etch- 


er» 1187. miatchiu, and been anointed supreme head of 
the Armenian church with all the pomp that 
the clergy in that quarter could exhibit. 
When news of the recent conduct of the 
bishop of Carin reached him, he became highly 
exasperated, and none can tell what evils 
the enmity between them might have brought 
upon the nation, had it not been for the 
monk Peter surnamed Kytheur. This man, 
who had been the late pontiff's nuncio at 
Constantinople, on being apprized of the dis- 
agreement between Lazar and Isaac, stepped 
in as a mediator, and by prevailing upon the 
former to reimburse the latter in the money 
which he had been obliged to give to procure his 
release, effected a reconciliation between them 
Some few vear after these events, a dispute 
arose between the great prince of Persia, Mah- 


mud Beg, and Lazar, which nearly proved fatal 
to the latter. He was seized and about to be 
put to death by order of the king, when he 
procured pardon and release by paying a fine 
of twenty thousand thomans. 

Lazar, liowever, was doomed to suffer more 
mortifications than he had ever yet experienced. 
Tlie Persian Vizier or chief minister, Fetih Ali 
of Astapat, having taken a dislike to the Arme- 
nian pontitf", sought every means to annoy him. 
Finding something in Lazar's conduct which 
he deemed worthy of reprehension, he com- 
plained of him to his master, who forthwith sent 
off a courier to summon his attendance. The 
king at this time \vas in the field, and Lazar, 
who did not suspect that any harm was intended 
him obevin<^ the summons he had received, 
entered the Persian camp in great state, and 
pitched a sulendid tent not far from that in 
which tlie monarch resided. The king, whose 
mind was irritated by the sinister representa- 
tions of liis minister, no sooner discovered that 
Lazar hud approached him with so much con- 
fidence, than his anger knew no bounds. He 
ordered th.- pontiff to bo instantly dragged 
before hirn, and Ins tent to be destroyed. Whvu 
he saw Lazar, he directed him to be thrown f)ii 
the ground and beaten on the face with an iron 
>';uiiitht. The wretched pontiff's face was by 


tliis punislniient almost crushed to pieces, 
scarcely a leatiire of it beini;- distinguishable. 
He was iluii led to j)rison and not released 
until he had i)aid a fine of 1,500 thonrans. 
A 11 17 10 l^LiiniLi his conlineinent, which lasted about five 

ll.i;c .i!i "• 

n. iiS'.i. months, the pontdical duties were performed 
bv a deputy appointed by him, named Johan- 
nes, a monk of AiLiulis. On his release he 
returned to Etchmiatchin and resumed his of- 
A D 1711. fi(je. In this vear died Johannes surnamed 


wraii'jo Colot, tlic patriarch of Constantinople, after 
holding that dignity four years. He was buried 
at the principal entrance of the church of the 
Holy Hluminator, w^hich he had rebuilt. He 
wrote a confession of faith during- his patri- 
archate, and forwarded it to Rome through the 
medium of the Roman Catholic bishop of 

Johannes was succeeded by his disciple the 
monk Jacob, surnamed Nalian, a native of the 
vdlage of Zimar, in Tivrik. During Jacob's 
patriarchate many disputes arose amongst the 
Armenians in Galatea and Constantinople. 



Furthei' acts ofLazar. 

It miorht to thought that a man who had a i). 1745. 
suffered through the malignity and cruel dis- eraiiy4. 
position of a tyrant would know how to ap- 
preciate mercy better than any who had not 
had such painful experience. But Lazar, on 
the contrary, after his return to Etchmiatchin 
from the Persian prison, appeared to have only 
learned new arts of torment from his own 
sutferings ; and one of the first acts he performed 
after he had resumed his office, was to cause 
the monks Peter Kytheur and Alexander of 
Constantmople, to be seized on a frivolous 
pretext, and severely bastinadoed. They were 
then thrown mto prison and kept there in fetters 
until they had signed a paper prepared by their 
persecutor, in which they were forced to ac- 
knowledge debts they had never contracted, 
and to confess that the (.hastisement they had 
received was the due reward of otfciices wliich 
they had never committed. The inifoi tunate 
monks having no other alternative but to perish 
in prison, reluctantly athxed their namck to the 


dispracet"nl instrument wliicli stamped their 
reputations with indelible infamy, and they 
A n i74f; were then restored to lil)erty. A few days alter 
«Tn 111)5. this, Peter kytheur fearing further violence irom 
Lazar. fled to Cars, at which the jiontiff was so 
much irritated, that he caused all the monk's 
intimate friends to be seized and bastinadoed. 
]Votwlth^tandlng• these proofs of inveterate 
hatred which the pontitt' disphiyed toward him, 
Peter was so t;imj)le as to be prevailed upon to 
return toEtchmiatchin. on receivinj? the former's 
assurances that no outrage was intended him. 
As soon as the monk arrived at Etchmiatchin, 
as might have been foreseen, he was placed in 
close confinement by order of Lazar, who would 
not even permit him to join in the sacred ser- 
vices of the church during the festival of Easter, 
which happened shortly after, although he 
entreated in the humblest manner to be allowed 
to do so. This was trifling to what was pre- 
pared for him. Not many days had elapsed, 
after Easter, when in the dead of night, a band 
of nine ruffians, sent by Lazar, burst into the 
room where the unfortunate Peter lay confined, 
bound him hand and foot, beat him severely 
with cudgels, and then shaved his beard with 
a razor that drew blood from Ins chin at every 
stroke. He was also removed into a dismal 
duno-eon, and irons were placed upon his hands 


and feet. Here he lay some days, receivins^ 
almost hourly, the vilest indignities which the 
ingenuity of the vindictive pontiff could devise, 
and was then transported to the isle of Sevan, 
where he remained in confinement six months. 
At the end of this period Lazar granted his 
release at the instance of several powerful men, 
who pitied his forlorn situation. Peter Kytheur 
then took refuge in Carin, and wrote from that 
place circulars to all the Armenian churches, 
containmg a circumstantial account of all that 
he had suffered from the pontiff. Lazar wrote 
to Constantinople charging Peter with crimes of 
the most horrible nature, and taking praise to 
himself for having visited them with tlie punish- 
ment they merited. 

This statement was soon proved false })v 
Kytheur, who went to that city on purpose to 
confute it. The clergy of Etchmiatchin at 
length began to complain of the pontiff, and in 
a letter which they addressed to the patri- 
arch of Constantinople, they represented that 
they could no longer bear with iiis inupiities. 
Wickedness, however, never remains lom; un- 
punished, and La/.ar had now run his 
career. Jn the course of ins persecutions, ho 
happened to fall u|)on two individuals who 
proved as spirited as they were innocent. Un- 
willing to leave every thing to Lazar, they 


appealed to the Persian monarch against an 
unjust punishment which they had received by 
his order. In the course of the investigation 
which ibllowed, it was proved that at that 
moment the pontiff had in his possession a 
sum of money amounting to 4,000 thomans, 
which he had extorted from a certain Armenian 
named Manuchar. The king immediately 
ordered him to be find 5,500 thomans for his 
cupidity. Lazar paid 2,100 of these and then 
fled toCarin; the officers of the Persian monarch 
then seized upon the cathedral of Etchmiatchin 
and stripped it of its gold and silver ornaments," 
but all was found to be insufficient to pay the 
fine. They then threatened to torture the 
clergy residing there, unless they quickly pro- 
duced the remainder of the money. The priests 
alarmed and distressed, scarcely knew how to 
act, but dreading the execution of the threat, 
petitioned the opulent inhabitants of Ere- 
van to assist them, and collected from them 
sufficient to pay the sum demanded. An 
account of all Lazar's enormities was forth- 
with sent by them in writing to all the Ar- 
menian churches, yet he had again the effrontery 
to come to Etchmiatchin and resume his au- 
thority. It was not long before he renewed 
his persecutions. 

Being informed that the two monks, Jacob of 



Shamakhi and Johannes Shirachie, liad been 
very active in dispatching the last report ot his 
conduct to the Armenians of Constantinople, 
Jerusalem, &c. he exiled them from Etclimi- 
atchin. He then drew up a flattering account of 
himself, and the manner in which church aflairs 
had been carried on since his assumption of the 
pontifical dignity, and compelled all the clergy 
who were about him to sign it. Copies of 
this were immediately transmitted to all the 
churches which had just before received the 
report that declared his reputation to be the 
worst and his jiiblic acts the most disgraceful 
that ever Armenian pontiff had borne or per- 

Immediately after the receipt of this singular ^^^JJ^^- 

document at Constantinople, the patriarch of'j;. 

that city convened a meeting co discover the 

general feeling of the Armenian community 

there with respect to Lazar. The result of this 

was, that two monks, Peter Kytheur and Isaac 

Ahakin, were sent to Etchtniatcliin to examine 

evidence there and to rejiort accordingly. On 

their arrival at the scat of the pontificate, 

Lazar ])rohibit(;d their entrance into the churcli. 

RO that thcv were obliged to take iij) their 

residence out of I*>evaM. The })ontiff on being 

made aware of the nature of their mission. 

drew up a long list of complaints against llicin, 


certified by the clero^y resident at Etchmiatchin, 
whom he obliged to affix their signatures to 
the document, and immediately proceeding to 
Tabriz, presented it to the Persian government 
of the city, demanding at the same time as- 
sistance against them. The governor, who 
well knew the turbulent character of Lnzar, 
wished to have as little to do with his affairs 
as he could; he therefore sent him back to 
Etchmiatchin and directed the governor of 
Erevan, on his arrival, to assemble the Arme- 
nian clergy and laity, and ask them whom they 
wished to be their pontiff; if Lazar, he was to 
be supported in his office, but if another, Lazar 
was to be deposed. Accordingly a court was 
held by the governor of Erevan, which was 
attended by Lazar, Peter, Isaac, and all the 
Armenians residing near Etchmiatchin. He 
then asked them whether they wished to keep 
their old pontiff, or have the one which had 
recently come, conceiving that either Peter or 
Isaac had pretensions to the pontificate. The 
assembly replied unanimously, that they pre- 
ferred the latter, although they knew not to 
whom he alluded. On perceiving this sign of 
Lazar's unpopularity, the governor of Erevan 
directed him to be arrested and carried to the 
island of Sevan, where he was to be detained 
in confinement. He then desired the assembly 


to retire to Etchmiatchin and there elect their 
pontitf. This was forthwith done, and the 
choice falling on Peter Kytheur he was duly 
anointed, and commenced the duties of his 
office by excommunicating his predecessor, 
and writing to all the Armenian churches an 
account of what had recently taken place in 
the pontificate. On the news of this arriving 
at Constantinople, the patriarch assembled the 
Armenians of that city in the church of the 
Holy Mother of God, and after enumerating the 
vile qualities of their late pontiff, solemnly 
anathematized him. Some individuals residing 
at Carin and Smyrna, notwithstanding all this, 
continued to testify respect to the memory of 
Lazar, and endeavoured to restore him to his 
former dignity. This was no sooner known at 
Etchmiatchin, than the clergy there drew up 
a detailed account of the principal incidents of 
Lazar's life, exhibiting a tissue of the most 
disgraceful crimes, and at the end an anathema 
was affixed, the whole bearing: the siijnatures 
of twenty-one bishops and nineteen monks. 
Copies of this were distributed ail over Asia, 
and contributed in a great measure to tran- 
rpiiUize the nation, by convincing them of the 
unworthincss of I lie person m whose favour 
-some interestrd p<()[)k' wished to excite their 
feelings. Shortly after, Mirza Ibrahim ascended 




the Persian throne, and by the solicitations of 
Lazar's friends released him from the island of 
Sevan. Such was the cupidity of the Persian 
court, and so utterly regardless was it of the 
welfare of those submitted to its power, that 
not long after Lazar's release, by means of bribes, 
he was restored to his chair at Etchmiatchin; 
a royal order being issued to that effect. 

Immediately after the resumption of his 
office, he caused Peter Kvtheur to be fettered 
and sent to Jahuk. Here he was confined in 
a dungeon, and a strict order given to keep him 
without food. Notwithstanding this, a courage- 
ous female, KhanumKhathun, the wife of Lazar's 
brother Joseph a priest, contrived to convey 
victuals to him unnoticed. He obtained suste- 
nance in this manner for some time, when 
Khanum Khathun suddenly dying he was left to 
his fate, and actually perished through starva- 
tion. He had held the pontifical dignity for a 
period of ten months, and was much beloved 
for the mild manner in which he conducted the 
duties of his high situation. Ibraham the king 
of Persia proved extremely hostile to the Ar- 
menians, imposing taxes of the most grievous 
nature upon them. The most horrible cruelties 
were committed on those residing in Nakhjuan, 
Julpha, Agulis and Shahkert; many revolts 
took place, which all ended in their defeat, and 


only served to render the hatred of their oppres- 
sors more inveterate. Among those who dis- 
tinguished themselves by more than ordinary 
animosity agamst these devoted people, were 
Alimertin, Khan and Hassan Khan two of the 
principal officers in the Persian government. 


Embraces the period between the pontificates of 
Minas and Lucas, and the squabble of Prokhoron. 

While the Armenians living under the do- a.d. 1749. 
million of Persia were harassed by the pontiff era 1198. 
Lazar, Constantinople under the patriarch Jacob 
Nalian was the scene of discord and confusion. 
A monk of Silistria named Prokhoron, who 
had lately arrived from Jerusalem, having 
ingratiated himself with three of the most emi- 
nent of the Armenians, laid a {)lot with them to 
dispossess Jacob of the patriarchate. For this 
purpose ilie three former raised a large sum of 
money, and ]>rescnting it to the Vizier, requested 
him to appoint Prokhoron their patriarch. As it 
was always the jmlicy of the Turkish governor 
to make the most of its patronage, letters patent 
were forthwith made out in favour of Prokhoron 
and givin lo his three Iriends. The whole of 

VOL. II. k k 


this intrigue was kept secret till Easter Day, 
when all the Armenians being assembled in the 
church of the Mother of God, Prokhoron entered 
attended by a large body of Turkish troop?, and 
wasproceeding to perform thedutiesof patriarch, 
when the people astonished at what they saw, rose 
and exclaimed with one voice that no one but Ja- 
cob should preside over their church. A dreadful 
riot ensued, in which the Armenians wereseverely 
beaten by the Turkish soldiers and eventually 
expelled the church. Jacob was obliged to 
retire also, and Prokhoron took possession of his 
new office in triumph. The next day, however, 
Prokhoron was again saluted with marks of the 
greatest dissatisfaction, on his presenting himself 
at church to perform the functions of his office, 
the people crying out, " Lons^live our patriarch! 
Down with the intruders !" They attempted also 
to assault him, but he had taken the precaution 
to station soldiers in the garb of Armenians, 
amongst the congregation, so that when the 
tumult became so great as to threaten his person, 
they interfered and drove the people out of the 
church. News of these acts of violence and of the 
great dislike the Armenians bore to Prokhoron, 
having reached the ears of the Sultan, he issued 
orders for him to be immediately deposed and 
sent as a prisoner to the castle of Samson. This 
occurred in the seventh day of his patriarchate. 



and the punishment he received by being de- 
prived of his liberty was the just reward of hi» 
mean and sinister intrigues to supplant Jacob. 
The latter, however, to preserve the gevernment 
from the charge of inconsistency, was not per- 
mitted to be restored to his dignity, but was 
banished to Prusa. The monk Minas of Akn, 
abbot of the convent of St. Carapiet in Taron, 
was then elected patriarch, and seemed at first 
to give satisfaction to all parties. 

Very soon after these troubles had subsided, 
Gregory the patriarch of Jerusalem died, and 
was succeeded by Jacob the late patriarch 
of Constantinople, the governor offering no 
objection to the choice of the nation. 

In this year died the pontiff Lazar, in the a. d. 1751. 
fourteenth year of his dignity and the third era'1200. 
of his restoration. His successor was Minas 
the patriarch of Constantinople, who was elected 
by the consent of the whole nation, and formed 
by the gentleness of his manners an admirable 
contrast to his predecessor, whose character was 
blackened by almost every crime that sullies 
humanity. On the preferment of Minas, the monk 
George a native of Seunies, his deacon, was 
elevated to the patriarchal chair of Constanti- 
nople, a man in whose character shone every 
christian virtue. Durin<^ the patriarchate of this 
highly estimable man, laghub a native of Akn» 

k k 2 


particularly distinguished himself by his ex- 
tensive knowledge and unbending virtue. He 
resided in Constantinople and was the admi- 
ration of all the inhabitants of that city as well 
Turks as Armenians. In a pilgrimage which 
he made to Jerusalem he became acquainted with 
the patriarch Jacob, and was so much ])leased 
with him that he excited his influence with the 
Armenians and the Vizier at Constantinople, and 
procured his restoration to his old patriarchate of 
the latter city. George was removed to Prusa, 
of which he was appointed bishop, and the patri- 
archal chair of Jerusalem was given to a monk 
named Theodorus, a man of eminent learning 
and piety. laghub not long after these changes, 
fell under the displeasure of the Turkish g^o- 
vernor and w^as cruelly and unjustly put to death 
in Constantinople, A. D. 1752. 

A 'yj,^^*^ Minas having held the pontificate one year 
era 1203. ^[q^^ gtud was succcedcd by Alexander a native 
of Constantinople, who 6nly enjoyed his elevation 
eigrhteen months when he died. 

A n 17 -5. Isaac Ahakin from the province of Khorzen, 
tr»i2u4. ^j^g ^y^gj^ elected pontiff. He declined taking up 
his residence at Etchmiatchin, and lived nearly 
the first two years of his pontificate at Con- 
stantinople. Thence he removed to Carin, and 
continued there for three years, sometimes livmg 
in the red convent in that city, and sometimes in 



that dedicated to the Holy Illuminator. This 
disinclination of the pontiff to reside atEtch- 
miatchin proved the source of much misfortune 
to him: for two of his private enemies, the 
monks Simon of Erevan, then a legate from 
Etchmiatchin, and Abraham of Astapat, making 
this a subject of complaint against him, convened 
a meeting of the Armenians residing in Con- 
stantinople and obtained their consent to his 
being deposed. The same meeting elected an 
individual named Jacob of Shamakhi to succeed 
him, and appointed the monk Abraham of As- 
tapat their deputy to proceed to Carin, to demand 
of Isaac an account of the manner in which 
the revenues of the pontificate had beeji ex- 
pended since his elevation to it. On the arrival 
of Abraham at Carin, he issued a memorandum 
to be read in the churches of that city, intimaimg 
the deposition of Isaac and the elevation of Jacob. 
Not many days after tins, Isaac was spared the 
mortification of being called upon to account 
for the expenditure of the patriarclial revenues, 
by the hand of death, which took liim off" in a fit 
of apoplexy in the fifth year ol his pontificate. 
His remains were interred in the convent of 
the Holy Illuminator m which he died. 

Jacob of Shamakhi exercised the duties of a. n. i75'j. 


pontiff for four years, when he died. He proved cruuud. 
an excellent character, preserving peace among 


era 1212. 


his clergy during the whole period of his spiri- 
tual sway. 
Hsicaa ^^^^ "^^^ poiitiff who govcrued the Armenian 
church, was Simon of Erevan, who, it will 
be recollected, was instrumental in depriving 
Isaac Ahakin of that office. Up to this period 
none of the Armenian pontiffs had ever written 
against the usasres of the-church of Rome. Even 
Lazar, that violent character, who was so hostile 
to the interests of the pope, never attempted 
to annoy the Roman see by any polemical 
writings after his elevation to the pontificate. 
Simon, however, disregarded the example of his 
predecessors, and declared open hostility to that 
faith. He wrote a work called Pastavichar 
(or the payer of debts), in which he hazarded 
a few satirical strokes against the Roman Ca- 
tholic persuasion. He also made a number 
of alterations in the church calendar, which 
much disfigured it, and directed it to be 
used in all the Armenian churches. Some op- 
position was raised at Constantinople against 
its reception, the Armenians in that city, de- 
claring at a meeting held in the church of Holy 
Mother of God, that they deemed it highly 
criminal to alter that form of worship which 
was prescribed to them by their ancestors. 
To show their opposition the more strongly, they 
reprinted the old calendar and affixed to it a 



long preamble setting forth the grounds upon 
which they acted. In the course of a short 
time, however, Simon's calendar was used in 
all the Armenian churches. 

During the patriarchate of Jacob, much dis- 
sension arose amongst the Armenians m Con- 
stantinople, in consequence of the writings of 
a monk named Manuel, a native of Balu, and 
a determined foe of every thing connected with 
the Roman Catholic faith. He was twice banish- 
ed from that city by reason of his turbulence, 
and eventually died in exile. 

In this year Jacob Nalian resigned the pon- A.r) i764. 
tificate of Constantinople, and was succeeded era 1213. 
by the monk Gregory, a native of that city, 
and an individual of distinguished merit. Jacob 
did not long survive the relinquishing of his 
office. Gregory, after a few years also resigned, 
and died in a journey which he undertook to 
Europe. The Armenian community of Con- 
stantinople tlien elected the monk Zechariah, 
a native of Kajihziian, and a legate from Etch- 
miatchin to be their patriarch. At this period 
the pontiff" Simon died, after presiding over the 
Armenian churcli seventeen years. 

His successor was Lucas from the province of a.o. i78o. 


Carin, a person of distinguished merit. Smce his em 122'j. 
accession to the pontifical chair many events have 
happened amongst the Armenians in diff'erent 


parts of the world which prove that they still 
persevere in preserving their religious laws and 
ordinances unprofaned; and that they brave 
death and every torture with fortitude, when 
in opposition to their religious sentiments. An 
account of these we leave to others to write, 
humbly conceiving that we have written 
enough, and declaring that all our aim in this 
history has been to set forth the glory of the 
Omnipotent Lord, and the honour of the blessed 
Mother of God. 



The preceding chapter concludes the trans- 
lation of father Michael Chamich's history, 
containing a detail of the events concerning 
Armenia to the year 1780. Since the publication 
of that author's history no one has given to the 
world any formal account of the changes that 
have happened in the country of Armenia, al- 
though the Mukhitharian society of Venice, of 
which Chamich was a member, doubtless pos- 
sesses ample means of satisfying the curiosity of 
those who wish to be made acquainted with them. 
The Translator cannot, however, forbear endea- 
vouring to supply this deficiency in the history 
of Armenia, before he presents this work to the 
public. By the aid of kind friends he has lately 
been put in possession of many valuable records 
respecting the church of Etchmiatchin and other 
public institutions in Armenia, from which he 
has extracted the matter contained in the fol- 
lowing pages. Although he is aware that they 
do not embrace literally every incident that 
has marked the affairs of the ancient and ve- 
nerable fraternity of Etchmiatchin. he is con- 


vincecl that they are authentic, and will give 
a correct idea of the positions which it has held 
since 1780. 

In consequence of the tyranny which the 
Mahometans exercise over the Christians whom 
they have subjected to their power, Armenia is 
almost depopulated. The inhabitants seize every 
opportunity that occurs to leave their wretched 
country and settle in places under milder go- 
vernment. Russia being the nearest Christian 
power, multitudes have migrated thither, and 
have been uniformly treated fcy the Czars with 
as much kindness as their own native subjects. 
There are many thousand Armenians naturalized 
in that vast empire, who have risen to opulence 
by their industry, and not a few who have been 
elevated to high offices of trust by the late 
emperor Alexander: a proof as well of the great 
esteem which he entertained for the nation, as 
of his liberality of sentiment in regarding them 
as eligible to eminent situations as his own native 
born subjects. They possess in Moscow a 
well endowed college, in which the sciences are 
taught in the Armenian language, giving a 
constant means of education to the Haican 




The death of the pontiff Lucas, and the dishurbances 
amongst the clergy about the succession to the 

Lucas sustained his dignity with great credit a.d.i798. 
to himself and much to the satisfaction of all era 1247. 
connected with his church. From the venal 
disposition of the inferior clergy he experienced 
much uneasiness towards the close of his life. 
These were continually intriguing with the 
laity, exciting broils in families, and quarrelling 
with each other. From the dependent state of 
the head of their church, they could often brave 
him with impunity, certain of procuring protec- 
tion from the Persian chief by a bribe, on their 
being threatened by the pontiff with the punish- 
ment their irregularities merited. 

This was not the onlv subject of pain to the 
venerable Lucas: the Persians annually exacting 
from him large sums of money, which he was 
obliged to procure by means the most revolting 
to his mild disposition; by draining from the 
pockets of his congregation almost all that they 
possessed; In 1798 Lucas fell dangerously ill, 

508 HisrouY OK armfnia. 

and expect* d that he would die. This as usual 
was a signal to the intriijuing and ambitious to 
commence their operations, and tlie church for 
some time was in a slate of the utmost confusion ; 
all were debating on the choice of a successor to 
the pontificate. Lucas, however, to the surprize 
of all, recovered, and by his exertions succeeded 
in calming the agitation which the expectation 
A. D. 1799. of his death had caused. He continued in the 


crai248. government of the church of Etchmiatcinn until 
his death, which happened on the 27th of De- 
cember 1799. He was interred with the greatest 
solemnity, being attended to the grave by every 
individual belonging to his congregation, who 
all testified the sincerest regret for the loss of 
so excellent a man. His remains were placed by 
the side of those of his predecessors in the 
pontificate, opposite to the altar of St. Guyana. 
A. D. 1800. Immediately after the burial of Lucas, a 

Haican "^ 

•rai2i9. meeting of the clergy was held in the great 
hall of the pontifical palace, to consider on 
the best means to be adopted for filling the 
pontificaL chair. After much discussion of the 
merits of the several prelates of the Armenian 
church, the clergy resolved to ofi'er the ponti- 
ficate to Daniel of Ashtarak, patriarch of 
Constantinople, who had pn many occasions 
exhibited much talent in his disputes with the 
Mahometans: he was, moreover, a man of ex- 



c^ueding learning and piety. A bishop of Eich- 
niialchin, named David of Tiflis, was ap- 
pointed to head a deputation of priests, to be 
sent to Constantinople, to acquaint Daniel of 
Abhtarak of the wishes of the Armenian clergy. 
The deputation accordingly set out for the city, 
and on their arrival David informed the patriarch 
of the object of his mission. Agreeably lo the 
usual practice on similar occasions, Daniel ap- 
])ointed a day on which the deputation should be 
presented to him in public; and, accordingly, the 
pontiticate of Armenia was offered to him in 
presence of all his congregation assembled in 
the patriarchal church. The Armenians of 
Cunstantmople, on finding that they were to 
be deprived of their })atriarch, for whom they 
entertained the highest esteem and attachment, 
violently o)>posed his acceptance of the proffered 
dignity. Daniel, however, was determined to 
take it, yet being unwilling to leave bad feelings 
with his consfretjation ainon<>st whom he had 
passed a number of years in the greatest 
harmony, he temporized, in hopes that he 
sImuiUI be able to convince them of the un- 
reasonableness of their desires in opposing his 
elevation to the pontifical dignity. While he 
was eno^ased in calming their minds, David, the 
hrad of the deputation, secretly reserved to 
ci.deavour to supplant the patriarch. David 

510 msTORv or armema. 

was an acute intelligent man, intinnately ac- 
quainted with every shade of the Turkish 
character. He had often shewn an aspiring 
disposition, but no one had ever thought that 
he would be guilty of such baseness as to betray 
a solemn trust. Circumstances, however, de- 
velope character, and perhaps it is true, that 
want of opportunity veils a vicious mind as 
well as shadows a virtuous one. David there- 
fore waited on several of the Turkish officers 
who posses^ed influence with the Grand Sig- 
nior, and by a few well applied purses of 
piasters, obtained their support. They repre- 
sented to the Sultan the state of the Armenian 
church, in terms suited to forward the interests 
of David, and he was directed by a firman of 
the Divan, to assume the government of Etch- 
miatchin as pontiff of Armenia. 
A. D. 1(^02. Without waiting to observe the effect of 
erar25'i'! his appointment on the Armenians of Con- 
stantinoj)le and on their respected patriarch, 
whom he had so infamously betrayed, he made 
haste to return to Etchmiatchin. Immediately 
after his arrival he made known to the clergy 
the will of the Grand Signior, and so great 
was the intimidation that the firman produced 
amon-j^st them, that not one durst raise his voice 
against his appointment. Nothing in the an- 
nals of the history of Armenia parallels this 


instance of want of spirit in the clergy of Etch- 
miatchin, this proof of their total subjection 
to the will of their Mahometan tyrants. David 
was forthwith solemnly anointed and assumed 
the direction of the spiritual affairs of his coun- 
trymen. He conducted himself in the most 
unbecoming manner, and like all who acquire 
power by improper means, he found that, as 
many of his church regarded his elevation as 
illegal, and obeyed him with evident reluc- 
tance, to preserve himself in the pontifical 
chair, he must become the tyrant of those 
who were subject to it. In the mean time 
the patriarch of Constantinople, irritated at 
the duplicity with which David had treated 
him, laid statements of the whole affair before 
the Divan ; but so great was the influence of the 
usurpers supporters, that they were for some 
time disregarded. 

Money, however, is the grand talisman by 
which the Turks are actuated, and the injured 
patriarch found that to obtain success in his 
appeal against the usurpation of David, nothing 
but bribes would avail him. These were applied 
with a little address, and a new firman was 
issued revoking the appointment of David, and 
confinninij: tlie previous election of Daniel. The 
latter then set out for Etchmiatchin accompanied 
by a bishop named Gregory, an individual firmly 



devoted to his service, and a Turkish escort. 
The news of Daniel's appointment were received 
at Etchmintchin a few days after his departure 
from Constantinople, and David immediately 
took measures to ODpose the entrance of his 
rival into the pontifical church. For this pur- 
pose he directed a few of his adherents to stop 
Daniel at a place called Utchkilissia, or the three 
churches, and not to allow hmi to proceed 
further. On the lattjer's arrival at this place, 
he attempted to resist the opposition which was 
ottered, but findinj his opponent's creatures 
were too numerous for him to hope for success 
by employing- forco, he resolved to remain there 
and summon the clerijy to repair thither to 
witness the ceremony of his consecration. This 
was done, and a ureat number of bishops, priests, 
and deacons, hostile lo the interests of David, 
joined Daniel at Utchkilissia. Here he was 
anointed pontiti" of Armenia, by bishop Gregory, 
the clergy from Etcluniatchm otficiatini^ in the 
customary manner. This was thesiiinalof discord 
amongst all ranks of Armenians near the seat 
of the pontificate; some espousmy; the cause 
of David, olheis that of Daniel. David, how- 
ever, w;is in possession of the pontifical church, 
and had for some time received its revenues. 
This circumstance gave him a decided advantage 
over Daniel, who had nothing to support him in 


his pretensions, but the legality of them. 
David, perceiving that unless he could obtain 
other assistance than that of the few adherents 
he had amongst the Armenians, he should soon 
be obliged to relinquish the dignity which he 
possessed, applied to the Shah of Persia and 
to one of his officers, the chief of Erevan, for 
support against Daniel, whom he represented ta 
be a creature of the Grand Signior, and a false 
pretender to the office he then filled. His state- 
ments proved of such effect, that an order was 
issued from the Persian court to arrest Daniel 
and his adherents, and place them at the disposal 
of David, whom it was falsely supposed he had 
attempted to injure without cause. The chief 
of Erevan made no delay in complying with his 
sovereign's commands, and the unfortunate Da- 
niel was seized at Utchkilissia, together with 
bishop Gregory and all those who adhered to 
him, and brought in chains to Etchmiatchin. 
Now David thought himself secure in the pos- 
session of his dignity, and giving loose to 
every angry feeling which this opposition had 
excited, he trented his rival with every in- 
dignity that could possibly be exercised even 
on the meanest culprit. After Daniel had been 
in the power of his enemy a few months, the 
latter, fearing that by his presence at the seat 
of the pontificate many intrigues might be 

TOL. II. L 1 


formed prejudicial to himself, endeavoured to 
procure Ironi the Persian monarch his banish- 
ment to some distant province, where he could 
no longer Jiope for success in prosecuting 
schemes for his aggrandizement. The king, on 
this second application for the exercise of his 
power in the affairs of the Armenian pontificate, 
was curious to know more particularly the 
nature of the dispute between the two claimants 
to the possession of that dignity, and accordingly 
determined to visit Etchmiatchin. He left 
Teheran with a small body of troops, and on 
his way to the seat of the pontificate he passed 
a night at a small village a short distance 
from it. Here, according to his own statement, 
he had a very extraordmary dream, which, 
connected with the object of his journey, ex- 
hibits one of the most wonderful coincidences on 
record. He imagined in his sleep that an old 
and venerable looking man dressed in the habit of 
an Armenian bishop, approached him, and in the 
most solemn manner yjlacing his hands upon 
his head, pronounced a benediction on him 
for the interest which he appeared to take in the 
affairs of his church by visiting the pontificate. 
The morning after, the king proceeded to Etch- 
miatchin, where he was received with the greatest 
respect by David and the principal clergy, 
dressed in their sacerdotal robes. After the 


jnonarch had asked the former a few questions 
respecting the cause of the enmity betweea 
him and his rival, he ordered Daniel to be 
brought into his presence. On his entrance 
the king started with astonishment: it was the 
living representation of the vision he had seen the 
preceding night. He immediately commanded 
Daniel to state his reasons for laying claim 
to the pontificate, and the cause of the inveteracy 
with which David pursued him. The injured 
and rightful pontiff, detailed every circumstance 
connected with the church, from the death of 
Lucas to that period, and drew such a {picture of 
the perfidy of the usurper that the king shud- 
dered with horror. David could offer nothing 
in his defence, for ail the clergy who were 
present bore testimony to the truth of Daniel's 
statement. The kin^ ordered him to be stripped 
of his robes, and driven with every mark of 
lo-nominy from his presence. Daniel was im- 
mediately proclaimed pontiff by the Persian 
attendants of the king, amidst the acclamations 
of all the Armenians at Etchmiatchin. By this 
act ot justice order was restored in the ponti- 
ficate, and all connected with it cheerfully 
submitted to the jurisdiction of Daniel. The 
Persian monarch sojourned here for a day or 
two and then returned to Teheran. a i>. ipos 

The pontificate remained in a state of coinpara- "r- ij;.7. 

1 12 


tive tranquillity until the year 1808, the Persians 
however, still continuing to exact large sum* 
annually from the church, threatening the ex- 
tremity of violence on any demur being made 
to their demands. In this year Daniel was 
attacked by a disease of a most malignant 
nature, which bade defiance to every remedy, 
daily reducing his care-worn body. The superior 
clergy of Etchmiatchin observing the rapid 
decline of the pontiffs health, began to be 
alarmed lest in the event of his death David 
should procure sufficient interest to succeed him. 
In this case they were well aware that they 
could hope for no kind treatment from him, 
as they had exhibited no small tokens of sa- 
tisfaction at his ejectment by the king of Persia. 
That intriguing individual had, from the com- 
mencement of the illness of the pontiff, been 
endeavouring to procure partizans at Etch- 
miatchin, and had been partially successful. 
Many of the bishops determined, rather than 
await the uncertain issue of the election to the 
pontifical chair, to quit Etchmiatchin imme- 
diately on the decease of Daniel, and not to 
return thither until they were assured of their 
personal safety. When the pontiff was made 
acquainted with the fears that disturbed these 
prelates, he summoned a meeting of the 
clergy, although he was then in the most d«- 


plorable state, and in a speech which embraced 
a detail of all the miseries that afflicted the 
church during the contentions which had hapr 
pened between him and David, respecting the 
succession to the pontificate, he told them that 
to obviate a recurrence of such lamentable 
events, he intended to nominate his successor. 
The bishops and priests who were present, 
having signified their approbation of his in- 
tention, he named bishop Ephraim of Ashtarak, 
who was then in Russia, but was known to all 
his countrymen as a man of the most exemplary 
conduct, of high literary attainments, and of 
great influence with the Russian emperor. No 
objection was offered by any present to the 
succession of Ephraim, and a writing was im- 
mediately executed, containing the resolution 
of the assembled clergy of Etchmiatchin, to 
acknowledge him as Daniels successor in the 
pontificate on the latter's death, with the 
reasons which urged them to that act. This 
(lorument was signed by the pontiff and the 
bishops, and dispatched to Abbas Mirza, the heir 
apparent to the throne of Persia, with a letter 
from Daniel entreating him to procure its sanc- 
tion by a royal act. Similar mean^s were used 
by the pontiff to secure the countenance of 
llussem Khan governor of Erevan, who from his 
proximity to Etchmiatchin had it in his power 

a 3 


to be of great service to l'^j)hr;nm, should any 
unforeseen circumstances raise up opposition 
to his succession. Abbas Mirza and Hussein 
Khan, in reply to the applications made to them, 
promised to use all their influence to prevent 
discord from again entering the Armenian church, 
on account of a disputed succession to the 
government of it. A legate was also sent to 
Russia to inform Ephraim of the desires of the 
pontift'and clergy at Etchmiatchin. But before 
an answer could be returned Daniel breathed 
his last, exhibiting to the latest period of his ex- 
istence that calmness and resionation which a 
life spent in true devotion can alone bestow. 
This event happened on the 14th of October 

Notwithstanding the assurances which the 
clergy had received from the Persians that no- 
thing should prevent the accession of Ephraim 
to the pontifical chair, many of the clergy left 
Etchmiatchin and emigrated to Russia and other 
countries, assigning as a reason for acting thus, 
that they feared lest David, by his machinations, 
might again become head of the church, and that 
they should be then subjected to every species 
of tyranny. Ephraim was informed of the 
pontiff's death, and his own nomination to that 
office, under the protection of Persia, almost 
at the same time. He at first refused the prof- 


fered dignity, declaring that, however respect- 
able it was in itself, the pontifical chair by the 
dependency in which it was kept by the Per- 
sians, was beset with thorns, and that he who 
filled it could know nothing but trouble and 
vexation. He was ao^ain and asfain solicited to 
comply with the wishes of the clergy, who 
persisted in refusing to appoint another. Nearly 
two years elapsed in negotiations between the 
church of Etchmiatchin and him, at the end of 
which period his scruples were overcome, and 
he agreed to accept the office on condition that 
the emperor of Russia was petitioned by the 
nation to grant him his protection. Application 
was forthwith made to Alexander by a great 
number of his Armenian subjects, many of whom 
held offices under his government, and he was 
graciously pleased to grant their request. In 
pursuance of this, Ephraim was directed to 
repair to St. Petersburgh, and on his arrival, 
was presented to the emperor, who assured 
him that he would ever consider the pontificate 
of Armenia as under his protection. He also 
promised to do all that lay in his power to 
promote the welfare of the Armenians in his 
dominions, and as a peculiar mark of his esteem 
for the head of their church, he conferred on 
Ephraim ^the insignia of grand cross of the 
imperial order of St. Catherine. On the de- 


parture of Ephraim from the capital, Alexander 
made him a present of a set of richly embroider- 
ed pontifical robes, and 5,000 rubles, to defray 
the expences of his journey to Etchmiatchin. 
All the bishops and priests who attended 
Ephraim in his visit to St. Petersburgh also 
experienced the bounty of this noble-minded 
sovereio^n. Many were knis^hted, others re- 
ceived gold crosses enriched with precious 
stones, the rest were presented with robes 
according to their rank in the church. 
A. D. 1810. In 1810 Ephraim proceeded to Etchmiatchin 
erai:!59. cscortcd by a strong guard of Russian soldiers. 
In his progress through the Russian dominions 
he was every where received by the inhabitants 
with the strongest marks of respect, Alexander 
having directed that every possible attention 
should be paid to him by all who were subject 
to the imperial sway. The bishops, who, as we 
have stated, had quitted Etchmiatchin through 
fear of David, joined him on his way, their 
apprehensions being entirely removed by the 
favourable manner in which he had been treated 
by the emperor of Russia. Ephraim arrived at 
Etchmiatchin on the second anniversary of the 
decease of the late pontiff, and immediately 
directed the clergy to assemble in the great 
church, to render thanksgivings to God for the 
distin^ruished favour with which the Russian 


monarch regarded their nation. Two days after 
he paid a visit, attended by a large train of_ 
bishops and priests, to prince Abbas Mirza, who 
had recently arrived with a body of troops 
in the vicinity of the city of Artashat, and 
pitched his camp at Khor Virap, the place of 
the memorable imprisonment of St. Gregory 
the Illuminator. His Highness received him 
with every demonstration of respect and esteem, 
and repeated the assurances which he had 
made to Daniel, that he would preserve him 
in the pontificate against all pretenders. Khe- 
lauts, or dresses of honour, were, according 
to the oriental custom, presented to Ephraim 
and his followers, in presence of a great num- 
ber of Persian nobles, who expressed their 
approbation at the munificence of their prince. 
It was then stipulated that the church of Etch- 
miatchin should pay an annual sum, amounting 
to about 400/. sterling of English money, to the 
Persian government, which should hold itself 
bound to permit the Armenians the unmolested 
exercise of their religion. 

Ephraim, after concluding this agreement, 
returned to Etchmiatchin, whence, a few days 
afterwards, he again set out to pay a visit to 
Ilussem Khan the governor of Erevan, whom it 
was of importance to conciliate, as he possessed 
equal meairs of annoying and protecting the 



pontiff. Hussein Khan gave him a very cordial 
reception, and appeared to be much interested 
in the welfare of the Armenian church. He 
promised to do all in his power to preserve 
Ephraim in the calm enjoyment of his dignity, 
and to discountenance all attempts of his de- 
pendants to oppress the Armenians. They 
parted with mutual assurances of esteem, and 
Ephraim returned to Etchmiatchin. 

While the pontiff elect was engaged in securing 
the good will of his powerful neighbours, pre- 
parations were making for his consecration. 
That ceremony was performed on the liSth 
of November 1810, in the great church of Etch- 
miatchin, in presence of a large assembly of 
clergy and of the lay inhabitants. Immediately 
after he was anointed, he offered up high mass 
in his pontifical robes, and when it was con- 
cluded he addressed the audience in a long 
speech, wherein he adverted to every event 
that had occurred since the decease of his 
predecessor. He compared the former state of 
the Armenian church, torn by intestine factions 
and a prey to the bigotted and merciless Maho- 
metans, with the situation in which it now stood, 
avowedly under the protection of one of the 
mightiest monarchs in the world, and regarded 
with respect by those infidels who make it their 
chief glory to testify their contempt for all 


christian institutions. He drew an animated 
picture of the prosperous condition of their 
brethren in Russia, which he ascribed no less 
to the unanimity which prevailed amongst them, 
than to the liberality of the government under 
which they lived, and then placing before their 
eyes as an example of the miseries which a state 
of disunion induces, the distress to which the 
people at Etchmiatchin were reduced by the 
contentions of David and Daniel, he exhorted 
them in the most atfecting manner to pre- 
serve the bonds of peace and union, which he 
hoped their present good fortune had formed. 
He also declared, that as long as life should 
be continued to him, he would be unremitting 
in his endeavours to advance their temporal 
as well as their spiritual welfare. 

Shortly after his consecration, Ephraim ad- 
dressed letters to every Armenian church 
throughout Asia, informing his countrymen 
of his accession to the pontifical dignity, and 
recommending them to pay obedience to the 
constituted laws of the nations under whose 
government they lived, and to conform strictly 
to the precepts of the Gospel. The ])ontiff has 
been in cjuiet possession of his dignity ever since, 
the assurances of protection from the Russians 
and Persians, which were given him on his 
election to his high office, liaving never, as far as 




I can understand, been violated. He is now 
extremely old, and according to the common 
course of human events, his death cannot be far 
off: it is to be hoped that his removal from this 
earthly scene will not, as before, occasion the 
entrance of discord into the church. Perhaps 
the discipline which Ephraim has introduced 
amongst the clergy of Etchmiatchin will prove 
a corrective to the malevolent passions which 
a disappointment of the hopes of advancement 
generally engenders. 

Sir Robert Ker Porter, in his Travel? 
through the East, gives the following descrip- 
tion of the pontiff. — " The patriarch Ephraim 
is a venerable man, about seventy years of 
age; but unimpaired health and a serene 
countenance give him a much younger appear- 
ance. He has a high reputation for learning 
and piety; and enhances the value of both 
by much of the useful sort of knowledge which 
can only be gained in the world at large. He 
has travelled over the chief countries of Asia; 
and passed some time in Calcutta, during the 
government of Earl Cornwallis. The situation 
he fills is that of head over all the religious 
institutions of the Armenian church, in whatever 
parts of the globe they may be found. He is 
elected by the convocation of monks from the 
different monasteries; their assembly is called 


the Synod of Cardinals; and they select the 
demanded patriarch from among the most ve- 
nerated bishops of the church. He holds this 
supreme dignity till death, the intrigues of 
envy, or his own misconduct, displaces him; 
the two latter modes of translation, I trust, 
seldom happen." 



The institution of an Armenian College in Moscow 
by the noble family of the Rleazars ; the edition 
of the Armenian Scriptures at St. Pctersburgh by 
the Bible Society of Russia. 

The cultivation of literature and the en- 
couragement of the liberal arts are the funda- 
mental basis on which the welfare and prosperity 
of a nation are constructed. Literary institu- 
tions are considered, by every civilized body 
of people, as the main sources from which 
proceed security to the state, happiness to the 
people, and honour to the country. Since the 
loss of her independence and all her political 
glory, Armenia began to sink into a lamentable 
state of degradation, which is the natural con- 
sequence of the cessation of useful learning, 
and the inactivity of the mental faculties. This 
deplorable condition of the Armenian uatioa 


being duly considered by a noble-minded des- 
cendant of Haic, he contemplated the establish- 
ment of a literary institution on an extensive scale 
for the mental improvements of the Armenian 
youth, and the amelioration of the Haican race 
both in a religious and political point of view. 
A. D. 1812. At this period Johannes Eleazar, an Armenian 

Hnican ^ ' 

era 1261. of great distinction and popularity, who was 
a privy counsellor to the Russian state, and 
grand knight of the order of Jerusalem, 
proposed to found an Armenian College out of 
his own exclusive means, under the protection 
of the Russian government; but owing to the 
many employments in which he was constantly 
occupied, he deferred it for some time. At 
length, when summoned to the upper* world, he 
directed by his will his brother Joakim Eleazar 
to execute the wish of his heart in a suitable 
A. D. 1S14. Fired with patriotic feelins^s, and desirous* of 

Haican ' 

era 1203. Carrying into effect the laudable object of his 
deceased brother, Joakim, who was at this 
time residing in St. Petersburgh, took his 
departure for Moscow. Here, by the sanction 
of the Russian government, Joakim laid the 
foundations of a most extensive and magnificent 
college, and after laying out more than two 
hundred thousand rubles from his own estate, 
exclusive of the sum he received from the royal 



treasury (that is to say, the interest accumu- 
lated during many years, on the principal sum 
placed by him there, agreeably to the tenor of 
the last will and testament of his brother Jo- 
hannes) it was completed in the year 1816. 

In the beijinninor of this year Joakim col- a. d. i8i7. 
lected Armenian youths from all the surround- «rai26G. 
ing provinces, and commenced with very learn- 
ed teachers to instruct them to the glory of the 
beneficent God. The Eleazarian college has 
now attained a state of perfection. The pupils 
belonging to it have acquired knowledge in the 
sciences and in the learned languages. It is 
necessary to give here a detailed account of 
the interna] and external economy of this magni- 
ficent institution, together with an exact view 
of the edifice, for the general information of the 
readers. By this the public will be enabled to 
judge how far the patriotic eftorts of-the noble 
family of the Eleazars are to be appreciated, and 
how taeatly the Armenian nation will even- 
tually be benefited by the existence of this 
interesting institution. 

The Eleazarian College so established by the 
will of that distinguised patriot Johannes, and 
carried into execution by his worthy brother Joa- 
kim, has now a fund oi two hundred thousand 
rul)l(.-s, or two hundred and eighty thousand 
piasters in the royal treasury; the annual interest 



thereof is ten thousand rubles; or fourteen thou- 
sand piasters. To this amount a further sum 
was added by Joakim, to enable the college to 
accommodate and educate thirty orphan and 
indigent youth of the Armenian nation. 

Joakim, in a patriotic address to his country- 
men, of which we iiave availed ourselves in 
gleaning these particulars, says, " As I am un- 
able to attend personally to the management of 
the institution, in all its branches, on account of 
the multiplicity of business that Ihave in hand, 
and on account of my advanced age, I have 
entrusted the whole management thereof to the 
care of my first and second sons, Johannes, a 
counsellor and knight; and Catchick, also a 
counsellor, brevet captain and chevalier. They 
have both been educated in one of the first 
Russian colleges, and are well qualified to 
advance the object of the institution 'in every 
respect. They have, to aid their important 
labours, appointed a committee, which consists 
of the most distinguished, respectable and 
learned men of the country, and of the pro- 
fessors of the royal academies of Moscow, 
assisted by our learned and highly respected 
Dr. Scrovbey, sent expressly by his holiness 
Ephraim, the pontiff of all Armenia, to cooperate 
jointly with my sons, and superintend the 


The institution receives Armenian youths as 
well as other students from foreign nations, 
all of whom learn there the Armenian, Russian, 
Latin, French and German languages. The 
course of education ends in six or seven years, 
more or less, according to the capacity of 
the students. Thirty Armenian youths are 
gratuitously supported. Besides grammar and 
rhetoric, they are instructed in geography, 
history, mathematics, logic, drawing, and other 
liberal arts and sciences. Some of them, 
who may be inclined to enter into clerical 
orders, may also learn theology, whereby th^ 
light of the gospel will be more profusely shed 
over the numerous flock of the Armenian 
church. All the students, with the exception of 
clerical students, may, after fulfilling the above 
course of education, devote themselves to the 
profession of a soldier, lawyer, physician, 
writer, teacher, merchant, ^c. according to the 
wish of their parents or their own inclina- 

The annual charge for every Armenian, is 600 
rubles. Children sent by their parents and rela- 
tions, paying the above sum, are admitted; and 
care is taken of their health. They are instruct- 
ed m all the above mentioned sciences, their 
parents supplying them with clothing. It is to be 
understood, that those who are to be sent to the 
VOL. n. ni m 



institution, are to be from eleven to fourteen 
years of age, and in every respect in good health, 
intelligent and good, and to be able at least to 
read and write the Armenian language. 

From the following paragraph, which con- 
cludes the address of Joakim Eleazar, it will 
evidently appear how that noble spirited in- 
dividual is distinguished for patriotism and 
generosity. " I deem it |)ropor to state the 
circumstances of the institution for your in- 
formation, my esteemed and learning-loving 
Armenian nation; that after rendering thanks 
to the Bestower of ail good, you may imitate 
the conduct of that celebrated woman men- 
tioned in the gospel, by contributing your 
mite and your cooperation towards the further 
promotion and improvement of the academy. 
1 have done as much as was in my power 
to contribute towards the accomplishment 
of the objects anticipated for the edification 
of tlie youth of our nation; it now depends 
wholly on you to extend the capabilities of the 
institution beyond what has been already done. 
Should any of you wish to send any sum by 
way of contribution to the college in the name 
of God, and to the honour of our nation, the 
college will then be able to increase the limited 
number of gratuitous students from thirty to 
forty or even fifty. If any of our nation will 


present to the college, printed or manuscript 
books or pamphlets, such as histories, narratives, 
commentaries, &c. he may be assured of their 
being carefully preserved by us in our rich 
library, (for which I have laid out more than 
twenty thousand rubles) and the title page of 
such book or pamphlet shall bear the name 
of the donor; and I will, together with the 
committee, acknowledge our thanks to him in a 
separate letter. Should any person incline to 
bequeath, by will, any contribution for the 
promotion and increase of the pupils of this 
college, he shall be entitled to our thanks, 
and his n:mie shall be recorded from generation 
to generation." 

Here I cannot but most joyfully congratulate 
my countrymen at large on the happy existence 
of this most interesting institution. Though 
deprived of our political glory, though subjected 
to the slavish yoke of vile barbarians, and being 
for centuries sojourners and helpless wanderers 
over the face of the globe, yet we must cheer 
our hearts with the rays of comfort, so brightly 
beaming from the patriotism of the noble family 
of the Eleazars. Let us comfort ourselves \vith 
tlie recollection, that the gradual march of 
education, aided by unanmiity and ])atriotism, 
will gradually tend to promote the independence 
and glorv of Armenia. Let us confide in th« 

m m 2 


wisdom of the Omnipotent, that a better destiny 
awaits the unhappy country of Armenia, and 
that her former days of honour and glory 
will return refulgently after tlie benighted times 
of gloom and tempest. Let us ardently hope, 
that the students trained in the above college in 
the principles of piety, patriotism, and liberty, 
will become ornaments to their country and 
instruments for the regeneration of their lost 
independence. They will feel the heavy shac- 
kles of their mercenary oppressors, and will 
one day nobly struggle to throw oif the yoke of 
their infidel rulers. Posterity will do honour 
to the memory of the founders of this college, 
and engrave the names of the Eleazars in golden 
A. D. 1817. Among the various useful institutions founded 
ern i26ti. in christian and civilized countries, that of 
bible societies claims the preeminence, and is 
worthy of the attention and patronage of every 
sincere christian. It is no less remarkable than 
gratifying to observe, that the christian powers 
of the West, amidst a variety of state affairs, 
have not neglected to study the fundamental 
duty they owe to their Creator, the grand cause 
of the word of God. Inspired by divine love, 
the christian sovereigns, though differing in po- 
litical opinions, are united in heart as that of one 
man, to promote the promulgation of the word 


o( God among the nations of the earth, by 
instituting bible societies in various parts of the 
globe, and publishing by charitable contributions 
innumerable copies of the Holy Scriptures in 
▼arious ancient and modern languages for the 
spiritual good of all denominations. 

In this year the Bible Society of Russia 
resolved to publish the Holy Scriptures in the 
ancient Armenian language, which resolution 
considering the great scarcity of that sacred 
volume then prevalent in Armenia, was cal- 
culated to contribute considerably to the spiri- 
tual welfare of the Armenian nation at large. 
In deference to the supreme governor of the 
Armenian church, the Society communicated 
their intention to his holiness Ephraim, who, 
viewing the proposal as full of heavenly grace 
and comfort, most readily consented to their 
praise-worthy resolution, and expressed his 
readiness to afford every assistance in his power 
both in the publication and distribution of the 
sacred volume in the various parts of Armenia. 
Thus the filth* edition of our bible was pul)lished 
in St. Petersburgh under the auspices of his 
holiness Ephraim. To shew how warmly the 
present pontiH of Armenia is interested in the 

• The Bible was first edited at Amsterdam by Dr. Voskan ; 
the second edition was printed in Venire ; the third in Constan- 
tinople, the fourth in Venice; and the sixth in Serampore. 

m m 3 


cause of the Bible, and how greatly he appre- 
ciates the efforts of others in the prosecution 
of that ^^rancl object of Christianity, we c;\n 
do no better than subjoin here the copy of 
the answer written by him to the president 
of the Russian Bible Society. 

" With great pleasure and inexpressible sa- 
tisfaction we learn that his imperial majesty, 
Alexander the First, emperor of all the Russias, 
m addition to his many humane and charitable 
acts and paternal favours already bestowed 
upon the Armenian nation, has graciously 
vouchsafed to found the Russian and Foreign 
Bible Society, of which institution your excel- 
lency is the distinguished president, for the 
purpose of translating, publishing, and distribu- 
ting the word of God in various languages. 
It is a source of great consolation to us to 
observe, that by this laudable act of the Society, 
the great scarcity of the Armenian Bible will 
happily be removed. The value of the intended 
publication of the Armenian Bible is particularly 
enhanced by the consideration, that it will 
prove an inestimable boon to the Armenians, 
who, residing for several years in the Persian 
and Turkish dominions, have long wanted the 
joyful tidings of the Holy Scriptures. Impressed 
with a sense of gratitude, we take this op- 
portunity of returning our sincere thanks and 



heartfelt acknowledgements to his Imperial Ma- 
jesty for the signal favours he intends to bestow 
on the Armenian church, by multiplying the 
copies of the sacred volume in the Armenian 
language. We think it necessary to state, for 
the satisfaction of your Society, that immediately 
after we were informed of your laudable design, 
we sent communications to tlie Armenians si- 
tuated in various parts of the woild, forwarding. 
a copy of your letter, and congratulating them 
on the happy circumstance of publishing the 
word of God in their own language. Indeed 
this charitable design of your Society is full of 
heavenly grace and worthy of the attention of 
every christian. We are ardently desirous of 
participating in your laudable endeavours, by 
affording you every assistance in our power. 
We beg your Society will be pleased to accept 
2,000 rubles on our part, which we contribute 
from our annual revenues, as our mite to the 
realization of your laudable object. Which 
sum w^e have this day drawn on bisho|i .Johan- 
nes, with instructions to afford you every assis- 
tance in his power in the j)ublication of the 
Armenian Bible. 

"With due submission and sincere gratitude, 

" "\\'e rrniain, kc. 

" f^J'IIU AIM, 

" Poiitifj' ofdll the Armenimis.^^ 


cm V2::\. 



The cruel uiurder of Si mo Ji Hyrapiet* 

A I) 1824. At this })erioJ a most barbarous and unpro- 
voked murder was committed by a fiendish 

* Simon Hyrapiet was the son of the former Kalanthar 
or chief of Julpha. For many years he had been in the 
service of Aniiiii Dowlah, the governor of Ispahan, who 
deprived him of his property in order to liquidate his unjust 
demands au:ainst him. Simon Hyrapiet consequently became 
involved in debt. A short time after this, the governor again 
honoured him publicly, appointed him president over his 
villages in Pheriah, and gave him various titles of distinction 
for his faithful services. The last of these was Zabeth of 
Pheridh, and he h;id many villaires under his power, chiefly 
inhabited by the Armenians and Persians. 

He was an industrious and diligent man; althougb his 
education had been by no means liberal, he was endowed by 
nature with penetration and eloquence, and was conversant 
with the laws of the Persians. As he was bold in public 
speaking, his assistance was sought by many aggrieved 
persons, not only from among the Armenians, of whose rights 
he was a protector both in his public and [)rivate capacity, 
but also from among the Persians, to whom he gratuitously 
rendered every assistance in his power, a circumstance very 
uncommon in Persia. Tuose wliom he had befriended, and 
his de[)endants, particularly the Armenians, whom he had 
enluelv exempted from the tyranny of the Persians, were 
very grateful to him. IVIany great chiefs of villages respected 
him, and durst not molest the Armenians, lest they should 
incur his displeasure and be subjected to his vengeance. 


Persian on the person of one of the Armenian 
worthies of Julpha,* in the vicinity of the city 
of Ispahan. The bare recollection of this cruelty 
is enough to astonish the mind of every true 
christian and philanthropist. This act of bar- 
barity is no less aggravated by the innocence of 
the individual who fell a victim to the fury 
of the infidel than by the sanctity of the spot 
where the black crime was committed. 

* Julpha is a village near Ispahan, situated about two 
miles from the city, and separated from it by the river Zendeh 
Roud. The late celebrated Monsieur Langles gives the 
following description of it in a work lately published at Paris. 
Quant k cette belle et industrieuse colonic d'Armeniens 
transporte, en 1604, par Abas le Grand, de Tancienne Djul- 
fah ikiXa. en Turkic, dans un faubourg d'Ispahan, nomme 
aussi depuis Djulfah, et situe surles bords du Zendeh Roud 
^3j »Joj sa population se monta, en moins de six ans, ^ 
5,000 araes, dirigees par deux dv^ques avec un grand nom- 
bre de pr^tres, et divisees en sept paroisses. Enfin cette 
colonic s'cst moniee ^ douzc mille ames en deux milie cinq 
cents families, pour la plupart actives, commer^antes et opu- 
lentes ; il serait difficile aujourd'hui d'en compter cinq cents, 
et d'en trouver dans ce petit nombre quelquesunes au-dessus 
de I'indigence. Les autres individus de la m6me nation, 
rfepandus dans le reste du royaume, ont diminufe dans une 
proportion encore plus aftligeante. M. Malcolm affirme 
qu'un denombrement fait })ar ordre du Gouvernenient, il y 
a peu d'ann^es, n'a present^ que douze mille trois cent quatre 
▼ingt troi« individus, c'est-ii-dire, au plus la sixi^me partie 
de la population avant la t-^op memorable invasion des mou- 
tagoiixdt du Candah&r. 



On Tuesday the ninth o( November 1824, 
at 9 P. M. Hadji Ilasiiim Khan, * accompanied 
by another Khan, six respectable persons, and 
many armed attendants, came into the Armenian 
convent of Julpha. He entered the church 
and ordered several musicians whom he had 
brought with him, to play on their instruments. 
Alas lor the honour of the Armenian church, 
thus fearlessly polluted by the daring en- 
croachment of an infidel ! Well has the prince f 

* Hadji Hashim Khan is the son of Rejeballi Khan of 
Lombun, and brother-in-law of the governor of Ispahan, 
He is of the tribe of Lore, and the head of a body of people 
belongiiii: to ihat tribe, known by the appellation o^ Shiruni. 
In former times this tribe was inconsiderable, but now, 
in consequence of their leader Hadji Hashim Khan being 
related to the iiovernor of Ispahan, they have acquired 
considtrablri influence and power. The audacity of Hadji 
H.ishim Khan was carried to such a height, that he sometimes 
made incursions into the city of fspalian. plundered the shops, 
burned the houses, beat, stabl)ed and killed many persons 
wuh impunitv. Nay. he was so powerful, that if the com- 
monest individual of Lombun should beat or stab a respectable 
citizen of Ispihan, and that too in the presence of numerous 
spectators, no one would dare to hold the hand of the 
a"-gressor, through fear of Hadji Hashim Khan, lest he should 
be' exposed to the peril of death. Consequenily the people 
of Lombun used to molest the citizens without fear, and 
disturb the inhabitants of the neighbouring places with 

t Nierses the Graceful in his Laments on the destruction 
of the city of Edessa by the infidel raosleras. 



of our poets exclaimed on a similar melan- 
choly occasion, 

" Close bv the altar, in the sacred fane, 
Where daily God's own paschal lamb is slain, 
Hadji, the impious, made vile harlots sin<r. 
And drunken broils throughout the temple ring!" 

Soon after the arrival of the impious Khan, 
the venerable prelate Carapiet, the monk Gre- 
gory, Simon Hyrapiet, and his brother-in-law 
Woskan Astwazatur, went to see him. Two 
hours after this, Simon Hyrapiet moved with 
indignation at the impiety of the Khan, who 
thus profaned the temple of the Lord by the 
presence of vile and drunken minstrels, three 
times attempted to leave the company of the 
Khan. Hadji Hashim said to him, Sileymi/n 
(Simon) where are you going? Simon Hyrapiet 
approached him, and whispering something 
m his ear, desired him to observe tiie sanctity 
of tlie iiouse of God, and remove the musicians 
from the church. Shortly after, the Khan 
ordered his attendants to bind the hands of 
Simon Ilvrapiet and take him out. This cruel 
ordrr was immediately obeyed. The venerable 
prelate, the mcuk Gregory, and the unknown 
Khan, began to intercede with Hadji Hashim 
Khan on behalf of Simon Hyrapiet. Their 
intercessions were successful. Hadji ordered 


Simon Hyrapiet to be brought in again: he 
made some presents to Woskan Astwazatur 
and his son Zechariah, whom he desired to 
take a seat near him. 

After a few minutes the colour of Hadji 
Hashira Khan changed, and he began to vent 
many angry expressions against the governor 
of Ispahan. It was immediately concluded 
that his visit was not unpremeditated, and it 
plainly appeared from his words that he was 
at enmity with the governor. At this moment 
he turned towards Simon Hyrapiet, and said, 
** you seem to boast of the power of the governor, 
but I shall reduce you to extreme poverty." 
The abovementioned persons began again to 
intercede for Simon Hyrapiet, asking the Khan's 
pardon, and saying that they were ready to 
suffer whatever punishment he might choose to 
inflict on Simon Hyrapiet. The prelate and 
the monk Gregory frequently repeated their 
petition, in the hope of rescuing an innocent 
man, but the obdurate Khan paid on attention 
to their solicitations. He rose from his seat 
angrily, and said to the prelate, " I think I 
shall never come again to your convent, there- 
fore accept my last farewell." Having said 
Khoda hafiz, he mounted his horse and left 
the convent. 

The clergymen, in honour to the Khan, ae- 


eompanied him as far as the road of Ghasbenz. 
The unfortunate Simon Hyrapiet was taken by 
the servants of the Khan, and tied to the gate of 
the convent. The prelate cried after the Khan, 
entreating him to pardon and spare the life of 
Simon Hyrapiet, but he remained deaf to his in- 
treaties, and having turned towards the prelate, 
desired him not to say another word on the 
subject, and angrily ordered him to return to his 
convent. The prelate seeing that his endeavours 
and solicitations were of no avail, returned to the 
convent weeping and in despair. On seeing 
Hyrapiet stripped and tied to a tree at the 
gate of the convent, he fainted and fell motion- 
less on the ground. After some minutes, he 
came to himself, and began to solicit the execu- 
tioners to set the innocent man at liberty, 
promising them to give a great ransom, but 
they were neither moved by his solicitations 
nor promises. They indeed resembled butchers, 
to whose fury Simon Hyrapiet fell a victim 
like an innocent lamb. The cruel Lores forci- 
bly dragged away the prelate from the spot of 
execution, terrified him by the discharge of 
their fire-arms, compelled him to reenter the 
convent, and shut the gates. The conventuals 
waited with sorrow and impatience to know the 
result of the unfortunate affair. At this time 
a report was spread, that Woskan Astvvazatur 

,')42 HISTORY or ARM EM A. 

and his son Zecliariah were taken up by the 
people of the Khan, The clergymen were at a 
loss and knew not what to do. If they should 
attempt to come out from the convent, they 
were in danger of beino- shot; because Hadji 
Hashim Khan had given strict injunctions 
that no one should be allowed to apply to 
him for redress, and had retired to a tavern, 
where he passed the night in eating and drink- 
ing, while the clergymen in the convents did 
not enjoy an hour's rest through fear and 

On the following morning, it was generally 
known, that after the clergymen had been 
forcibly shut up in the convent, the ruthless 
butchers had untied Simon Hyrapiet from the 
tree, shot him with a musket, wounded him in 
many places with their swords, separated his 
head from his body, and thrown them into a 
pit! On the circulation of this report, Julphha 
was in a dreadful state of confusion. The Ar- 
menians in a body repaired to the convent, and 
having gone to the ruinous part of Julpha, made 
a search for the body of the deceased; but 
being unable to discover it they returned to 
their respective homes. 

After divine service the Thavildar and Isa- 
khanbeg, accompanied by twenty horsemen, 
came to Julpha by order of the governor of 



Ispahan. They took the venerable prelate and 
Woskan Astwazatur and carried them to the 
city. The governor first enquired of Woskan 
respecting the occurrences of the preceding 
night; but the latter through fear pleaded 
ignorance of the affair. The governor repri- 
manded him, saying, " you have given your 
mule and vour wife's ornaments as a ransom 
for your person, and do you now plead igno- 
rance in my presence?" After which the go- 
vernor retired with the venerable prelate, and 
held a long conference with him on the subject; 
and when he became fully acquainted with the 
circumstances, he intrusted the two Armenians 
to the care of Isakhanbeg, who treated them 
with honour and civility. 

At eight o'clock in the evening it was ru- 
moured that Hadji Ilashim Khan was coming 
again to Julpha. While the poor inhabitants 
were perplexed with fear and anxiety, and 
the horrors of the preceding night were fresh 
in their minds, the discharge of fire-arms was 
distinctly heard. It was understood that he 
was at the tavern, from whence he sent for the 
members of the convent. He desired the 
monk Gregory and his companion Phanus to 
take a seat near him. They entertained great 
dread and apprehension of tlie Khan, but Halu 
Nazar Ali, his uncle, quieted their fears and en- 


couraged them. The Khan enquired for the 
prehite and Woskan, but was told by the monk 
Gregory, that the governor had sent twenty 
horsemen for them and carried them to the city. 
On hearing this, the Khan ordered his servants 
to go immediately and destroy the house of 
Woskan, and exact a fine of five hundred 
rupees from his wife. Halu Nazar Ali and the 
monk Gregory with many solicitations appeased 
his anger, and he revoked his order. He ex- 
pressed feelings of indignation and resentment 
against the governor of Ispahan : finally he sent 
his people to break down the houses of some 
of the citizens and the Armenians resident at 
Julpha. At ten o' clock the same night he set 
out from thence, and repaired to the city of 
Ispahan. While he was passing the gate of the 
jrovernment house, he met a number of camels, 
which he ordered to be destroyed. His people 
stole a few loads of rice which they met in the 
road, and having pillaged a shop, went to their 
respective quarters. Although these occurrences 
occasioned a great uproar and tumult, not a 
single soul durst come out of the house of the 
governor, to check the presumptuous aggression 
of this rebellious Khan. 

The governor twice encouraged the prelate, 
and promised to bring about a reformation and 
punish the aggressor. Several persons being 


suspected of treachery and participation in this 
unfortunate affair were imprisoned by order 
of the governor. Halu Nazar Ali was repri- 
manded and severely threatened. 

Should the reader enquire respecting the 
present situation of the Armenians at Julpha, 
without giving a long description, it might be 
laconically answered, that they are there like 
dead bodies without burial. 

On the 12th of the same month, the body 
of Simon Hyrapiet was taken from the pit of 
Charazar. Information of this was immediately 
sent to the governor, who ordered Isakhanbeg 
to go and examine the wounds. He, having 
examined the body before numerous spectators, 
ordered it to be buried in the church yard of 
Meydan. On the 14th of the same month his 
head was discovered, and deposited with the 


CHAPTER xxxin. 

The punishment of Iladji Ilashim Khan, the 


Thf justice of Providence is never known a.o. 1R25. 
to be withheld from fallen innocence, though the era 1271. 
tyranny from wliich it suffers may for a while 
be allowed to exult in its temporary triumph. 

VOL. II. n n 


The power of vengeance, wliich only belongs to 
the Supreme Being, will sooner or later overtake 
the ott'ender, though an inferior power be chosen 
as an instrument for punishing the offence. 

At this period, tlie king of Persia, Futti Ali 
Shah, made an excursion into the city of Is- 
pahan. On Maundy Thursday his majesty 
entered the city with great honours and a 
pompous retinue, and visited Julpha on the 
Easter Sunday. On his entering into the convent 
of the Holy Saviour, he began to enquire of 
the venerable Armenian prelate and the respec- 
table orentlemen of that nation who were 
assembled there on this occasion, concerning 
their situation and manner of living under his 
protection. His majesty said, *' I have heard 
that Hadji Hashim Khan has caused you great 
molestation and injury, and has murdered a 
respectable individual of your nation." The lay 
Armenians on hearing this expression from the 
mouth of the Shah fell on the ground in silent 
prostration. The Shah issued orders for the 
arrest of that wicked man Hadji Hashim Khan, 
who was brought into the presence of the king 
in the course of a very short time, bound in fetters. 
The king after having investigated the matter, 
and found Hadji Hashim guilty of the blackest 
and most unheard of crimes, ordered him to be 
exposed to the rack; and that the severest 


torments should be inflicted on him. He ac- 
cordingly suffered the utmost rigour of the 
law : his beard was shaved without water,* and 
with a blunt razor: his nose was slit open, and 
a black, cord was passed through it; he was 
placed on an ass, with his head towards its 
rump, holding the tail of the animal in his hands, 
and carried through all the markets amidst 
the scorn and ridicule of the spectators, and 
to the terror of the wicked. He underwent 
the severe punishment of" the bastinado on the 
high road called Ghayser3^ His eyes were 
plucked out and his ears cut off. His body 
was branded with a red hot iron, and he was 
fined ten lacs of rupees and three hundred head 
of cattle. He was confined in the criminal 
goal, and it was generally believed that he would 
forfeit his life for the blood of the innocent 
people who fell victims to his ferocity. The 
father, uncle, and the whole of the relatives 
of the culprit were also put in confinement; 
together with all the respectable people of his 
tribe. The property of the criminal was seized 
by the government; among which were dis- 
covered goods belonging to different individuals, 
whom the ruthless Hadji had plundered and 
robbed. Ti»e goods were returned to their 
respective owners by order of the government. 
* Tlic Asiatics shave l>y luoisteiiinir ilic li;iir will) wator. 

n n 2 



The people of Lombun fled on learning the arrest 
of their chief and leader Hadji llashim Khan. 
The government sent out a detachment of troops 
to overtake them, and bring them to condign 
punishment. The governor of Ispahan, Amini 
Dowlah, was deprived of his office, and lussuf 
Khan was appointed in his stead. The ini- 
quities of Hadji Hashim had reached the highest 
pitch of intolerable enormity; and he was justly 
punished for his offences. Like the flinty- 
hearted Pharaoh, he did not cease from com- 
mitting acts of cruelty till the measure of his 
sins was completed, and he was overwhelmed 
with the waves of heavenly vengeance. He 
was the pest of the country, and a curse to the 
unfortunate Armenians in particular. The blood 
of the lamented Simon Hyrapiet called loudly 
for vengeance; and the voice of his blood 
ascended up to heaven. Unfortunate man! he 
fell a victim in the cause of the christian religion 
and of his nation. He is to be considered as a 
martyr; for he was murdered while defend- 
ing the sanctuary of our holy religion from 

The Shah immediately caused a proclamation 
to be made throughout the city, that whosoever 
after molested his subjects, or injured the Ar- 
menians, should suffer punishment, similar to 
that inflicted on the wicked man Hadji Hashim. 


All this is certainly characteristic of the deter- 
mined resolution of the Shah to maintain the 
peace and quiet of his people. 

Though the series of severe punishments 
enumerated above are highly revolting to human 
nature, yet when the welfare and safety of a 
body of people are duly considered, a terrible 
example of this nature is now and then necessary 
to keep the unprincipled barbarians of Persia in 
awe and reverence of the established laws of the 


The present deplorable state of Armenia, both in a 
religious and political point of view. 

The nearer we approach to the end of the me- fj,^^;"*'- 
lanclioly events that have occurred in the land of c.an7fi 
our ancestors, the more our feelings are excited 
at the diminished splendour of its civil and ec- 
clesiastical glory. Of all the magnificence 
of ancient Armenia, the dignity of her church 
alone was happily preserved inthe regular succes- 
sion of the pontifis of Ktchmiatchin, who usually 
exercised their authority in the proper seat of 
their spiritual government; acircumstancc which 
proved a source of ti»e greatest ( omfort to the 


scattered sons of Ilaic. But alas for the honour 
of the Armenian nation! they now see themselves 
deprived of this only comfort also. For several 
years past the debts of the see of Etchmiatchin 
having accumulated to an enormous sum, and 
the creditors being incessant in their demands, 
the venerable pontiff was placed in a situation of 
the utmost perplexity and inconvenience. Hav- 
ing no other alternative, the holy and hoary- 
headed Ephraim was obliged a few years ago to 
quit the usual seat of the pontifical government; 
and accompanied by a number of archbishops and 
bishops proceeded to the convent of Haghbat, 
near that of Sanahin, where he holds his resi- 
dence to this day. Notwithstanding the urgent 
solicitations of several of the clergy and laity, 
who feel an intense interest in the welfare of the 
pontificate, Ephraim is determined not to quit 
the place of his retirement until means are 
provided for the liquidation of his daily accumu- 
lating debts, being also apprehensive of the 
plots and intrigues of his enemies. 

In bringing the period of our history to a 
close, our last melancholy task is to take 
a brief retrospective view of the principal 
events which have occurred in the once happy 
land of our ancestors. At the present mo- 
ment, when we trace back the days of honour 
and glory of our mother country Armenia, when 


we reflect on the liberty and independence which 
once exalted the sons ot llaic among the powerful 
nations ot the world, feelings of sympathy and 
regret are naturally excited m our bosoms at 
the lamentable degradation to which she is 
now reduced, and the piteous expatriation of her 
once noble and independent sons is as much to 
be deplored. 

We have seen Armenia in the fullest enjoy- 
ment of power, independence, liberty, and hap- 
piness. Her sovereign rulers with judicious 
policy and wisdom protected their country from 
the violence of invaders, spreading terror and 
destruction in the country of those who at- 
tempted 10 trample on the sacred rights of 
Armenian liberty. Her populous cities, her 
fertile provinces, her impregnable castles were 
once objects of jealousy to her aspiring and 
ambitious rivals. Her churches, protected 
by the vigilance of the pious descendants of 
St. GreL'orv the Illuminator, cheerfully chaunt- 
cd llic pi;ii>c> (»1 tli«,' Almighty; their lofty 
spires rising into the. air in token of the exalted 
slate of <hnsiian religion. Her pastors girded 
with viriuoiis pi iiicij)les, godliness, and sobriety 
proclaimed the glad tidings of the Gospel 
thr(jugh all parts of the country, keej)ing their 
spiritual flocks in the exercise of piety and m 
the fear of God. Wvr sons, endowed with 


a lofty and independent spirit, were lords of 
their country; they spurned the least idea of 
slavery or servitude to foreign masters. Her 
daughters, lovely as the rising morn, harmless 
as the innocent dove, brought up under her own 
fostering and maternal care, were once the 
boast and glory of the sons of Haic. In short 
every thing was happily cemented together in 
Armenia, to constitute her national glory and 
her national happiness. But alas! the des- 
tructive hand of time has mouldered into dust 
the pillars of the mighty empire of Arme- 
nia; and the general havock has left no 
traces of her magnificence, except the moul- 
dering wreck of the stately structure, as a 
mournful monument of her ancient greatness, 
where every traveller of the race of Haic is 
invited to give way to feelings of sympathy, 
and mingle the dew of his heart with the earth 
of his dearly beloved country. When we con- 
sider the zenith of the glory of Armenia which 
we have seen in the course of our history, 
and when we consider the downfall of her 
political honours, which we feel in the present 
lamentable days of our national slavery, surely 
the contrast is strikingly affecting, and the 
thought gives way to sorrow and lamentation. 
Armenia! Armenia! once the happy residence 
of my majestic sires! once the sure asylum 


of the dearest rights of thy children! I weep 
over thy fallen greatness! I weep over thy 
departed power! I weep over thy lost inde- 
pendence ! No more do I see the powerful arm 
of thy mighty kings stretched out to protect 
thy breast from violation by a hostile foe ; for 
the anger of the Lord has removed power from 
the sons of Haic, and like the sinful Children 
of Israel, delivered them into the hands of their 
oppressors. No more do I see the strength 
and security of thy fortifications; for disunion 
and treason have betrayed them to merciless 
invaders. No more do I hear the glad ti- 
dings of the Gospel boldly proclaimed; for 
the hand of tyranny has gagged the mouths 
of its zealous preachers. The corners of thy 
churches have ceased to echo the praises of the 
heavenly Lord; for the cruel Moslems have 
converted them into mosques and minarets. 
No more do I see thy rising steeples mocking 
wiih their height the ambient air and winds; 
for the redeeming cross is pulled down by 
our barbaric oppressors, and replaced by the 
vile crescent of the Impostor, who has shed 
tlie blood of myriads of christians. No more 
do 1 see the splendour and liberty of thy noble 
sons; for they have been captured by usurpers, 
and like herds of cattle led into the worst 
captivity. Unlike the slaves of Africa and the 




New World, whom the cupidity of their enslavers 
only exposed in a slave-market, tliey were 
dragged by their mercenary captors to scenes 
of the vilest pollution and degradation, at the 
very thought of which human nature recoils! 
No more do I see thy beautiful virgins in their 
former state of protection and security, for 
they are placed in hourly danger of being 
torn away from tliy maternal breast by barba- 
rous Mohanmiedans for the gratification of their 
lust. Oh my country! Oh our common mother 
Armenia! a name dearer to my heart and sweeter 
to my ears than the names of all other countries ; 
deprived of all the excellent characteristics, 
which are essentially necessary to constitute the 
political honour, influence, and happiness of a 
state — a disconsolate widow among the Sister 
powers, who, though once jealous of thy ele- 
vated dignity, are now far from stretching to- 
wards thee the arm of sisterly protection, or 
affordmg the balm of comfort in thy afflicting 
widowhood — well has the inspired prophet Jere- 
miah represented thy destitute condition. " How 
doth the city sit solitary that was full of people ! 
how is she become as a widow; she that was 
great among the nations, and princess among 
the provmces, how is she become tributary ! She 
weepeth sore in the night, and her tears are on 
her cheeks; among all her lovers she hath none 



to comfort her : all her friends have dealt treacher- 
ously with her; they are become her enemies 

Had I the pen of our renowned ancestor, the 
immortal Moses of Khoren, how could I la- 
ment over the miseries to which our dearest 
mother Armenia is subjected in the present age, 
as he wept in mournful strains on her former 
inferior calamity, the extinction of royalty 
from the house of the Arsacidself The ele- 
vated dignity of honour and independence to 
which Armenia was raised by the valour and 
gallantry of her heroic sons was shaken to the 
ground by the thunder-storm of civil and foreign 
wars. Armenia fell in the shock: grand was 
her fall. She suffered from the united force of 
internal and external commotions, and great 
is her suffering. Thus the stupendous fabric 
of our independence and political glory was 
razed to the ground, and all our dearest hopes 
were buried in its ruins. Liberty gave way to 
slavery, knowledge was succeeded by ignorance, 
justice was superseded by oppression, and 
anarchy took place of tranciuillity. Our un- 
happy country sits amidst general mourning; 
our laws are trampled upon ; our religion is 
abused ; our riL^hts are violated ; our possessions 
are usurped by mercenary tyrants. The country 
of Ararat, whose mountains once echoed with the 

• Lament. Jerem. chap. 1. v. I and 2. 
t Moses Chor. Lib. IIL cap. 68. 



shouts of her happy and contented inhabitants 
is now groaninpj under the treble fetters of the 
arbitrary powers who hold unlawful dominion 
over her. Her expatriated sons sinking under 
the weight of their sufferings, with respon- 
dent voice meet the groans of their afflicted 
mother. Will this state of servitude continue 
for ever? Is there no prospect held out for the 
regeneration of the country of Armenia? Will 
the sons of Haic be for ever wretched wanderers 
over the surface of the globe? No. Better des- 
tinies await the fate of the unhappy Armenian 
nation ; a better change will take place in her 
political condition. When the wrath of the 
Almighty, which we have justly incurred, is 
appeased, when the light of His countenance 
restores to us unanimity, patriotism, and power, 
then shall the sons of Haic see an extensive field 
before them, in which they will bravely contend 
for their country and religion ; then shall the gal- 
lant Haicans inspirited with divine zeal, pull 
down the pale crescent of the Impostor and 
exalt the redeeming cross; thenanewMaccabee 
shall be sent to rule over the country of Ararat 
by the mercy of God, to whom be honour and 
everlasting glory. Amen! 



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